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1 SCIENTIFIC LIBRARY, 

I United States Patent Office, 

I CaseV.2./'r' Shelf ....lu-- 

L. M. R. 



THE 




AMERICAN -'^^V\ 



JOURNAL of PHARMACY. 

( 

PUBLISHED BY AUTHORITY OF THE 

PHILADELPHIA COLLEGE OF PHARMACY. 

7c) 2 



EDITED BY 



JOHN M. MAISCH. 



PUBLISHING COMMITTEE FOK 1885 : 



CHARLES BULLOCK, HENRY N. RITTEIS HOUSE, 

JAMES T. SHINN, THOMAS S. WIEGAND, 

AND THE EDITOR. 



VOLUME LYIT.> 
FOURTH SERIES, VOLUME XV, 



PHILADELPHIA : 
MP]RRIHEW PRINT, 501 Cliestiiut St. 



THE AMERICAN 

JOURNAL OF PHARMACY. 



JANUABY, 1885. 



ADVANCES IN THE INSTRUCTION AND REQUIRE- 
MENTS AT THE PHILADELPHIA COLLEGE 
OE PHARMACY. 
By Joseph P. Remington. 

A very general desire, on the part of the friends of jDharmaceutical 
progress and the graduates of this College, to be made acquainted with 
the details of the recent changes made in the requirements for pursu- 
ing the courses of instruction, and on the part of the students to know 
something of the earlier history of the College, has resulted in the 
preparation of the following brief records of progress; which, wliilst 
not attempting to thoroughly cover all of matters of interest occurring 
within the times treated of, will probably serve to throw some light 
upon the interesting period embraced in the last two decades of the 
history of the first institution established in America for dissemi- 
nating a knowledge of Pharmacy. The early years of the College 
were marked by trials and difficulties, common to the career of all 
similar efforts to elevate an art or profession, into which many abuses 
had crept. 

Apathy and indifference, or downright opposition, on the part of 
the majority of the druggists of the city, was then the rule ; but the 
self-sacrificing efforts of such men as Charles Marshall, Daniel B. 
Smith, Henry Troth, Peter Lehman, Charles Ellis, Stephen North, 
Peter Williamson, Samuel F. Troth, our President, Dillwyn Parrish, 
and others saved the life of the young College. 

As years rolled on, the institution gained strength, the greatest 
improvement being shown, however, during the last twenty years. 
The appreciation of the opportunities extended for pharmaceutical 
advancement by the pharmacists of the United States may be shown 
by the number of matriculants who have enrolled their names during 
this time ; and, with the view of showing the record as condensed as 
possible, the tabular form has been adopted. 

1 



2 



Advanoes in Instruction. 



(Am. Jour. Pharm. 
t Jan., 1885. 



Notes and College Events. 



,j Faculty at this time: Prof. Bridges, Prof. Procter. 
I Prof. Thomas 



1861 Opening year of the Civil War.. 



1862.. 



Falling off of the Class.. 
Dark days of the War.... 



Death of Prof. Thomas; Election of Prof. Parrish; 
sliglit recovery in attendance from eflfects of the 
War 



Founding of the Alumni Association; gradual increase 
in attendance 



Prof. Procter resigned ; Prof. Maisch elected to chair 
of Pharm a C5' 



Transfer of chair of Pharmacy to Prof. Parrish, and 
Materia Medica to Prof. Maisch; Summer Course in 
Botany established 



Old College building on Filbert street sold ; new build- 
ing on Tenth street erected 



Fees for College tickets increased 5U per cent.; attend- 
ance increased 



College Laboratory establislied ; 
pointed Director 



Prof. Maisch ap- 



Oral examinations for candidates for graduation aban- 
doned; sj'stematic written examinations substi- 
tuted 



Increased accommodation provided for students; 
death of Prof. Parrish; re-election of Prof. Procter.. 

Certificate of Proficiency in Chemistry and Materia 
Medica issued to graduates from wholesale stores 

1874 Death of Prof. Procter; Prof. Remington elected 

1875 Increased attendance; improvements in lecturing 

facilities 

1876 j Centennial Year; first presentation of Procter Prize... 

1877 jopening of Operative Pharmacy Course; Prof. Rem- 

ington, Director; examinations in Practical Phar- 
I macy inaugurated 

1878 joraded Course; Junior and Senior established ; office 

j of Actuary created; Thomas S. Wiegand elected 

1879 j Resignation of Prof. Bridges; election of Prof. Sadtler 

1880 j Professor's Prizes instituted : property on Elwy n street 

purchased 



Number of matri- 
culants. 


Percentage of ma- 
triculants from 
Pen n sylvania 
and neighboring 
States. 


Percentage of ma- 
triculants from 
distant States 
and countries. 


125 


. 78 


22 


121 


77 


23 


91 


68 


12 


74 


91 


9 


93 


86 


14 


104 


84 


16 


133 


60 


20 


154 


80 


20 


152 


80 


20 


179 


79 


21 


197 


79 


21 


198 


70 


30 


237 


65 


35 


293 
251 


68 
70 


32 
30 


270 


67 


33 


294 


63 


37 


265 


63 


37 


316 


69 


31 


334 


72 


28 



Am. Jul 
Jan. 


^isss**™' } Advances in Instruction. 








Ytar. 


Notes and College Events. 


Number of matri- 
culants. 


Percentage of ma- 
triculants from 
Pennsylvania 
and neighboring 
t States. 


Percentage of ma- 
triculants from 
distant States 
and countries. 


1881 


New building erected on Elwyn street, doubling the 
facilities: Assistants to the Professors appointed to 
review the lectures; Prof. Power elected Director of 
Chemical Laboratory; Class instruction in Analyti- 










367 


64 
68 


*36 


1882,,, 


Practical Course in Microscopy instituted by the 
Alumni Association* A.P.Brown Ph.G. Instructor 


370 


32 


1883 


Prof. Power resigned; Prof. Trimble elected to assist 
Prof. Sadtler in direction of Chemical Laboratory.... 










443 


67 


33 


1884 , 




543 


63 


37 



The figures in this table show a steady and gratifying increase, the 
percentage columns indicate the gradual evolution (somewhat inter- 
mittent, it is true), which shows the national gvov^i\\ of the College, the 
percentage of matriculants from distant States and Territories being 22 
per cent, in 1860 and 33 per cent, in 1883; the highest figures 
being exceeded in J 884 and 1876, the Centennial year, when 37 per cent, 
was reached, and the lowest percentage of distant matriculants was 
shown in 1863, when 9 per cent, is recorded, this during the civil 
war. A further examination of the table will reveal the effect of each 
advanced step taken in the course of instruction. As progress was made, 
and the standard rapidly elevated, a check in the growth of the class 
may be noticed in the year immediately following, but in the succeeding 
year the increase is evident, and the check shown to be but temporary. 
The twenty-five years noted in the table beginning with 1860, give a 
fair indication of the educational labors of the College. 

The beginning of that notable decade in our national history which 
embraced the great struggle for the supremacy of our Union, found 
the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy in a growing and prosperous 
condition, the debt on the old building on Filbert street was being 
gradually extinguished, the finances were carefully husbanded, and 
the Sinking Fund gradually increased under the persistent care and 
watchfulness of the chairman, Samuel F. Troth. The breaking out 
of the war, checked at once the growth of the classes, and in the three 



4 



Advances in Instimction. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm . 
I Jan., 1885, 



years succeeding (1862^ 1863 and 1864) the great and stirring events 
of these memorable times greatly overshadowed^ in interest, the lesser 
circumstance of obtaining an education. 

The close of the war was marked by an event of great importance 
to the interests of the College; in 1865 the Alumni Association was 
founded, and this organization proved to be in subsequent years a great 
element of strength to the Institution. The year 1866 was also a 
memorable year, Professor Procter at that time, the acknowledged 
leader in his profession, felt obliged on account of ill health to resign 
his Chair of Theory and Practice of Pharmacy. He was succeeded by 
Professor John M. Maisch ; the entrance of Professor Maisch into the 
Faculty was announced in the American Journal of Pharmacy by 
Professor Procter with the following notice: " We know of no one 
Avho can bring to the task involved in this appointment so large a 
share of practical and theoretical knowledge as Professor Maisch, and 
we doubt not, he will give his best efforts to the promotion of the 
school, and the advancement of the important branch, he has been 
chosen to illustrate." 

In the year following (1867) a transfer of chairs was made between 
Professors Parrisii and Maisch — the subject of theoretical and practical 
Pharmacy was more congenial to the tastes of Professor Parrish than 
that of Materia Medica, and the zeal and ability which has since 
characterized the labors of Professor Maisch in the department of 
Materia Medica leave no room for doubt that the transfer was 
thoroughly satisfactory on his part. The title of the Chair was now 
changed by the addition of the word Botany to Materia Medica 
and Botany," and the significance of this change is appreciated by the 
junior student even to the present day. In the same year a summer 
course in Botany was established. At this time the inadequacy of the 
accommodations of the building on Filbert street became so apparent 
that an improvement was imperatively demanded. A building com- 
mittee was appointed, the old building on Filbert street was sold and 
a much larger edifice on Tenth street erected. Although the friends 
of the College nobly responded to the call for pecuniary assistance in 
aid of the building fund, it was found necessary in the year 1869 to 
raise the fees for College tickets in order to meet the increased expenses 
of carrying on the instruction. The fears of some of the members of 
the College that this would greatly decrease the attendance were proved 
to be groundless, lor the attendance was not even temporarily decreased. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
Jan , 1885. 



Advances in Instruction. 



5 



but on the other hand it increased 18 per cent. The year 1870 was 
marked by the establishment of a College laboratory and the election 
of Professor Maisch to the directorship. The long cherished wish of 
the younger members of the College and of the Alumni was thus ac- 
complished as the following resolutions adopted by the Alumni As- 
sociation, five years before (1865) clearly show : 

Whereas, As graduates of a time-honored Institution, we feel the 
warmest interest in its future welfare and usefulness, and deem it no less a 
privilege than a duty to use every effort to secure for our Alma Mater the 
position to which she is entitled , and 

Whereas, Many of us have long cherished the idea of establishing a 
Practical School in connection with our College, where the branches of 
Pharmacy and Chemistry might be more thoroughly acquired, therefore, 

Be it Resolved, That a Sinking Fund be created for this purpose, out of 
the surplus funds of the Association; and that a committee be aj^j^ointed 
hy the Executive Board, to be known as the Trustees of Sinking Fund, 
whose duty it shall be to take charge of and solicit subscriptions to this fund, 
and invest the same as they may judge safe and profitable, until a sufficient 
amount shall have been acquired to aid in the accomplishment of the end 
in view. 

In the next year 1871 the method of conducting examinations, orally, 
which had been in operation for nearly half a century, was abandoned, 
and thus passed away, one of the most imperfect methods of examination 
that was ever devised. Although the oral examination of the can- 
didates was conducted by the Faculty and Committee of Examination 
in a fearless and conscientious manner, the faults of the method were 
too apparent to be overlooked, and it had to give way to a systematic 
plan whereby each student wrote the answers to the same questions 
upon paper and handed in the results within a given time. Professor 
Parrish who had long advocated this change in the method of exami- 
nation did not live long enough to witness its advantages — he died 
during the next year. 1872 witnessed the recall of Professor Procter 
from the period of rest that he had enjoyed, and he was re-elected to 
the old chair, that he had resigned in 1866, his health, however, had 
not been re-established, he passed away suddenly on the 11th day of 
February, 1874. The present Professor of Pharmacy was elected in 
the same year to fill the vacant chair. 

1876, the Centennial year, was a memorable one for the College — 
the building was thrown open to pharmaceutical visitors and strangers, 
the cabinet received many valuable accessions and the class was con- 



6 



Achances in Instruction. 



/Am. Jour. Pharm. 
1 Jan., 1885. 



siderably increased. In 1877 the present Operative Pharmacy course 
was inaugurated ; the course was optional, and at first the number of 
students who accepted the opportunities was small, and the facilities 
were limited. Professor Maisch tendered the use of the chemical labor- 
atory on certain afternoons, and the course was conducted by the Pro- 
fessor of Pharmacy. The examinations which had each year increased 
in severity, received in 1877 an additional impulse in the inauguration 
of the examinations in practical manipulations; this advance Avas deemed 
necessary, in order that the worth of the graduates of the College should 
be- enhanced, by compelling them to pay especial attention to excellence 
in conducting pharmaceutical operations, and it had the effect of at 
once improving the practical worth of all students who attended the 
College. A great advance Avas made in 1878 when the graded course 
of lectures was established. The following extract from the minutes 
of the Board of Trustees fully sets forth the changes : 

1. The instruction to the junior and senior students will be arranged^ 
with perhaps slight modifications, according to the plan which received 
the sanction of the " Conference of the Schools of Pharmacy " in 187G (see 
" Amer. Jour, of Phar.," 1876, p. 471); in the junior department, therefore 
the elementary branches will be taught, which will hereafter be omitted 
from the senior course, thus affording more time in the latter for necessary 
details and a more extended range of instruction. 

2. There will be six lecture hours per week for each class, the same as for 
the undivided class heretofore. The lectures to the two classes will be on 
alternate days so as^to afford the professors ample time for preparing the 
necessary specimens, apparatus and experiments in illustration of the 
lectures. 

3. Near the close of February an examination of the junior students will 
be held ; the examination for the degree of Ph.G. will, as heretofore, take 
place early in March. 

4. For admission to the senior course the juniors will be required to 
successfully pass the examination in each branch ; those failing in one or 
more branches in February, will be granted another examination towards 
the end of September previous to the beginning of the lectures. Students 
who have attended one course of instruction in some other College of 
Pharmacy, before entering the senior course, will be required to prove that 
they have passed, at such college, an examination in all the branches 
taught to the juniors, or submit to the examination in the autumn. 

5. Students who, previous to the beginning of the lectures in October 
next, may have attended one full course of lectures in this or another 
College of Pharmacy, will be entitled to admission to the senior course 
without previous examination, up to and including the lecture course for 
1880-1881. 

It will be observed that the adopted modification will vastly increase the- 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
Jan., 1885. J 



Advances hi Instruction, 



7 



labors of the Professors, but at the same time afford the students still greater 
inducements for systematic study and the opportunity of obtaining a more 
thorough professional education than heretofore. 

Probably no change has ever been made in the college methods, 
which has proved so thoroughly satisfactory as this, the scope of the 
instruction in each department was doubled, and the student found 
that from the opening lecture, the instruction grew in depth, character 
and extent, until the closing one was reached. The effects upon the 
class were immediate and of great benefit. The increased attendance 
of students made it necessary in this year fc*r the College to create the 
office of Actuary ; Thomas S. Wiegand being elected to this important 
position. In 1879 the greatly respected Senior Professor Dr. Bridges, 
was compelled on account of ill health to resign his active duties. The 
Chair of Chemistry was filled by the election of Prof. Sadtler, the 
present incumbent. The wisdom of this appointment has never been 
questioned. The growth of the classes, and particularly those of the 
optional courses. Pharmacy and Chemistry, caused the Board of 
Trustees to consider some means for the enlargement of teaching 
facilities. Fortunately, the properties in the rear could be purchased, 
and plans were made and estimates furnished for the erection of a four 
story building, adjoining the one which had been in use for eleven years, 
and which the classes had outgrown. This was accomplished in 1881 
and the capacity of the College was thereby doubled. A special room 
was set apart for the Pharmaceutical laboratory adjoining the Pharmacy 
Lecture Room, and the Chemical Laboratory was enlarged and refitted. 
Professor Power was elected Director, and the system of class instruc- 
tion in Analytical Chemistry was inaugurated. The year 1882 witnessed 
another advance in the instruction in the establishment of the optional 
course in Microscopy, this was effected largely through the efforts of 
the Alumni Association. Mr. A. P. Brown a graduate of the College 
and a practical microscopist was elected director. In 1883, Professor 
Power resigned his position as director of the Chemical laboratory, to 
accept the chairs of Pharmacy and Materia Medica in the University 
of Wisconsin, and the Chemical laboratory was placed in charge of 
Professor Sadtler, Professor Trimble being elected to assist in the 
direction. 

The year following (1884) a practical examination in analytical 
chemistry for candidates for graduation was instituted, and the pre- 
liminary junior examinations just established, brings this brief history 



8 



Advances in Instruction. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
1 Jan , 1885. 



of the changes and improvements within the last 24 years up to the 
present time. The last important advance is the establishment of the- 
preliminary junior examinations ; this plan received the sanction of the 
Board of Trustees in the early part of this year (1884) and is now on 
trial. It was entered into after a thorough and careful review of the 
methods employed in the various technical and literary institutions of 
learning in this country. The mode of conducting ordinary prelimi- 
nary examinations, as practiced by many colleges, was not believed to 
be suited to the needs of a College of Pharmacy, the requisite qualifi- 
cations of a good pharmacist, embrace not only good intellectual acquire- 
ments and a sound elementary education, but a peculiar adaptation for 
the duties of the profession of his choice. A graduate of Yale, Har- 
vard or Cornell, would probably make as good a practical pharmacist 
as a graduate of a first-class academy, but he is hardly likely to be any 
better — whilst an enthusiastic energetic plodder after the truths of 
physical and chemical science, who is blessed with a good brain, an 
observing eye, quick perceptions, a retentive memory and a steady 
hand, even if his early advantages have been limited to a good com- 
mon school education has as good a chance in time to become eminent 
in his profession as his more fortunate colleague. 

The amount of knowledge possessed by a student is not a measure 
of his practical worth in the world, but the amount of knowledge that he 
can successfully apply, is. The great evil of our present systems of edu- 
cation particularly with many of the higher order, is, that young men 
are not taught " how to do tJieir own thinking lines of thought are 
laid down for them, rules and rigid theoretical methods are to be com- 
mitted to memory, and if a case occurs out of the regular routine which 
calls for a practical application of the very principles that they have 
been studying so long, they are completely at a loss and wander hope- 
lessly. This unfortunate oversight in education has been the means of 
bringing the graduates of some of our best literary colleges into dis- 
grace, in the eyes of practical men (particularly journalists), who con- 
tinually and often unjustly sneer in the public prints at the available 
worth of these sorry victims of a defective system. The Faculty of 
the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy have always recognized the 
value of a practical application of knowledge, and this writer willingly 
bears testimony to the habit which is always exercised by the examiners 
of giving a candidate a higher mark for the answer to a question which 
is correctly rendered in the applicant's own language than if the exact 



Am. Jour. IMiaiui. 
Jan., 1885. 



Advances in Instruction. 



9 



words of the text-book were used verbatim et literatim. Questions are 
framed which compel the student to use his own words and do his own 
thinking, and he is thus trained for subsequent examinations to expect 
such questions, and this is a direct incentive to original thought. At 
every step in a process he is trained to ask himself the question : why 
is this? This method of instruction led to the establishment of a plan 
for auxiliary instruction, which has been one of the most valuable 
advances that this College ever instituted ; i. e., the appointment of 
competent assistants to the professors to act as quiz masters ; these 
gentlemen meet the classes immediately after the lectures and system- 
atically ask the members of the class, questions upon the subjects of the 
lectures delivered by the professors, and the great value of hearing 
the facts of a subject repeated in a different way, from different lips a 
week after the lecture was delivered, and following the necessary indi- 
vidual study of the subject, fixes the facts upon the mind of the student 
ambitious to obtain knowledge, in a Avay which will be of lasting value 
to him in after life. 

Every effort is made to break up the pernicious system of cram- 
ming for examination" and it is impossible for a student to obtain a 
good record, who is a mere memorizing machine; the subjects must be 
comprehended in order to win the coveted prizes. As it is of the 
utmost importance to the student, and to the best interests of the Col- 
lege for the applicant to know just exactly what is expected of him in 
the outset of his collegiate course, it was deemed far better to take a 
longer time than is usually given to preliminaiy examinations, Jlnd in 
order to thoroughly and properly test the student's fitness to become a 
pharmacist, he is first given the opportunity of listening to two months 
lectures; during this time he becomes acquainted with the distinctive 
method of instruction adopted by the Faculty, and is then subjected to 
an examination. This ^^preliminary junior examination^^ is so con- 
ducted that the scholarship of the student is ascertained at the same 
time that his ability to master the subjects that he is expected to grasp 
is. His arithmetic, orthography, grammar, powers of composition and 
expression, penmanship, etc., exhibited in the answers to his questions 
and grouped under the heading " scholarship," determines the candi- 
date's fitness to pursue his studies, if he has shown a deficiency in schol- 
arship he is not permitted to take the next examination, but must make 
up his deficiencies and be re-examined at some future time, at least a 
year afterwards. 



10 



Preliminai^y Examination. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ Jan., 1885. 



The principal advantages of this method over the ordinary prelimin- 
ary examinations lie in the fact that the College is furnished with 
better students, and the student is more justly treated, he is not given 
an examination on subjects which have no connection whatever with 
the particular branch of science that he has elected to study ; hut his 
fitness to study Pharmacy is pi^oved by an actual practical trial of his 
ability to master the elementary portions of the pharmaceutical subjects 
that are taught in the College. If his ability is proven and he passes 
the examination successfully, his labor does not go for naught, but the 
record that he makes has a bearing in determining his fitness to enter 
the advanced or senior class. In this way the advantages of the pro- 
gressive system of teaching Pharmacy are realized, and the student 
has the opportunity of ascertaining, in the outset of his career, whether 
his chances of becoming a good Pharmacist are cheering enough to 
warrant the further expenditure of time, labor and money or not. An 
examination in the ordinary English branches of education alone can 
never give him this knowledge, for he might pass an examination in 
these perfectly, and yet fail absolutely in a pharmaceutical examination. 



PRELIMINARY EXAMINATION. 
By Andrew Blair. 

This subject has been receiving much attention of late, and is one 
that deserves more than has been given to it. The popular demand 
of the day is " Elevate the Standard of Education,'^ especially in the 
various branches of science. This certainly is very proper, and in fact, 
necessary in such an age of progress as Ave are now enjoying. The 
methods employed to reach the attainment of this may, in some cases, 
be the most suitable and efficient, while in others more or less defec- 
tive. These remarks will oifer a few hints that may or may not be 
an improvement on present usages, in either case to provoke some 
discussion on the subject which shall result in a genuine and substan- 
tial elevation of the standard of education of the Pharmacist. 

What should a Pharmacist be? While it is proper and essential to 
prosperity and substantial success that a man in any and every calling 
should be honest, industrious, possessed of good morals, faithful and 
true in his representations and practice, it is eminently so with the 
Pharmacist, and he should be a man intelligent and qualified in the 
details of his calling, not necessarily reaching deep down into the long 



. Am. Jour. Pharm. 
Jan., 1885. 



Preliminary Examination. 



11 



range of scientific research. He should have a stock of general informa- 
tion, gathered by observation as Avell as from practice, experiment 
and print in its various forms, much of which may not bear directly 
on his calling, but the possession of which may often assist him in 
applying ideas and working out methods or processes that may be 
valuable to him. 

Why does he become a Pharmacist ? 

Ask the young men in any of the classes of our schools of pharmacy 
and most likely every one will answer To earn a living." This is 
certainly a very commendable motive, and if the j)arty shows a fitness 
for it he should be encouraged by all proper means. Schools of 
Pharmacy are established in various parts of this country as well as 
Europe to educate young men in the different branches of the sciences 
required. As a rule these are in the habit of accepting all applicants 
who are willing to purchase the necessary tickets. No question is 
asked as to the fitness or ca{)acity of any applicant to receive and be 
benefited by the instruction to be given him. If he has not any 
preliminary ideas or knowledge of the subjects or substances to be dis- 
coursed upon, how can he receive, retain and digest the matter to the 
extent it is proper and necessary he should. Here is where and 
when the preliminary examination should be required. Many of the 
young men who attend these schools have had no practical or prelim- 
inary training whatever. They attend the lectures, purchase and sur- 
round themselves with every book of reference offered, and if they 
have retentive memories pass a successful Junior examination, and the 
succeeding winter repeat the dose, with the difference that it is a 
degree higher, and the parchment is secured. It may. be claimed there 
are practical departments attached to these schools ; what of that ? Two 
or three hours a week, for four or five months of a winter season, to be a 
substitute for the constant drilling (as in olden times) of the pestle and 
mortar, by the hour, or the grinding of roots and drugs by the half- 
day. Place a young man at a prescription counter after such a course 
of studies and what is his practical worth ? An answer is hardly 
necessary, as many employers who will read this have had experience 
and can answer it for themselves. 

At once we are confronted with the assertion that all who desire to 
learn have not and cannot obtain the practical experience of a proper 
kind, and it may be so. Is this any reason that such should be 
crammed theoretically only, and on the day of graduation placed side 



12 



Preliminary Examination . 



("Am. Jour. Pliarm. 
X Jan., 1885. 



by side with those thoroughly drilled in the rudiments and practice 
of the profession, and proclaimed before the world as equally compe- 
tent and qualified to follow their chosen calling the one with the other? 
As has been remarked, the chief object of the education, is to make 
a living.'^ It is the practical side of the question which certainly 
carries the most weight. 

Again it is declared that no young man is allowed to graduate till 
he has had a certain practical experience with some qualified apothe- 
cary. iVre the character and quality of these certificates ever examined 
into ? Is the question asked if the party giving the certificate of expe- 
rience is a qualified pharmacist, or a dry goods merchant, with a few 
bottles in one corner of his store ; or a general country storekeeper with 
about the same complement of drug store requisites as the dry goods 
man. Some may say it is impossible to learn such facts. Not so, when 
we liave State organizations in almost every State in the Union, the 
officers and members of which are reputable Pharmacists. 

What is the general result? 

The country is supplied with Pharmacists — good, bad, and worse. 

The institution, whose certificates of proficiency they hold, is extolled 
or degraded as they (the holders of them) show to the world their real 
worth based on the training or education received. 

In other w ords, this grinding out of young men as graduates is a 
mistake in more ways than one, and always the community and fre- 
quently the graduates are the losers by it. 

What is the remedy? No, we will not call it that, but ask can any 
system or method be suggested to improve this condition of things? 

What are the objects of the schools of Pharmacy ? 

Is it to create a class of men, morally, practically and scientifically 
fitted to assume the responsibilities of and conduct a profession that 
holds the lives of the community within their grasp, who are to be 
trusted for their integrity and ability to supply such things as are 
honest and proper, intended to heal the wounds of the" suffering and 
cure the disease that is wasting life away ; or is it to turn out as 
many " as possible, regardless of such or like considerations ? If the 
first sort or class are to be the character of those educated, then sort 
out the material from which they are to be made. How? When young 
men apply for their tickets for a Junior course, require them to pass a 
preliminary examination in the rudiments of the branches they are to 
study (the result of their two or more years' experience with a quali- 



Am. Joiir. Pharm. 
Jan., 1885. 



Analysis of Malt Extract. 



13 



fied Pharmacist), in addition to the evidence of a good school train- 
ing, which must also be accompanied with a certificate that the appli- 
cant has been employed for two full years with a qualified Pharmacist, 
and has shown a fitness for and application to his calling that warrants 
his entering on a course of studies to perfect himself in his profession. 
The standing of the author of said certificate to be ascertained from 
the State society where he holds forth, in case he is not known to the 
College authorities where the application is made. 

Arrange a course of study which shall result in a thorough and 
practical knowledge of the rudiments and scientific details of the pro- 
fession without compelling an acquirement of extreme scientific inves- 
tigation which will be of little practical advantage to those who wish 
to follow pharmacy as a means of livelihood. If some wish to follow 
the scientific, let them have the opportunities of special instruction, 
but do not oblige every student to follow it in order to gain his 
diploma as one competent to select drugs, compound properly the same 
and dispense them in proper shape and quality to answer the purpose 
for which they are intejided. 



FUETHER CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE ANALYSIS OF 
MALT EXTRACT. 
By J. F. Carl Jungk, Fremont, Ohio. 

The analytical methods recommended by me in the paper communi- 
cated to the June number, 1883, of this Journal, have been largely 
used in the examination of malt extract in Europe, as well as in the 
United States, and some have criticised the method of determining 
diastase as not being precise enough. My object in publishing the 
method of examination of malt extract at that time was principally to 
show those inexperienced in analytical work a way for determining, 
in an easy manner, the presence of diastase. This I believe has been 
at least partly accomplished, as in a number of commercial malt pre- 
parations in which diastase could not be detected before it has been 
subsequently found, although not in such proportion as might be 
expected. The following treatise is somewhat more detailed, but 
intended more for those who are acquainted with the various analyti- 
cal manipulations. Familiar methods of determination will, there- 
fore, only be referred to. 



14 



Analysis of Malt Extract. 



f Am. Jour Pharm. 
1 Jan., 1885. 



A malt extract prepared with sufficient care will always transform 
the same amount of starch in the same time as the malt which has 
been used for its preparation. For the purpose of comparison of 
the diastatic effect of a good malt extract we must first determine the 
diastatic effect of a good malt. 

Commercial malt varies greatly in quality. If we take into con- 
sideration only well-looking malt we shall find that, although its 
appearance allows the inference of its being of the best quality, it 
nevertheless varies greatly in its diastatic effect. Malt is met with 
which Avill transform its own weight of starch in 2 minutes at 100°F., 
and 5 times its weight in 7 minutes at 150°F., while other malt, 
at 100°F. Avill require 7 to 10, or even 25 minutes for the conversion 
of its own weight of starch, and at 150°F. for the transformation of 
5 times the weight of starch will need 27 to 120 minutes. Now, if 
a malt extract be met with which will change its own weight of starch 
in 2 minutes at 100°F., or 5 times its weight in 7 minutes at 150°F., 
it is to be regarded as an excellent preparation. 

The manufacturer cannot always secure malt effective in 2 and 7 
minutes, as indicated, and, therefore, in simple justice, the time should 
be fixed at 5 and 18 minutes respectively; that is, a malt extract 
which will change its own weight of starch in 5 minutes at 100°F. 
or 5 times its weight of starch in 18 minutes at 150°F. should be 
regarded as good. This requirement is not too severe, and therefore 
all extracts which do not come up to this standard should be rejected 
as poor preparations. 

Examination of the Malt. — For this purpose I use 1 part of malt, 
ground fine, to every 5 parts of starch, which has previously been 
boiled to a paste with 125 parts of water, and determine the time 
which is necessary, at a temperature of 150°F., to change the starch ; 
that is, until the liquid ceases to acquire a red color upon the addition 
of iodine. A good m?lt, and a properly prepared malt extract, will 
require for this change from 7 to 18 minutes. Using the malt as a 
fine powder, or previously extracting it, will make no difference in the 
time requisite for the transformation. 

A malt which will transform 5 parts of starch in 7 minutes at 
150°F. requires for 10 parts of starch 20 minutes at 150°F. ; for 20 
parts of starch 70 minutes at 150°F. ; for 1 part of starch 2 minutes 
at 100°F. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
Jan., 1885. 



Analysis of Malt Extract. 



15 



NoWj if we accept these figures as a basis, we can easily express in 
figures the value of a malt extract with respect to the diastase. 

Malt Extract ; Determination of Diastase. — Among many technical 
analyses I have performed 248 analyses of malt extract. The extract 
was prepared by me, using 120 bushels of malt, 34 lbs. to the bushel, 
in each case, the malt being previously examined as to its diastatic 
value. The figures given further on represent the average of these 
248 analyses. 

The method frequently followed of allowing the malt extract to act 
from 12 to 24 hours on a large amount of starch should be rejected, 
because the changes occurring hereby are not always caused by the 
diastase; for instance, the generation of acid, which increases steadily, 
takes part in the transformation of the starch ; further, the decompo- 
sition of the nitrogenous bodies, which interfere with the action of the 
diastase, or may altogether destroy it. It is certain that this change 
takes place quicker in the human stomach : 

1. Because the transformation of the starch is in part effected previ- 
ously by the baking and boiling of our food. 

2. The transformation products are speedily absorbed in so great a 
measure that thereby the diastatic effect is accelerated. 

3. In the process of digestion acids are produced, which support the 
action of the diastase until the amount becomes too great, after which 
the diastase is destroyed, and the acids act only on the nitrogenous 
bodies. 

The diastase acts on starch paste very quickly, and the time required, 
therefore, is only to be reckoned by minutes. Such action should con- 
tinue no longer than 1 hour, because a watery solution of malt extract 
begins to decompose after 1 hour. A solution changing the starch 
paste in 5 minutes will after 6 to 10 hours require 12 to 15 minutes. 
These are the principal reasons why I use smaller amounts of starch, 
and set down as standard the time required for transformation. 

In order to prove the action of the diastase in the stomach, as indi- 
cated above under No. 2, recourse may be had to the dialisator, with 
which the following experiment was made. 

One part malt extract was mixed with 100 ])arts by weight of 
starch which had previously been boiled to a paste with 2,500 parts of 
water. One-half of this mixture was placed in a dialisator, the other 
half in a closed bottle. Botli portions were placed in water, and 
exposed to a temperature of 150°F. for 24 hours, the water into 



16 



Analysis of Halt Extract. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
t Jan., 1885. 



which the clialisator was placed renewing itself constantly. After 24 
hours the solution in the dialisator still had a fresh odor, showed little 
acid, and scarcely gave with a solution of iodine a red color, while the 
solution in the bottle had assumed a very unpleasant smell, tasted very 
sour, and still contained a large amount of undecomposed starch, 
which, on an addition of 2 parts, by weight, of extract, did not dis- 
solve. 

Two extracts of equal amounts of diastase may contain unequal 
amounts of acids, and then act differently on starch, as has been proven 
by the tables given in my previous paper. For this reason the amount 
of acid should always be determined before examining the diastatic 
effect, and should, in a carefully prepared extract, and calculated as 
lactic acid, never exceed 1*085 per cent, for every 100 parts of dry 
substance. 

If the amount of acid is larger, the acid should first be neutralized, 
and following this the effect of the diastase should be examined. 

A neutralized malt extract will certainly not act as rapidly on starch 
as an acid extract will. For instance, a malt which is not ueutralized 
will act on an equal weight of starch in 2 and 5 minutes, respectively, 
at 100°F. ; after the acid is neutralized it will dissolve the same 
amount of starch in the same time, but at a temperature of 150°F. 

Considering that commercial starch is not always of the same qua- 
lity, more precise examinations require for use a filtered solution of 
starch paste, in which the amount of starch has been determined. 
After uniiltered starch has been wholly transformed into gum and 
dextrin, its membranes are attacked and require a long time for dis- 
solving. Therefore it often occurs that after iodine shows no coloring 
a violet color may again be produced after the lapse of a few minutes. 
These reactions will pass off smoothly by using the filtered starch 
solution. 

For neutralizing the acid I mix well-washed and still moist carbon- 
ate of magnesium with a 10 })er cent, solution of malt extract, shake 
until the acid reaction has disappeared, filter, and add the requisite 
quantity of starch paste. This method should always be resorted to 
as a check experiment for the determination of diastase. For ascer- 
taining the effect of diastase on large quantities of starch we should 
always use the dialisator. 

Remarks on the Testing with Iodine. — Respecting the addition of the 
solution of iotline to the water, with which the reaction upon starch is 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
Jan., 1885. 



Analysis of Malt Extract. 



17 



to be accomplished, it should be continued merely until the color of the 
liquid appears faintly yellow. In this manner, only, can the changes 
of color be distinctly watched. Before adding the fluid to be tested, 
5 drops of a 10 per cent, sulphuric acid should be added for every 2 
oz. of water, in order to arrest the further effects of the diastase, and to 
combine with the bases or organic decomposition products possibly 
present. In this manner the experiment may be made with any kind 
of water. 

Should the changes of color still be indistinct, which, with a malt 
extract poor in diastase, is always the case, the tested liquid should be 
warmed till it appears colorless. On cooling the blue color appears 
first, followed by the red, and lastly the brown color, the latter, when 
much albumen was contained in the malt extract. 

Using a large quantity of starch for these examinations, the warm- 
ing of the tested liquid is absolutely necessary, as the large amount of 
dextrin produced will hide the color reactions. If we wish to omit 
the iodine reaction, determinations of the sugar, dextrin and gum must 
be made, which will be described further on. In this place it may be 
sufficient to say, that 100 parts of starch are equal to 105.8 maltose or 
111*6 grape sugar. 

Extracts of different diastatic value requiring for the transformation 
of an equal weight of starch 2 minutes at 100°F., require for 5 parts 
of starch 7 minutes at 150°F. ; 4 minutes at 100°F., require for 5 
parts of starch 10 minutes at 150°F. ; 5 minutes at 100°F., require for 
5 parts of starch 18 minutes at 150°F.; 7 minutes at 100°F., require 
for 5 parts of starch 27 minutes at 150°F. 

One part of the same malt extract requires the following time for 
dissolving different amounts of starch at 100°F. and 150°F : 

1 part starch 2 minutes at 100°F. ; h minute at 150°F. 

2 parts "5 " " 31 minutes " 
5 " " 45 " " 18 " " 

10 " " 95 " " 60 

50 " " 12 hours " 120 " " 

(still violet.) (still violet.) 

One part of another extract neutralized required at 150°F., for 1 
part of starch 4 minutes ; for 2 parts of starch 10 minutes; for 5 parts 
of starch 60 minutes. 

Ash Determination. — To determine the several constituents it is best 
to use a solution containing 10 grams of malt extract in every lOOcc. 



18 



Analysis of Malt Extract. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
Jau., 1885. 



This solution should never be allowed to stand longer than 6 or 8 
hours, and during this time should be kept at a cool place. Further, 
every time the solution is measured or weighed it should be well 
shaken. 

On the incineration of malt extract, a charcoal very difficult to con- 
sume, is produced, and it is therefore best to incinerate only small 
quantities ; for example, 5cc. of the 10 per cent, solution. Complete 
combustion may be attained by frequently cooling the crucible, damp- 
ening the charcoal with alcohol or spirit of nitrous ether and allowing 
the temperature never to exceed a dark red heat. If a combustion- 
furnace is at hand, the incineration with oxygen is to be preferred to 
any other method. 

The determining of the several constituents of the ash may be 
omitted here ; but I would remark, that the amount of phosphoric 
acid is one-third, and that of potassa is 30 to 32 per cent, of the whole 
ash. 

Estimation of the Solids and of the Water. — If, instead of using the 
tables published in my former article, gravimetric determinations are 
to be made, I would Ijke to call attention to the following: 

Evaporation of the extract by the usual method is not easily accom- 
plished, as notwithstanding all care, the extract will be partly burnt 
near the edge of the crucible, while the main bulk is yet damp. To 
avoid this cliange it is necessary to mix the extract with dry, clean 
sand and expose it in a glass tube placed in the drying-oven to a cur- 
rent of dry air or carbonic acid gas. In this manner exact results are 
quickly attained. Should the extract of commerce contain glycerin, 
it is necessary to call attention to the fact that glycerin may lose 12 
per cent, of its weight on heating at 110°C. for 6 hours. 

Estimation of the Nitrogenous Substances. — In estimating these sub- 
stances, combustion with soda-lime should always be resorted to. Or 
the total albumen, etc., may be precipitated with tannin solution. The 
precipitate is then washed, dried, weighed, and after a deduction of 
8" 7 5 per cent, for tannin, is counted as nitrogenous substance. 

Another part of the solution of malt is boiled, and after cooling, the 
coagulated albumen is collected, washed, weighed, and deducted from 
the total albumen. In this manner we get the amount of, by heat, 
soluble and insoluble albuminous bodies. In both estimations the ash 
should also be determined and its amount deducted. 

Attention should also be directed to the necessity of precipitating 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
Jan., 1885. 



Analysis of 3falt Extract. 



19 



with tannin J always in the cold, because, if the sohitions are warm, the 
resuhing precipitate cannot be filtered off. 

The coagulable, and while boiling, non-coagulable nitrogenous sub- 
stances are the most important estimations. 

For the separation of all the nitrogenous bodies I recommend W. 
Klinkenberg's method, published in "Repert. d. Analyt. Chemie," II, 
376, and "Fresenius Zeitschrift," vol. 22, page 621. I have made a 
number of assays according to this method and received good results. 

A malt which is rich in diatase contains in 100 parts of nitrogenous 



substances: 

peptone 74*79 

albumin 47-14 

protein 8*07 

or, coagulable substance 37*70 

non-coagulable substance 62*30 



With respect to the peptone, the greatest variation occurs, and 
depends on the greater or smaller diastatic action, and it seems also to 
be much influenced by the temperature and time used in the preparing 
of the malt extract. 

Determination of the Gum. — It should be remarked at the outset, 
that a malt extract, rich in diastase, never contains a trace of dextrin, 
but a gum which is left rotating, and therefore does not deserve the 
name dextrin ; it is precipitated by acetate and by basic acetate of lead, 
as well as by alcohol, does not reduce copper solution in the cold, 
but on heating, reduces it only very slowly; with a mixture of cal- 
cium chloride and ammonia a precipitate is produced. It is easily 
transformed into right rotating sugar, by hydrochloric or sulphuric 
acid, and a portion of it is also, in a dilute solution, by diastase, con- 
verted into dextro-sugar, which shows the presence of two gums. 

If malt extract be allowed to act on a large amount of starch, as in 
the production of maltose, then little gum and a large quantity of 
dextrin is produced. Having made a full examination of this gum, I 
shall report my results in a subsequent paper. 

For the determination of this gum, the albuminous bodies are pre- 
cipitated with a 10 per cent, tannin solution; the filtrate is then mixed 
with an equal volume, or a sufficient quantity of a 30 per cent, acetate 
of lead solution, and the precipitate is washed first with water, and later 
on with alcohol. If polarization is intended, the precipitate may be 
decomposed by sulphate of sodium, and the clear filtrate brought 



20 



Analysis of Malt Extract. 



? Am. Jour. Pharm- 
1 Jan., 1885. 



directly into the apparatus. Using a tube of 200 millimeters, each 
degree to the left indicates 0*998 per cent, of gum. If the gum is to 
be determined in a different way, the lead precipitate should be decom- 
posed, in the usual manner, by HgS, the gum be transformed into 
grape-sugar by the use of acid, and the sugar be determined with cop- 
per solution. Or, the solution freed from lead, is again precipitated 
with basic acetate of lead, filtered, the residue dried, weighed and 
burned, and then the oxide of lead deducted. 

Deter inination of the Maltose. — The filtrate from the precipitate with 
lead acetate may be directly polarized; for a tube of 200 millimeters 
each degree to the right indicates maltose equal to 0*364 per cent, of 
the solution. Or sufficient sulphuric acid is added to the filtrate, until 
the free acid amounts to 2 per cent., and heat is applied for six hours, 
when the maltose will be converted into glucose, the latter being deter- 
mined by Fchliug's solution, lOCcm. of which indicate 0*07 Gm. of 
maltose. 

From 248 analyses the mean composition of 2 to 4 minutes malt 
extract, calculated for 100 parts of dry substance, has been determined 



as follows : 

Maltose 69-270 

(Jinn 23-800 

tSoluhle albumen 3 826 

Insoluble albnmen 1-405 

Lactic acid 1*085 

Ash..: 1-614 



100-000 



Sirop de Dentition (Delabarre). — Among my notes I find the 
following improvement, credited to Hager (?) : 

Olvcerini ^i 

Chloroformi gtts. x 

Tinct. croci hispan. (1:8) ,^ss 

M ell is ^ss 

M. 



Thi« formula is more likely to relieve the itching of the gums than 
the original. Spanish saffi'on, by the way, is credited with possessing 
anodyne (calming) properties. 

The best way to exhibit the syrup would be to apply it to the gums 
by smearing, and slightly rubbing them. 

Hans M. Wilder. 

[Hairer, in " Phar. Praxis," i, p. 957, gives the following formula : Tinct. 
croci 7-5. Tinct. ipecaouanhfe PO, Syr. rhei 50-0, Syr. liquiritise 50*0 gm. 
Some add a little vanilla. (See, also, "Am. Jour. Phar.," December, 1884, 
]). 614.1— Editor Am. Jour. Phar.] 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
Jan., 1885. 



Polygonum Hydi'opiper. 



21 



A CHEMICAL EXAMINATION OF POLYGONUM 
HYDROPIPER. 

By Henry Trimble and Herman J. Schuchard. 

,[A contribution from the Chemical Laboratory of the Philadelphia College of 
Pharmacy.] 

From recent reports of the medicinal activity of this drug and from 
the absence of a complete analysis of it, we were induced to undertake 
an examination with a view, primarily, of determining the nature of 
the pungent principle. The drug was collected for us in the vicinity 
of Philadelphia, during the past summer, by, a botanist thoroughly 
familiar with the requirements of the case, so there can be no doubt 
about the species of Polygonum employed in the following analysis. 

About 50 grams of the tops and leaves, free from the larger stems, 
were powdered and the whole passed through a No. 80 sieve ; of this 
2') grams were taken, and the scheme recommended in DragendorfP's 
Plant Analysis followed as closely as the peculiarities of the case would 
admit. 

Petroleum spirit, with a boiling point below 45 °C., extracted 2* 7 
per cent, of a material which proved to be a wax, melting at 48 °C., 
soluble in absolute alcohol, ether and chloroform, and saponifying with 
alcoholic potash. No volatile or fixed oils were found. 

The drug, after extraction with petroleum spirit, was dried and 
exhausted with absolute ether, which extracted 1*54 per cent., a very 
small portion of which was soluble in water, the remainder was solu- 
ble in chloroform, benzol and absolute alcohol; a concentrated solution 
in the last solvent, when poured into water caused a turbidity due to 
resin ; from these and some other tests, we were led to believe that the 
ether-soluble portion consisted of resin and chlorophyll. 

The original drug after the ether treatment was dried and exhausted 
with absolute alcohol, by which we obtained 5*14 per cent, of solid 
matter. 2*27 per cent, of this was soluble in water; this aqueous 
solution contained tannin. When made alkaline and treated succes- 
sively with petroleum spirit, benzol and chloroform, then acidified and 
similarly treated, ho crystalline principle was obtained. The portion 
of the alcoholic extract insoluble in water proved to be an acid resin. 
The alcoholic solution contained the pungent principle, but on heating 
it disappeared. 

The remainder of the original drug yielded to water 7*22 per cent. 



22 



Polygonum Hydropiper. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
Jan., 1885. 



of solid matter. No crystalline principle was found, but there was 
obtained '55 per cent, of gum and 1*44 per cent, of sugar. That por- 
tion of the drug insoluble in water yielded 5'95 per cent, of solid 
matter to a '2 per cent, solution of potassium hydrate, which was made 
up to 1 per cent, of albuminoids and some phlobaphene. That which 
remained from the treatment with dilute alkali gave to hydrochloric acid 
6 per cent, of solid matter which consisted principally of the salts found 
in the ash. Only a very small amount of starch was found. On 
bleaching the final residue Avith chlorine water, drying and weighings 
57*45 per cent, of cellulose was obtained. Another portion of the 
original drug yielded 10*25 per cent, of moisture, and on incineration, 
7*4 per cent, of ash of which 3 per cent, was soluble in water, consist- 
ing of potassium and sodium salts ; the remainder proved to be iron,, 
aluminium and calcium with phosphoric acid. 

Two tannin determinations, by the gelatin and alum process, gave 
very close to 3*46 per cent. A tincture of the drug was made with 
diluted alcohol, which contained the pungent principle, but on concen- 
trating by distillation that peculiar taste failed to show itself, either in 
the concentrated residue or in the distillate. The residue on treatment 
with petroleum spirit, benzol and chloroform, yielded nothing. From 
these experiments we concluded that the active principle is decomposed 
on the slightest heating, and that the only proper preparation of the 
drug would be one made without the application of heat. 

In American Journal of Pharmacy for November, 1871, Dr» 
C. J. Rademaker claims to have isolated the active principle, which he 
named polygonic acid. We prepared some of this substance according 
to his method, by exhausting the drug with diluted alcohol, evaporat- 
ing and adding basic acetate of lead, by which we obtained the yellow 
precipitate. This, on treatment with HgS, yielded to the first portions 
of ether shaken with it a greenish, and to the successive portions a 
brownish residue. All these portions were acid to litmus paper and 
gave the reactions stated by the author. We also found this residue 
to give a precipitate with gelatin, and in many other ways to resemble 
tannic as well as gallic acid ; the latter would account for the crystal- 
line appearance of the residue. As such treatment of the drug would 
probably give tannic and gallic acids, we tried a mixture of the two 
by the same reagents as were applied to the so-called polygonic acid,, 
and found a remarkable similarity. The conclusion naturally follows 
that polygonic acid is a mixture of impure tannic and gallic acids,. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
Jan., 1885. j 



Nutmegs are Poisonous. 



23 



together with a small quaDtity of chlorophyll. The following sum- 
mary shows the amount of the most important constituents : 



Percent. 






10-25 




Wax 


2-70 


From petroleum spirit 






solution. 




1-54 


From ether solution. 


Besin, tannin and chlorophyll 


5-14 


From^ alcoholic solution. 




1-44 ] 






•55 1 


- From aqueous solution. 




5-23 J 




1-00 1 




Phlobaphene, etc 


5-95 J 


\ From alkali solution. 


Salts and a small amount of 








6-00 


From dilute acid solution. 




57-45 






97-25 





Separately determined : tannin, 3-46 per cent. ; ash, 7-40 per cent. 
Philadelphia, December 16, 1884. 



Nutmegs are Poisonous. — Early in December, 1884, one after- 
noon, a lady here ate one and a half nutmegs. About two hours after, 
she became drowsy, and remained so nearly an hour, the drowsiness 
amounting almost to stupor. 'This was followed by an excited condi- 
tion, with sharp pain in the brain, then involuntary laughter, wild 
fancies and incessant talking, without loss of consciousness. Presently 
pain was felt in the region of the heart, with cold extremities and a 
depressing sensation. Her face was very pale and her pulse weak and 
thready. These alarming symptoms lasted more than an hour, during 
which time two doses of ammonium bromide were administered. Next 
morning it was necessary to repeat the dose. Since then she has been 
unusually nervous. 

I publish this case because it is not generally known that nutmeg is 
poisonous; and, being regarded as a valuable domestic remedy, it is 
well to remember that large doses of it are dangerous. This patient 
took about 135 grs., whereas from 5 to 20 grs. is the dose. 

J. Dabney Palmer, M. A., M. D. 

MONTICELLO, FlA. 

[The narcotic properties of large doses of nutmeg are mentioned in Natl. 
Dispensatory, p. 1007, and in U. S. Dispensatory, p. 969.— Editor.] 



24 Practical Notes from Foreign Journals, 



PRACTICAL NOTES FROM FOREIGN JOURNALS. 
By Hans M. Wilder. 

Cahe White (Face Powder). — Oxide of zinc 4, rice starch 4, white 
French chalk 4, calcined plaster of Paris 1 ; rub well together, and 
mix with sufficient water to suitable consistence so that it can be 
poured out into boxes or paper moulds (if in moulds, cut to proper 
size and sliape after 5 to 10 minutes). — Pharm. Zeit. RussL, xxii, p. 6. 

Oils of Cassia and Cinnamon may be distinguished by their specific 
gravity. The former has 1*0366, and the latter 1*0097. — Rundschau, 
viii, p. 768. 

Carbon Diffuses through Porcelain. — Violle has observed that if a 
porcelain crucible, inserted into a black lead crucible, be heated to 
about 1,500°C. (melting-point of palladium), the latter will look as 
light colored as if made of clay, while the porcelain crucible is quite 
black. — Ber. d. Deutsch. Ges., xv, p. 275. 

Paper and leather may be rendered very pliable by soaking in a 
solution of 1 part of acetate of sodium or potassium in 4 to 10 parts 
of water, and drying. — Polyt. Notizbl., xxxvii, p. 365. 

Citric Acid Freed of Iron. — During the Turco-Russian war some 
40,000 pounds of citric acid got contaminated with iron and zinc. 

Meyke found that, by converting the acid, by means of chlorinated 
lime, into citrate of calcium, and decomposing the latter with sulphu- 
ric acid, he succeeded in obtaining a perfectly pure acid. To a cold 
filtered solution of 16 parts contaminated acid in 96 parts distilled 
water was added about 21 parts chlorinated lime, previously reduced 
to a thin paste. After quickly straining, the liquid was heated to 
boiling, separating completely the citrate of calcium, while the chlo- 
ride of iron and zinc remained in solution. The magma was trans- 
ferred to a strainer, and washed completely with boiling hot water till 
ammonium sulphhydrate ceased to indicate metals. To the citrate of 
calcium (about 20 parts) was added about 60 parts of diluted sulphu- 
ric acid (1:5), under constant stirring, and, lastly, heating to boiling. 

After complete decomposition the solution of pure citric acid was 
filtered from sulphate of calcium, evajwrated to syrupy consistence, 
let stand for some hours, decanted from the sedunent, and evaporated 
further in water-bath. Crystallization was hastened by dropping a 
small crystal of citric acid into the cooled liquid. Meyke obtained from 



^'"■jiD"i885^'^'""} Practical Notes from Foreign Journals. 25 

52 pounds impure citric acid 40 pounds pure acid by means of 68 J 
pounds chlorinated lime and 32 J pounds concentrated sulphuric acid. 
35f pounds calcined gypsum were obtained as a by-product. 

He found the following methods unsatisfactory: 1. Oft repeated 
recrystallization. 2. Carbonate of calcium. 3. Carbonate of barium. 
4. Acetate of lead. 5. Wood and animal charcoal. — Pharm. Zeit. 
Pussl., xxii, p. 297. 

Musk. — The German Consul-General in Shanghai states that the 
average annual exportation is about 3,000 catties (one catly contains 
15 to 20 pods of Yunnan musk, or 20 to 25 pods of Tonquin musk); 
this requires 60,000 musk deer. He states further that even the best 
pods do not contain much more than 60 per cent, of true musk, and 
30 per cent, will about represent the average. — Schweiz. Woch., xxi, 
p. 157. 

Bestucheff^s Tincture of Iron. — 100 parts of solution of chloride 
of iron, 400 parts of absolute alcohol, 150 parts of sulphuric ether. — 
Rundschau, ix, p. 301. 

Carbolic Acid. — According to Meyke the red color is due to the 
presence of lead ; he recommends to keep it in tin containers. — Pharm. 
Zeit. Pussl., xxii, p. 431. 

Brandy Flavor. — 4 parts of acetic ether, 50 parts of Jamaica rum, 
100 parts of arac, 1,000 parts of alcohol and 1,200 parts of water; 
pour over 10 parts of pineapples and let stand. — Rundschau, viii, 
p. 503. 

Meat Juice. — Sippel recommends the following as the easiest way to 
obtain nearly all the juice: 

Cut one pound of best lean beef in slices about one-third of an 
inch thick, and lay the slices one alongside of the other on a strip of 
muslin, 6 inches wide and 1 yard long, sprinkling with fine salt. Now 
roll up the whole strip, tie a string several times around, and put in 
an ordinary press. After half an hour, about half a pint of red, trans- 
parent juice will be obtained. — Pharm. Zeit. Pussl., xxii, p. 600. 

Varnish for Sheet-iron and Tin Ware. — 30 parts of crystallized 
acetate of copper (verdigris) is rubbed to a fine powder, and, spread 
in a thin layer, left exposed in a moderately warm place for several 
days. The light-brown powder is ground with a little oil of turpen- 
tine and mixed with 100 parts of fat copal varnish, previously heated 
to 120°F. Let stand several days in a warm place, shaking it once 
in a while ; finally, let dej^osit. If applied in three or four coats, a 



26 Practical Notes from Foreign Journals. { '^""'jan^ss 

dark -green color is produced ; if only one or two coats, and afterwards 
heating in a drying oven, different colors are obtained, according to 
the longer or shorter exposure to heat (light or dark gold, orange, 
brownish red). — Polyt. NotizbL, xxxviii, p. 172. 

Precipitation. — The best way to precipitate is not to pour one solu- 
tion into the other, but to pour both simultaneously, in a thin stream, 
into a large quantity of water. 

The precipitates obtained in this way are not only in an exceedingly 
fine state, but also easy to wash out and dissolve. 

If the two solutions differ much in specific gravity, the best way is 
to let the heavier run in near the top of the water, and the lighter 
near the bottom. If possible, both solutions ought to be brought to 
the same bulk. — Dieterich, Pharm. Zeit. RmsL, xxiii, p. 371. 

Honey. — Dieterich finds that honey kept in woods very soon fer- 
ments, while honey from the same batch kept well in glass or earthen- 
ware. — Pharm. Zeit. Russl., xxiii, p. 385. 

Fixed Oils, Fats and Ointments. — Dieterich strongly recommends 
benzoinating them ; he employs at least 10 per cent, benzoin, although 
for fiits 20 per cent, is better. Only recently rendered fat can be pre- 
served successfully in this way (and all ointments made w»th it); old — 
and partially rancid fats are not preserved. — Ibid., xxiii, p. 386. 

Bicarbonate of Sodium. — Dieterich recommends keeping the bicar- 
bonate in a cool place and in tightly stoppered containers, since it is 
apt to lose part of its carbonic acid, and thus be converted into mono- 
carbonate if exposed to the air. — Ibid., p. 387. 

Saponimentum. — This is a name proposed by Dieterich for opodel- 
doc, and he gives several formulas. Saponimentum with arnica; Peru 
balsam ; carbolic acid ; eucalyptus; iodine; iodine and sulphur; iodo- 
form ; tar; sidphur; storax ; thymol. 

They consist of stearin soap, olein soap, alcohol and the respective 
medicinal component. — Ibid., p. 389. 

Silver-plating Solution. — Ebermeyer dissolves 20 parts of silver in 
60 parts of nitric acid, adds 20 parts of caustic potassa, 50 parts of 
distilled water, filters, and adds sufficient distilled water to 22*^ B. (sp. 
gr. 1-176). The objects are cleaned with alkali, etc., dried, warmed, 
and moved backward and forward in the solution; they are then dried 
with saw-dust, and finished with precipitated chalk and chamois. — 
Pharm. Zeit. Russl., xxiii, p. 405. 

Cement for Brass on Glass (for instance, petroleum lamps). — 1 part 



^'"'janirisss.^''""'} Practical Notes from Foreign Journals. 27 

of caustic soda, 3 parts of rosin and 5 parts of water are boiled together 
till solution is effected, which is intimately mixed with one-half of its 
weight of plaster of Paris. The mixture hardens within one hour, 
and is impermeable for coal oil. — Puscher, Pharm. Zeit. BussL, xxiii^ 
p. 423. 

Moth Paper. — Soak paper with equal parts of carbolic acid and 
naphthalin. — Dieterich, Ibid., p. 486. 

Green Color for Ointments and Oils. — Sicha recommends an alco- 
holic extract of turmeric (one part representing ten parts of the root)^ 
which is rubbed smooth with a little alcohol, and mixed with the lique- 
fied fat. When about half cooled down add sufficient of a solution of 
blue carmine (indigo carmine) till the desired shade has been obtained. 
— Leitm.. Rundschau, ix, 2. 

Creasote. — A more manageable form for toothache than the pure 
article is creasotated collodium (equal volumes creasote and collodium), 
which forms a kind of varnish over the carious tooth. — Ibid., p. 6.' 

Pain Paint. — Against migraine, toothache, etc. 5 grams oil of pep- 
permint, 10 grams chloroform, 6 grams acetic ether, 10 drops essential 
oil of mustard, 5 drops oil of valerian. Use a camel's hair brush. — 
Ibid., p. 28. 

Itch Remedy. — Wash the whole body, on going to bed, with a solu- 
tion of hyposulphite of sodium (1:5), and the next morning with 
diluted muriatic acid (1:20). By this treatment the pores of the skin 
will contain finely divided sulphur. — Leitmeritz, x, p. 757. 

Production of Sulphate of Quinine in Europe. — Fabricca lombarda, 
Milano, 200 kilos a day; Bcehringer & Sons, Mannheim, 150 kilos;, 
Zimmer, Sachsenhausen, 100 kilos ; Pelletier, Paris, 100 kilos , How- 
ard, London, 50 kilos; Brunswick, 50 kilos; Jobst, Stuttgart, 20 
kilos: Koch, Oppenheim, 20 kilos ; Amsterdam, 10 kilos ; Frankfurt 
on the Main, 10 to 20 kilos; Whiffen, London, 10 to 20 kilos; Tel- 
landier, Paris, 10 kilos. — leitmeritz, x, p. 456. 

Purity of Copaiva Balsam demonstrated microscopically. — Place a 
drop of the balsam on a slide, and dust in a few grains of canna 
starch. If pure, the starch granules will be invisible ; if the balsam, 
however, be adulterated, its altered refractive power will cause the 
starch to become visible. — Ibid., x, p. 598. 

German Oil of Rose. — The well-known essential oil firm, Schimmel 
& Co., in Leipzig, have undertaken to distil the oil from roses grown 
in Germany, and at their first venture obtained three kilos of oil. Its 



2S Benzoic Acid prepared from Benzoin. | '^"" /an"'^i8^5^^°^' 

odor is stronger than that of the Turkish oil (chiefly, perhaps, because 
it is pure), and its freezing point higher. Turkish oil freezes at 21 °C., 
while the German freezes already at 32°C. — Ibid., x, p. 676. 



SUBSTANCES ACCOMPANYING BENZOIC ACID PRE- 
PARED FROM BENZOIN. 
By O. Jacobsen. 

On treating benzoic acid from gum benzoin with sodium car- 
bonate solution, an oil is left undissolved, smelling of vanillin and also 
of ])henol. By fractionation, it may be separated into three principal 
portions, boiling at 200-210°, 235-245°, and 280-330°, and a pitch- 
like residue not further examined. The first fraction consists of 
methyl benzoate and guaiacol, which can be separated by treatment 
with cold dilute caustic soda. The second and smaller fraction, when 
shaken with water, gives up catechol in the acqueous solution ; the 
portion insoluble in water and dilute alkalis is acetyl guaiacol. The 
thir'J and largest portion consists of an oil, insoluble in dilute alkalis, 
which by saponification with alcoholic potash, and subsequent treat- 
ment with water and ether, yields benzyl alcohol, and benzophenone, 
Avhilst the aqueous solution contains guaiacol and benzoic acid ; this 
fraction therefore contains benzyl benzoate, benzophenone, and benzoyl- 
guaiacol. The oil also contains vanillin, but in minute quantity only. 
The medicinal value of sublimed benzoic acid is attributed to the cate- 
chol and guaiacol; it is believed that of the above bodies only vanillin 
and benzyl benzoate exist ready formed in the gum. Benzaldehyde 
may be formed by the oxidation of the contained benzyl benzoate, so 
that the production of the former cannot be considered as a proof of 
adulteration with cinnamic acid. Schlickum and Schneider have 
tested the genuine nature of natural benzoic acid by its reducing 
boiling ammoniacal silver solution; but catechol will reduce the solu- 
tion in the cold, and the author therefore suggests the following method 
of testing : — Convert the benzoic acid into the sodium salt, and, after 
drying, shake with ether; after removal of the ether, the residue may 
be dissolved in water, and the above or any other tests for catechol 
applied. — Arch. Pharm. [3], xxii, pp. 366-374 ; Jour. Chem. Soc, Nov. 
1884, p. 1168. 



Ain. Jour. Pharm.'l 
Jan., 1885. j 



Quassin and its Constitution. 



29 



QUASSIN AND ITS CONSTITUTION. 
By V. Oliveri and A. Denaro. 
In order to prepare quassin from quassia, 10 kilos, of the finely 
divided wood are twice extracted with 45 litres of boiling water, and 
the solution evaporated to 10 litres at a gentle heat; when cold, the 
quassin is precipitated by tannin, collected, washed, and after being 
mixed with 'a sufficient quantity of lead carbonate, it is thoroughly 
dried at 100°. The product is then extracted with boiling alcohol, 
the alcohol distilled off, and the residue set aside until it deposits the 
quassin in a crystalline state ; it is, however, always contaminated with 
resinous matters, from which it is purified by repeated crystallisations 
from dilute alcohol : 30 kilos, of the wood gave 10 grams of pure 
quassin. It crystallises in very slender, colourless, iridescent needles, 
which belong to the monoclinic system, the predominating form being 
the oblique prism with rhombic base. It melts at 210-211° (Christen- 
sen 205°), and is very soluble in alcohol, chloroform, and acetic acid, 
but only sparingly in ether : 100 parts of water at 22° dissolve 0*2529 ; 
the aqueous solution becomes yellow on expasure to the air, is dextro- 
rotatory, excessively bitter, and reduces Fehling's solution. The results 
of the analyses agree nearly with the numbers required by the formula 
C32H44O1Q, and differ considerably from those given by Wiggers and 
by Christensen, who proposed the formulse CjoHigOg and C3ill420^ 
respectively. 

When quassin is heated at 90° for some hours with dilute sulphuric 
acid (4 per cent.), it yields quasside C32II42O9, a white, amorphous, 
bitter substance, formed from quassin by the removal of the elements 
of 1 mol. H2O ; no glucose could be detected in the mother liquors. 
It melts at 192-194°, and when boiled with dilute alcohol is recon- 
verted into quassin, which crystallises out as the solution cools 
Quasside is also formed when quassin is boiled with acetic anhydride, 
but if sodium acetate is present there is a powerful reaction, and 
several substances seem to be produced ; these have not as yet been 
submitted to examination. 

Bromine diluted with acetic acid acts on a solution of quassin in 
the same solvent, and on adding water an amorphous resinous sub- 
stance is obtained, but it does not crystallise ; this melts with decom- 
position at 155°, and the results of the analyses suggest the formula 
GgeH^^Br^Og. Nitric acid added to an acetic solution of quassin seems 



30 



Qua^sin mid its Constitution. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
Jan., 1885. 



to give rise to a nitro derivative, which is precipitated on the addition 
of water. It dissolves in boiling alcohol, and, as the solution cools, 
is deposited again as a yellowish powder which melts at 130°. 

If quassin is heated with concentrated hydrochloric acid in sealed 
tubes for four hours at 100°, methyl chloride is formed and escapes on 
opening the tubes ; whilst the hydrochloric solution when diluted 
with water, deposits first a resinous matter, which should be removed 
and then, after a time, a colorless substance in small nodules. This 
new compound, which the author calls quassic acid, Ci^H^gOg.COOH, 
or C28ll3gOg(COOH)2, is far less soluble in alcohol than quassin, and 
crystallises in silky needles which melt at 245°, and reduce Fehling's 
solution and ammoniacal silver nitrate in the cold. It seems to be 
formed thus: C32H,,0,, + 2HCl=C28H380,(COOH)2 + 2CH3Cl, so that 
quassin would be the ethereal salt of quassic acid. The author has 
also tried the action of nascent hydrogen, and of boiling dilute nitric 
acid on quassin, but the products are resinous. Fusion with potash 
and oxidation with chromic anhydride also gave unsatisfactory results. 

The resinous matter obtained in the preparation of crystallised 
quassiii, and in all probability produced from the latter, was submitted 
to distillation with zinc-dust. The. brown oily product was treated 
with sodium and fractionally distilled ; the portion passing over at 
170-190° when again distilled gave an oil boiling at 173-178° of 
the formula CiiH,g, whilst crystals melting at 76-78° were obtained 
from the residue in the retort. — Jour. Chem. Soc, 1884, p. 1192, 
Gazetta xiv., 1-9. See also Amer. Jour. Phar., 1884, p. 98. 



Use of Iodoform. — Unna recommends iodoform for the healing of 
soft chancres, and for obviating the occurrence of suppurating buboes. 
The sore is first dried with absorbent cotton, then a drop of solution of 
iodoform in ether is spread upon the sore, and when it has become dry, 
it is covered with a piece of iodoform plaster or muslin. To conceal 
the smell the whole is covered with cotton, perfumed with an alcoholic 
solution of coumarin or other aromatic spirit. For the preparation of 
Pencils of Iodoform, Unna recommends iodoform 10 Gm., acacia 3 Gm., 
tragacanth and glycerin each 1 Gm. ; sufficient water being Uocd to 
form a mass, which is made into 5 pencils. — 3Ionatschr. f. Der-matoL, 
Aug., 1884. 



Am. Jour. Pharui.) 
Jan., 1885. j 



Cocaine and its Salts. 



31 



COCAINE AND ITS SALTS.^ 
By E. Merck. 

Cocaine, C17H24NO4 (according to Lossen), is the alkaloid contained 
in coca leaves {Erythroxylon Coca, Lam.), which was first isolated by 
Niemann in 1860. In 1862, Lossen discovered in the same leaves a 
second principle, hygrin, which is of a volatile nature, and has been 
hitherto but little investigated, but it appears to have a weak and hardly 
characteristic action. The further component parts of the coca leaves 
appear to be ecgonin, coca-tannin, and a peculiar wax. 

The cocaine crystals belong to the monocline system, melt at 98 °C., 
are easily soluble in alcohol, even more easily soluble in ether, but only 
dissolve in 704 parts water. The salts of cocaine are, on the other 
hand, readily soluble in water. The salts prepared commercially are 
the hydrochl orate, salicylate, hydrobromate, tartrate and citrate. 

The first reports as to the results of the internal use of coca leaves 
have been handed down from the sixteenth century (Dr. Mondedes, 
Seville, 1569). In 1749 the plant appears to have been first brought 
to Europe. It was described by Jussieu and was named Ei^ythroxylon 
Coca by Lamarck. 

Tschudi, Markham, Poppig, and others, who have traveled in South 
America, found that the natives were in the habit of chewing coca 
leaves as a remedy for, or preventive against, the effects of extraordi- 
nary physical exertions. 

The Indians chewed the leaves in conjunction with the ashes of 
Chenopodimi Quinoa, the alkali contained in which seems to have 
eliminated the tannin from the coca leaves, and to have left the alka- 
loid free. 

Since the discovery of cocaine the belief has gained ground, and, as 
it appears, quite correctly, that this alkaloid is the really active prin- 
ciple of coca leaves. At first it was believed, apparently with good 
grounds, that it possessed a property analogous to that possessed by 
caffeine, theine, and theobromine, viz., the power of retarding or 
stopping the change of tissue, but hitherto no facts absolutely confirm- 
ing this theory have been discovered. Administered in small doses 
cocaine has an exhilarating effect, but in larger doses it paralyses the 
nerve centres and other parts of the nervous system. It has a fatal 



^ Abstract from a paper commuuicated by the author. 



32 



Cocaine and its 8alts. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
Jan., 1885. 



effect on warm-blooded animals (which are, however, apparently less 
affected by it than are cold-blooded creatures), by causing a cessation 
of respiration ; it would therefore appear that cocaine is a poison, 
though its toxic qualities appear to be very mild and its action not 
cumulative. 

Schroff, who made the first experiments with cocaine in 1862, observed 
that doses of 0*05 gram administered internally to rabbits caused con- 
siderable variation of the pulse and in the breathing, as also temporary 
mydriasis ; the same dose administered subcutaneously caused death in 
convulsions of an epileptic nature, mydriasis in a strong degree being 
also observable, which, however, disappeared at once after death. In 
the case of froo^s a dose of 0*001 gram produced complete immova- 
bility (preceded by a prior appearance of excitement) ; a dose of 0*002 
gram proved fatal to frogs. 

According to Froumiiller, who made experiments in 1863, with a 
view of testing the narcotic effects of cocaine, a dose of 0*03-0*33 
gram, internally aduiinistered, seemed to have no important eflPect upon 
human beings; in some cases sleep resulted, pulse and breathing at 
first somewhat accelerated, but afterwards became slower than under 
normal conditions. 

In a case of attempted suicide a dose of 1*5 gram seemed to have 
no seriously injurious effect ; the fatal dose, therefore, for human beings 
would appear to be very considerable. 

As far as experiments with the infusion of coca leaves have hitherto 
gone they would appear to show that the coca leaves contain from 0*02 
to 0*2 per cent, of cocaine; 0*05 gram of cocaine hydrochlorate seems 
to be the suitable dose for human beings. 

The effects of subcutaneous injection of a solution of cocaine, on 
human beings appear to be, first, a feeling of warmth, then insensi- 
bility to feeling in the neighborhood of the part in which the injection 
has taken place, and, finally, a reddening of the skin. After a lapse 
of thirty minutes matters appear to resume their normal condition. 

Cocaine placed on the tongue seems in some cases to deaden the 
action of the nerves. Dr. Th. Aschenbrandt states that he has found 
cocaine to have an excellent effect upon the human frame exhausted by 
diarrhoea. During the last few months Professor E. V. Fleischl, of 
Vienna, has affirmed that cocaine in the form of a subcutaneous injec- 
tion is undoubtedly a valuable adjunct in preventing and curing the 



Am Jour. Pnarm. 
Jan., 1885. 



Cocaine and its Salts. 



33 



craving for morphia. This circumstance alone should be sufficient to 
ensure for cocaine a lasting position as a valuable article of medicine. 

In cases where the treatment can be prolonged decreasing doses of 
morphia and increasing doses of cocaine, and in cases where rapid 
treatment has been decided upon doses of 0*1 gram of cocaine alone 
are subcutaneously injected as often as the craving for morphia becomes 
apparent. Dr. Frend, who, amongst other instances, completely cured 
a case of craving for morphia within ten days by means of doses of 
0*1 gram of cocaine subcutaneously injected three times daily, is of 
opinion that morphia and cocaine act antagonisticalJy to each other. 

The treatment of dypsomania seems to be comparatively much more 
troublesome ; the first attempts appear to have been made in America 
and to have resulted fairly favorably. Cocaine has also been recom- 
mended as an aphrodisiac, and Dr. Frend seems to have certainlj^ 
observed sypmtoms of sexual excitement after its administration. 

As already observed, cocaine brought into immediate contact with 
the mucous membrane seems to produce temporary insensibility to 
feeling, and trials have been made with it not only in cases of disease 
of the throat, windpipe, etc., but results have also been obtained in the 
direction of producing local ansesthesia for the purpose of operations 
on the mouth, throat, etc. Cocaine will also probably come into impor- 
tant and frequent use in cases of ophthalmia. 

On September 15 of this year, at the meeting of ophthalmologists 
at Heidelberg, the experiments made by Dr. Koller, in Vienna, were 
fully discnssed. This gentleman experimented on various occasions on 
the eyes of animals and also upon his own eyes, and found that imme- 
diately after the introduction, by dropping, of a 2 per cent, solution of 
cocaine hydrochlorate a burning sensation in the eye lasting for about 
half a minute resulted, which was followed by an indefinite sense of 
dryness, the opening between the lids of the eyes under treatment 
appeared to be wider, while the tendency to shrink back, which would 
otherwise manifest itself on the cornea being touched, for instance, a 
twitching back of the head or of the eyelids, or the tendency of the 
eye to draw back on being touched, seemed to disappear, so that in this 
condition it was possible to produce by pressure a dimple on the cornea, 
or even to lay hold of the conjunctiva bulbi with tweezers without 
producing any unpleasant- sensation. This absence of feeling on the 
part of the eye continued for about ten minutes, but a certain lack of 

8 



34 



Cocaine and its Salts. 



Am Jour. Pharm. 
Jan., 1885 



its usual sensibility continued for several hours. Twenty to thirty 
minutes after the introduction of the solution of cocaine hydrochlorate 
the pupil became enlarged, returning after some hours (at longest appa- 
rently after twelve hours) to its normal condition. 

A slight diflficulty in accommodating the two eyes to each other, 
which could, however, be easily overcome by an effort, was the only 
abnormal symptom observed during this period ; otherwise the func- 
tions of the eye remained intact. 

Which of the cocaine salts is preferable for the purposes of eye sur- 
gery remains to be proved, and will probably be positively ascertained 
very shortly. It remains to observe that the experiments, the results 
of which have been detailed in the foregoing were without exception 
made with the cocaine hydrochlorate; but it seems beyond doubt that 
the effects of other cocaine salts agree with the observations made in 
the case of cocaine hydrochlorate. 

Dr. von Hoffmann, of Baden-Baden, an ophthalmologist, recom- 
mends cocaine salicylate for ophthalmic purposes. 

Cocaine citrate has been successfully used by dentists for the purpose 
of anaesthising the dental nerves. This salt can be readily formed by 
kneading into pills, which, after being wrapped in wadding and mois- 
tened, are placed in the hollow tooth, which can then be cleaned or 
extracted comj)aratively, or even totally, without pain. 

Cocaine splits up with concentrated hydrochloric acid into ecgonine, 
benzoic acid and methyl alcohol. Experiments are now being made 
us to the physiological action of ecgonine.— P/iar. Jour, and Trans. j 
November 29, 1884, p. 426. 



Administration of Quinine by the Rectum. —Dr. E. Peck 
states that quinine may be easily administered to children in the form 
of suppositories, and that the drug is not only rapidly and promptly 
absorbed in this way, but that also far larger doses may be given than 
per OS. He made use of from 16 to 24 grains of the muriate of 
quinine at a single dose, adding about 30 grains of butter of cacao 
and a small quantity of simple cerate as mass for the suppository. — 
Deutsche Med. Wochenschrijt, 1884. 



Am. Jour. Pharro. 
Jan., 1885. 



Crysta I Used Colchich i e . 



35 



CRYSTALLISED COLCHICINE. 
By a. H0UDE8. 

Three kilos, of colchicum seeds were exhausted with 100 kilos, of 
alcohol of 96°, the liquid filtered, the alcohol distilled off, and the 
residue treated repeatedly with a 5 per cent, solution of tartaric acid, 
which dissolves out the colchicine, but leaves fatty and resinous matters 
undissolved. The filtered solution was then agitated with chloroform, 
the chloroform removed by evaporation, and the crude product purified 
by repeated crystallization from a mixture of equal parts of chloroform, 
alcohol, and benzene. The yield from the seeds is about 3 grams per 
kilo., whilst that fioni the bulbs is only 0*4 gram per kilo. 

The colchicine thus obtained forms nodular groups of colorless 
prisms, slightly soluble in water, glycerol, and ether, but soluble in all 
proportions in alcohol, benzene, and chloroform. It has a very bitter 
taste, and an alkaline reaction, contains nitrogen, and burns without 
residue. It is hydrated, and melts at 93°, but after drying at 100°, 
the melting point rises to 163°. A solution of colchicine does not 
reduce an alkaline copper solution, but after prolonged boiling with 
dilute sulphuric acid, it reduces it immediately, and in this respect re- 
sembles solanine. Colchicine combines with certain organic acids, but 
is decomposed when brought in contact with strong acids. 

Concentrated or dilute inorganic acids dissolve colchicine and form 
a citron-yellow solution ; nitric acid produces a transient violet colora- 
tion. Solutions of colchicine are precipitated by potash and soda, but 
not by ammonia. Tannin produces a white precipitate soluble on heat- 
ing; platinum tetrachloride, an orange-yellow precipitate; an aqueous 
solution of iodine, a kermes-red precipitate ; mercuric potassium iodide, 
a yellow precipitate ; iodine in potassium iodide, a maroon-yellow pre- 
cipitate. 

Colchicine exerts a physiological efJ'ect only in relatively large doses. 
Respiration and the functions of the heart are considerably modified, 
and the general effect is a state of collapse, with stupor, but without 
insensibility. — Compt. rend., xcviii , pp. 4442-1444; Jour. Cliem. 
Soc, pp. 1055-1056, October, 1884. 



36 



Persian Opium. 



j Am. Jour. Pharm» 
\ Jan., 1885. 



PERSIAN OPIUM.i 
By Consul-general Benjamin, of Teheran. 

Some years ago the production of opium in Persia was larger than 
at present. The unusual proportion of morphia which Persian opium 
contains uiade it justly preferable to that produced elsewhere, and large 
quantities found their way to foreign markets, and especially to China. 

Two causes have latterly tended to check the culture and export of 
Persian opium, although the trade in the article is still important. 
One of these causes alone might not have led to such a result, but the 
two coming about the. same time have somewhat discouraged the pro- 
duction of Persian opium. These causes were, the increasing adultera- 
tion of the article and the fact that the attention given to its culture 
materially reduced the more important culture of wheat, which led the 
Government to regard the opium product with disfavor. 

Persian opium is chiefly grown in the provinces of Kernianshah and 
Ispahan. The latter city is the centre of the opium trade of Persia. 
The opium of Ispahan is the best; the highest grade has been found 
to contain 15 to 16 per cent, of morphia. It is fair to state, however, 
that of late the opiums of Kum, Teheran and Yezd have been grow- 
ing in favor, some specialists considering the quality raised at Kum as 
surpassing every other grade of opium. As the highest quality of 
Smyrna opium does not contain a mean of over 13*57 per cent, of 
morphia, some analyses placing it even lower, while the Persian drug 
yields at its be st 13 to 16 per cent, of morphia, hard, it certainly rivals 
that of Smyrna, and is beyond question far superior to that of Egypt 
and India. 

The chief objection to the opium of Persia lies in the adulteration 
to which it is subjected, the chief ingredient in this deterioration being 
grape-must, and sometimes small stones concealed in the parcels. This 
difficulty could be remedied by any enterprising house which, through 
honest, capable agents, could purchase the entire product of Persia, or 
of any one of the opium producing districts, and give direct attention 
to the preparation and packing of the drug. A pure article could also 
be obtained by a firm ready to form a contract for a certain quantity 
of a given grade of the drug for a term of years, the continuance of 



^ From the Independent Journal. 



Am. Jour. Pliarm.) 
Jan., 1885. J 



Persian Opium. 



37 



the contract depending on the non-varying proportion of morphia in 
the exported article. 

The average price of the opium of Persia, in its crude state, is now 
four dollars and seventy-seven cents per kilogram. To 72 kilograms 
of opium are added 6 kilograms of linseed oil. The mixture is then 
subjected to a manipulation which reduces the 77 to 66 kilograms. 
These 66 kilograms are divided into one hundred balls, forming a 
Persian package. A specified number of the balls of opium make a 
case. The cost of packing, freight, and other incidental expenses bring 
the average price of a case of Persian opium, such as is prepared for 
-export, up to three hundred and sixty-six dollars and sixty-six cents. 
The excise duties vary at different centres of the trade, but 5 per cent. 
ad valorem is the uniform rate according to the treaty of Turkomont- 
chai on all goods exported to Europe or America, and, I may add, on 
all goods imported from those countries into Persia. 

It is stated that two thousand cases of opium, valued at 732,000 
■dollars, are now exported from Bushire to England, besides what finds 
its way to China and other quarters from the other districts of Persia. 
There is no doubt that if sufficient encouragement were offered, espe- 
cially by the establishment of agencies at Ispahan or Teheran, or by 
making permanent contracts, the product could be easily increased and 
the i^urity of the exported article improved. Indeed the opium mer- 
chants of Ispahan have already made overtures for the American trade, 
and are prepared to make contracts for a term of years. 

It is proper to state inquiries made of practising physicians at Teheran, 
including an American physician, elicit the highest opinions in favor 
of the opium of Persia as regards the character and quantity of mor- 
phia it produces when unadulterated. — Phar. Jour, and Trans., Novem- 
ber 29, 1884, p. 430. 



Tooth Paste. — Dr. A; W. Harlan of Chicago, recommends the 
following: Take of Precip. chalk, powdered orris root, aa 5ij, vvhite 
castile soap, powdered borax, aa ^ss, powdered myrrh, 3u, honey and 
glycerin, q. s. to make a soft paste. Color rose pink. Perfume to 
suit. To be used before retiring and after breakfast, on a brush not 
dipped in water and not too stiff. — Dental Cosmos, September, 1884. 



38 Cultivation of Cinchona in Bolivia. {^'^'AT\%lb'''"'' 

CULTIVATION OF CINCHONA IN BOLIVIA.^ 
By Minister Gibes, of La Paz. 

I have devoted some time and attention to acquire data and informa- 
tion relative to the next important article, cinchona bark, or quina, of 
which large quantities are exported yearly. Formerly it was gathered 
by the Indians, and in such a manner that large forests were destroyed^ 
trees cut down, the bark taken in any way merely to make up large 
quantities ; to-day the quina plantations, or, as they are called here, 
quinales, are cultivated and nourished with care and agricultural 
science, the principal planters being Germans, one, Mr. Otto Richter, 
possessing two million plants; the estate of Mr. John Kraft, a Hol- 
lander, lately deceased, two million. 

The cultivation of quina in plantations, systematically, has been 
carried on for about seven years, hardly long enough to show all the 
advantages, as there is room for much study and improvement. 

Mapire, about sixty leagues north of this place, or about five days' 
journey, has under cultivation about four million five hundred thousand 
plants ; Longa, northeast of this city about twenty leagues, five hun- 
dred thousand plants ; Yungas, east northeast twenty leagues, one 
million plants ; Guanay, east of Mapire, five hundred thousand plants; 
total, six million five hundred thousand plants. 

Where the principal quinales are it is a very rough and broken 
country, the Andes being seamed and cut into deep valleys in every 
direction. The trees are planted on the sides of the valleys or ridges 
in altitudes of about 3,000 to 4,000 feet above the sea. They will 
grow higher up, even to 8,000 feet, but are stunted, and will give little 
or nothing of what is called here the quina salt. The plants want a 
great deal of sun, heavy rains and fresh winds. 

I have conversed with three of the principal superintendents of the 
large quina plantations, all Germans, and they say that the cultivation 
of quina is yet in its infancy, and there will be many improvements 
through time and experience. 

A tree will give from fifteen to twenty pounds of seed. The seed 
is collected in November and December (the early summer months 
here), and planted very thickly in boxes or beds about twelve feet in 
length and three feet in breadth, and placed on a slight decline or fall 



^ From the Independent Journal. 



''^'"jir'isss'^™ } Cultivation of Cinchona in Bolivia. 39 

and well irrigated. When the plants are about six inches in height 
and have a few leaves — from five to six (which is about five months) 
— they are transplanted ; holes of some eight to ten inches deep are 
dug about six feet apart, in which they are planted. The plant is 
covered partly over with twigs and other light stuff, grass and leaves, 
to keep off the sun for about three months. When the plant is strong 
and healthy, the undergrf>wth of other plants is cleaned out and great 
care is taken. This attention continues for about two years, and then 
the plants that are left are considered sound. About 25 per cent, of 
all the plants decay or rot in this time. Afterwards the undergrowth 
is cleared out once a year, and when the tree is six years old it is pro- 
ductive, grows to about fourteen feet in height, and has a diameter of 
about six inches, up to six or seven feet. Where the bark is of the 
most productive kind, the trunk grows straight and slender, and has 
the form of an orange tree. When a tree is left standing for ten or 
twelve years, it is over a foot in diameter, the bark is thicker and 
heavier, but not so productive in quinia. The bark is ready to cut 
when the tree is about six years old. An incision is made around the 
trunk of the tree a few inches from the ground, another incision some 
twenty-four inches above around the tree, and then two incisions oppo- 
site, lengthwise. The bark is pulled off in two pieces. Two cuts, 
and sometimes three, are got off each tree, twenty-two to twenty-four 
inches in length, and seven to eight inches in width. When removed 
it curls up like the cinnamon bark. After the tree is stripped it is cut 
down, leaving a trunk about twelve inches above the ground, and from 
the base, where the bark has been left, there spring out some fifteen 
or twenty shoots or sprouts ; these are left growing until they are a 
little higher than the stump, then they are thinned out, leaving two or 
three; they grow fast and in five years give good bark. 

The trees produce on an average about four and a half pounds of 
bark, and are stripped, in the southern hemisphere, late in the spring, 
October to January. The bark is placed in paved yards, and is gene- 
rally cured in four days, but if rain sets in, at times it takes nearly 
three weeks. 

The principal enemy in the insect line is a large black ant, which is 
very destructive. There are various classes of the quina tree, calysaya, 
green and purple. The greater part of the quina passes through this 
city baled and sent to Tacne and Mollendo. Cinchona is the common 
name for all quina. 



40 



Harvesting of Cinchona Bark. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ Jan., 1885. 



The market price is now forty cents per pound, Bolivian currency. 
It has sold as high as two hundred bolivianos per quintal. It formerly 
paid a tax of 6*40 bolivianos per quintal ; now one half, 3*20 bolivi- 
anos, one half to the Government and one half municipal. 

As the greater part of the quina forests were destroyed, and until 
very lately, the cultivation of quina has not been carried out in a 
proper manner, it is only now that it may be said to be a regular busi- 
ness. The highest exportation of late years has been twenty thousand 
quintals ; but it has dwindled down for various causes, so that this 
year it will not be more than five thousand quintals, and at present 
prices leaves no profit, the expenses of getting it to the coast being 
heavy. — Phar. Jour, and Trans. 



THE HARVESTING OF CINCHONA BARK.^ 

The old idea that for the collection of the bark it was necessary to 
sacrifice or fell the whole tree, when grown to maturity, had long made 
way for a better view. In English India, Broughton had begun, in 
1866, to pollard the trees, in order to be able to lop the new shoots 
after four to five years (coppicing system) as is done in Europe with 
oak and ash coppice. But, besides the trees receiving a serious shock 
by this treatment, from which they do not so speedily recover, the bark 
thus obtained is not nearly so good as the stem bark. 

It was, therefore, an ingenious idea of Mr. Mclvor, in the Neil- 
gherries, to cover the stems with moss, in order to improve the quality 
of the bark. He was led to this by observing that the best — the 
so-called crown-cinchona — always occurs covered with moss. He made 
experiments in this direction and the result was that, not only was the 
quality of the bark improved, but that in this way it was possible to 
strip the stem ot a part of the bark and to heal the wound thus made 
by covering it with moss, in other words, to renew the bark by artifi- 
cial means. 

By experiments on a large scale the new discovery was crowned with 
the best success. 

The "mossing system" is almost universally practised in Java since 
1879, and numerous chemical analyses have shown that the proportion 
of quinine in the renewed bark increases, and is even trebled. The 
" coppicing system " is now only practised when a rapid production of 

* From the Indian Mercury. Reprinted from the Tropical Agriculturist. 



Ara. Jour. Pliarm. ) 
Jan., 1885. I 



Harveding of Cinchona Bark. 



41 



bark is required, or when the sort does not allow of the " mossing sys- 
tem the felling, or rather nprooting, of the tree, is still practised 
exceptionally, when it withers, or when the plantation requires thinning. 

Lastly, by way of trial, another method has been followed for a 
short time, viz., scraping off the outer bark ; but though this product 
offered a precious and valuable material for the quinine manufacturer, 
the " scraping system has not been continued on account of culture 
and commercial considerations. If I do not mistake, the Ledgeriana 
(in chips) realized at the sales in Amsterdam, in 1879, the enormous 
price of 10*44 f. per J kilogram. The quinine proportion was 13 
per cent. 

Tlie " coppicing system " in a modified form, by leaving one shoot 
on the stem, is now generally and successfully practised in Java with 
the C. Ledgeriana. 

The harvest of cinchona bark deserves a moment's further attention, 
as so little is known about it. Do not expect a description like " Les 
Vendanges" in Provence or Languedoc, or a mill-feast in a sugar- 
works in East Java, or of thepadi-cutting in Java described by Multatuli. 
The reaping of the cinchona bark is unattended by poetical accessories, 
and the work-people are all quiet. In those elevated regions, sparsely 
populated, and then only temporarily, no clamor whatever prevails. 
All nature bears an appearance of monotony and gloominess. In the 
gardens and woods the sun can hardly penetrate ; the trees mostly 
dripping with rain, or from the clouds floating above, it breaks down 
in a dreadful thunderstorm. Then the laborers — among whom are not 
unfrequently mothers with infants at the breast — experience all the 
miseries of a mountain climate at an elevation of 7,000 feet. Shiver- 
ing with cold, the women sit, sheltered as much as possible by a screen 
of plaited dried leaves, peeling the lopped branches, and cutting the 
wet bark to measure; the small slivers, or so-called refuse, is carefully 
collected in l)askets. 

The heavier work is performed by men ; they lop the branches, or, 
if the ^'mossing system'' be followed, they make incisions lengthwise 
in the stem, at intervals of 3 to 5 or more centimetres, according to 
the thickness of the tree, and then strij) the stem from below upwards 
to where the branches begin, but in such a manner that strips of bark 
of equal breadth are left alternately on the stem, by which it assumes 
somewhat the appearance of a fluted column. The strips of bark are 
then cut into lengths of 50 centimetres, and the stem, which is partially 



42 Gallisin in Commercial Glucose. | jir^'iggs*™' 

denuded lengthwise, is entirely enveloped, as is done in Europe to some 
trees that could not bear exposure to our winters. Mclvor at Madras 
did this first with moss, and hence the name "mossing;'^ but as this 
material was soon exhausted in Java, recourse was had to alang-alang, 
indjoek or dried grass, which occurs in great abundance. 

In the course of one year this envelope is removed, then the healing 
— granulation we should say — the renewing of the bark is begun, and 
now comes the turn of the strips left on the tree the preceding year to 
be stripped off. Then the stem is again bandaged. 

The wet bark, after being cut to measure, is dried either in the sun, 
or artificially, by which the pieces roll up in their breadth and thus 
form the familiar pipes. The packing is generally in jute-bags. They 
weigh about 75 kilograms. 

From chemical investigation it has been proved that drying in the 
sun or by artificial heat is the same for the bark, and has no influence 
on the proportion of quinine. — Phar. Jour, and Trans., Nov. 22, 1884, 
p. 410. 

GALLISIN, THE UNFERMENTABLE PART OF COM- 
MERCIAL GLUCOSE. 
By C. Schmitt and A. Cobenzi.. 

Neubauer and other authors have stated that in wine, which in its 
preparation has been subjected to Gall's treatment with glucose and 
fermented, a certain portion of the glucose remains in the wine as an 
unfermented substance which is neither glucose nor dextrin. Owing 
to the interest that has arisen as to the possible unwholesomeness of 
gallinated wines, the authors have been led to investigate the subject, 
and have succeeded in separating from fermented glucose (prepared 
from potato-starch) an intensely hygroscopic substance which they have 
named gallisin. A physiological investigation of this compound is in 
progress, but at present for purposes of priority, the purely chemical 
part of the research is published. 

Preparation of Gallisin. — A solution of 5 kilos, of glucose was 
fermented at 18-20° for five or six days with yeast and filtered. The 
solution thus obtained was then evaporated to a thick syrup on the 
water-bath and shaken in a flask with a large excess of absolute alcohol ; 
it became thicker, but did not mix with the alcohol. After a second 
treatment with absolute alcohol (by means of which water, sugar, organic 
acids, etc., are extracted) the syrup was found to be converted into a 



Gallisin in Commercial Glucose. 43 

crumbling yellow-gray mass, which by pounding in a mortar with a 
mixture of absolute alcohol and ether can be obtained as a gray powder. 
This powder may be purified by dissolving it in water, repeating the 
above treatment, and drying over sulphuric acid. 

Gallisin when viewed under the microscope is found to be amor- 
phous and without any characteristic structure. It is intensely hygro- 
scopic, more so than calcium chloride, but yields no definite compound 
with water. It is insoluble in ether, chloroform, and benzene, very 
sparingly soluble in glacial acetic acid and in absolute alcohol, but 
slightly more so in methyl alcohol, and in this it differs from glucose 
which is readily soluble. It dissolves when boiled in a mixture of 
glacial acetic acid and absolute alcohol, bat it is precipitated from this 
solution by ether. In concentrated aqueous solution, it has an acid 
reaction to litmus-paper ; and undergoes no change, either by heat or 
Avhen treated with lead acetate, mercuric nitrate or chloride, ferric 
chloride, tincture of iodine, or calcium or barinm chloride. Barium 
hydroxide precipitates a small quantity of a white barium compound. 
With silver nitrate, it undergoes no change until it is heated or am- 
monia is added, when metallic silver is precipitated. It rapidly reduces 
potassium permanganate, especially in slightly alkaline solution, with 
separation of peroxide of manganese. Potassium dichromate in dilute 
acid solution is also rapidly reduced. Fehling's and Knapp's solutions 
are reduced by it (in this it differs from dextrin), and 0*05 g. glucose 
are equal to 0*109784 g. gallisin in reducing power. A concentrated 
solution of gallisin prevents the precipitation of iron salts by ammonia 
or caustic alkalis. With acetic anhydride, it gives an acetyl com- 
pound, and it is converted into glucose by treatment with dilute mineral 
acids on the water-bath. On treating an aqueous solution with fresh 
yeast it is not fermented, nor does it undergo lactic fermentation, but 
if a dilute aqueous solution is allowed to stand for a time it decomposes 
with formation of a mouldy fungus. At 100° it gives off water and 
carbonic anhydride. It has a slightly sweet taste at first, but in time 
becomes insipid. A solution of gallisin turns the plane of polarization 
to the right, and this power increases according to the dilution of the 
solution. A very pure white specimen, when analysed with every care 
to prevent access of moisture, was found to contain 43*50 per cent. C 
and 7*36 per cent. H, and these results lead to the formula C^e^l^f^xo 
(C, 43-9 :H, 7-32). 

Gallisin-harium, Ci2H22B:iO,o+ 3 HgO, may be obtained by precipi- 



44 



Gallisin in Commercial Glucose. 



[Am. Jour. Pharin. 
\ Jan., 1885. 



tating a concentrated aqueous solution of gallisin by barium hydrox- 
ide in alcoholic solution, and is purified by dissolving the precipitate 
in water, reprecipitating with alcohol, and washing with ether. The 
pure substance readily absorbs carbonic anhydride, is slightly alkaline, 
and reduces Fehling's and Knapp's solutions. It loses its water of 
combination over sulphuric acid. 

Hexacety I gallisin is formed by heating gallisin with acetic anhy- 
dride for two and a half hours at 130-140° under pressure. The 
resulting brown mass is soluble in alcohol, and after driving off the 
excess of acetic anhydride on the water-bath, may be purified by boil- 
ing with charcoal ; the acetyl-derivative is obtained on evaporation of 
its alcoholic solution as a colorless glass-like mass of the formula 

C,2 HjgOjo Acg. It is insoluble in water, but soluble in alcohol and 
similar solvents. If gallisin be heated for several hours at 170-180° 
with an excess of acetic anhydride, it is decomposed with formation, 
amongst other products, of ethyl acetate. 

Gallisin-jjotassium, Ci2H23KOio, is precipitated from an alcoholic 
solution of hexacety Igallisin by boiling it with alcoholic potash, ethyl 
acetate being formed simultaneously. It is a hygroscopic powder 
soluble in water, with alkaline reaction. In a similar way a precipi- 
tate of gallisin-lead may be obtained, C\2ll22PbOio-|-PbO. 

Conversion of Gallisin into Grape-sugar. — Equal parts by weight of 
gallisin and oxalic acid were heated on the oil-bath at 103° for two to 
three hours. On separating the oxalic acid with lime and evaporating 
the solution, a thick sweet syrup was obtained which in a few days 
formed a crystalline mass of glucose. The whole of the gallisin, how- 
ever, could not be converted into glucose ; by the prolonged action of 
oxalic acid on an aqueous solution of gallisin, it becomes yellow, and 
smells strongly of caramel. 

Oxidation of Gallisin. — On pouring a solution of 100 grams gallisin 
in 50 cc. water into 400 grams strong nitric acid, a powerful reaction 
takes place, and the solution becomes heated to boiling, with evolution 
of nitrous fumes. On cooling, neutralizing with potash, and afterwards 
strongly acidifying with acetic acid, an acid potassium salt crystallizes 
out in beautiful groups of white needles soluble in hot water but 
sparingly in cold. About 20 grams of these were obtained and the 
results of analysis agreed with the formula CgHgKOg. From this acid 
salt a neutral silver salt, C(5H8Ag208, was prepared, and from the lead 
salt by the action of sulphuretted hydrogen the free acid was obtained 



'^'^ jln"^885'™" } Colloidal Derivatives of Ferric Hydroxide. 45 

as a thick, acidj uncrystallizable syrup, soluble in water and alcohol 
but insoluble in ether. On distilling the ammonium salt, besides am- 
monia, pyrroline, etc., a sublimate was obtained which is soluble in 
water, alcohol, and ether, and at present is under investigation. 

Action of Heat on Gallisin. — On heating gallisin in a current of 
hydrogen gas on the water-bath at 65°, carbonic anhydride and water 
are given oif, and at 100° it melts to a thick amber-colored syrup ; 
17'2 per cent, of water (4 mols. = 18 per cent.) and 13'7 per cent, of 
carbonic anhydride (1 mol. = 13'4 per cent.) were given off. This 
syrup has many of the properties of gallisin, as has also its barium 
compound, which is found on analysis of the barium derivative to have 
the formula (Q^^^f)^^^. This may mean that gallisin, when heated, 
gives up water and carbonic anhydride, but when the resulting sub- 
stance is treated with water the water is again taken up, and, as the 
barium derivative shows, a compound is formed containing 1 mol. of 
carbonic anhydride less than gallisin. 

The authors succeeded also in preparing pure gallisin from a wine 
which had been prepared by GalFs process in 1873, and identified it 
by the above reactions and by analysis. In conclusion, the authors 
mention that a physiological investigation of gallisin is being made, 
and already it has been found by numerous trials that there is no 
direct or indirect unwholesomeness in the use of gallisin or of the 
glucose which is formed along with it. — Ber., xvii., pp. 1000-1015; 
Jour. Chem. Soc, pp. 981, 982 and 983, October, 1884. 



COLLOIDAL DERIVATIVES OF FERRIC HYDROXIDE. 
By E. Grimaux. 

When potassium hydroxide is added to a mixture of glycerol and 
ferric chloride, a precipitate is formed soluble in excess, and the solu- 
tion has the characteristic properties of the colloidal solutions previously 
described (coagulation, etc.). The tendency to coagulate is diminished 
by the presence of a large amount of glycerol, and increased by the 
presence of sodium chloride or of potash in excess. If the proportion 
of glycerol is very large, coagulation is entirely prev^ented. When 
solutions rich in glycerol are dialysed, they first lose their excess of 
potash, then their excess of glycerol, and become coagulable by heat, 
and finally they form a firm thick jelly containing glycerol, ferric 



46 



Colloidal Dey^ivatives of ferric Hydroxide. 



( Am. Jour. Pharni. 
1 Jan., 1885. 



hydroxide, and potash. Similar solutions are obtained by .substituting 
either ammonia or soda, or sodium or potassium carbonate for potash. 
They seem to be compounds of glycerol, ferric hydroxide, and alkalis, 
and are easily dissociated by water into glycerol and insoluble com- 
pounds richer in ferric hydroxide. With acetic acid, they yield a pre- 
cipitate soluble in excess, and this solution gives a greenish precipitate 
with potassium ferrocyanide, converted into Prussian blue by the action 
of a mineral acid. 

Mannitol, erythrol, and sugar yield solutions having precisely similar 
properties. 

Ferropotassium tartrate also forms colloidal solutions with similar 
properties, but they are not precipitated by jDotash in the cold, and the 
precipitate with carbonic anhydride is ochreous, and resembles ferric 
hydroxide. Potassium ferrocyanide produces a violet coloration, and 
Prussian blue is precipitated from this solution on adding an acid. 

When a solution of ferric chloride is added to a solution of sodium 
arsenate, a precipitate of ferric arsenate is formed, but redissolves in 
excess of ferric chloride, forming a colloidal solution, which yields an 
opaque yellowish-white coagulum of the composition Fe2(As04)2. In 
preparing this solution, excess of ferric chloride must be avoided, since 
this substance prevents coagulation by heat. If the solution is dialysed, 
it loses sodium chloride, and the jelly which forms is perfectly trans- 
parent and of a pale yellow color, but by prolonged dialysis it becomes 
reddish-yellow. 

Potassium arsenite and ferric chloride yield a similar solution, which 
is very unstable, and coagulates spontaneously. With potash, it forms 
a precipitate soluble in excess, and when this solution is dialysed it 
yields a colloidal solution of ferropotassium arsenite, which does not 
gelatinise on heating unless mixed with potash solution, when a thick 
brown jelly resembling ferropotassium tartrate is formed. Arsenious 
acid therefore resembles tartaric; acid in its behavior with ferric salts. 

Boric acid and sodium phosphate behave like arsenic acid, but in the 
case of the phosphate the solution shows less tendency to coagulate. 

A 2*26 per cent, solution of silica, obtained by the decomposition 
of methyl silicate, forms with ferric chloride and excess of potash a 
limpid solution, which becomes turbid after a few minutes. — Compt. 
rend., xcviii., pp. 1485-1488 and 1540-1542 ; Jour. Chem. Soc, p. 966, 
October, 1884. 



Oxides in Mercurial Preparations. 47 



THE PRESENCE OF OXIDES OF MKRCURY IN BLUE 
PILL AND IN OTHER MERCURIAL PREPARA- 
TIONS.^ 
By HAROI.D Senier, F.I.C., F.C.S. 

My attention has just been called to a paper by Messrs. Dechau and 
Maben on " The Strength and Condition of Commercial Specimens 
of Hydrargyrum cum Creta, Pilula Hydrargyri and Unguentum 
Hydrargyri/'^ read at the Hastings meeting of the British Pharma- 
ceutical Conference. This paper is an attempt to further elucidate the 
question of the existence or non-existence of oxides of mercury in these 
preparations, and gives the results of the examination of some com- 
mercial samples of each of them, including an estimation of the metallic 
mercury and the two oxides. The results obtained by Messrs. Dechan 
and Maben may be summarized as follows : In hydrargyrum cum 
creta they find a considerable proportion of oxides of mercury, in one 
sample as much as 6*15 per cent, of mercurous oxide and 2*8 per cent, 
of mercuric oxide. In pilula hydrargyri, out of eight samples ex- 
amined, in six they failed to find any trace of oxides, although one 
mass was four years old. In unguentum hydrargyri, out of twelve 
samples examined, in two only was oxide found, and in these only a 
very small percentage. These results are so materially opposed to 
those obtained by myself in an investigation of the same subject as to 
indicate an error on the part of one of us, either in method or experi- 
ment. This is particularly the case in regard to pilula hydrargyri, 
the results of my examination of which I recorded in a communica- 
tion to the Pharmaceutical Society in February, 1876.^ 

The method adopted by Messrs. Dechan and Maben for the estima- 
tion of the oxides of mercury is to digest the substance under examina- 
tion in hot or boiling acetic acid, and after washing the residue with 
the same menstruum to treat the acid solution, supposed to contain the 
two oxides as acetates, first with hydrochloric acid to precipitate mer- 
curous chloride, and then with sulphuretted hydrogen to precipitate 

' Read at an Evening Meeting of the Pharmaceutical Society of Great 
Britain, Wednesday, November 5, 1884. 

"Phar. Jour.," Series iii. No. 743, p. 230; "Am. Jour. Phar.," 1884, p. 
554. 

^ " Phar. Jour.," Series iii. No. 293, p. 621 ; " Am. Jour. Phar.," 1876, p. 
143. 



48 



Oxides in Mercurial Preparations. 



Am Jour. Pharm. 
Jan., 1886. 



mercuric sulphide. From the weight of these salts^ after drying, is 
calculated the amount of oxides present in the sample. 

The method which I have used for the estimation of the oxides in 
the pharmacopceial preparations of mercury is first to digest the sample 
in hydrochloric acid to dissolve the mercuric oxide ; to this solution, 
after neutralizing excess of acid with ammonia, stannous chloride is 
added and the reduced metallic mercury separated, dried over sulphuric 
acid and weighed ; from this weight is calculated the amount of mer- 
curic oxide present. To estimate the mercurous oxide a fresh portion 
of the sample is digested in a 5 per cent, solution of hydrocyanic acid, 
which converts the mercury of the mercuric oxide into mercuric cyanide 
and also so converts half the mercury of the mercurous oxide, leaving 
the remainder as metallic mercury. The hydrocyanic acid solution is 
treated with stanno'us chloride, in the same manner as the hydrochloric 
acid solution, and from the weight of metallic mercury obtained the 
weight of mercury existing as mercuric oxide is subtracted, and the re- 
mainder doubled, this result calculated into mercurous oxide gives the 
quantity present in the sample. Tiiis method for the estimation of 
mercurous oxide is based on some observations of Scheele on the action 
of hydrocyanic acid on oxides of mercury, and is more fully described 
in my paper on "The Composition of Pilula Hydrargyria' (" Pharm- 
Journ.," Febiuary 5, 1876). In that paper I gave the results of the 
examination of nine commercial samples of pilula hydrargyri, the 
oxides in which were estimated by the method I have just described. 
In each case, with one exception, the age of the sample was determined 
as accurately as possible. The age of the samples varied from eighteen 
hours to two years, and the percentage of oxides from a trace to 1'80 
of mercuric oxide, ancl from '25 to 4*22 of mercurous oxide. The 
proportion of oxides })resent bore such a striking relation to the age of 
the samples as to lead me to the conclusion that the proportion of 
oxides increases with the age of the sample, and that machine-made 
masses oxidize more rapidly than those made by hand. 

After trying Messrs. Dechan and Maben's method on some com- 
mercial samples of pilula hydrargyri, and failing to find but a trace of 
oxides in them, while by the method which I had formerly used I found 
distinct quantities, I decided to try the two methods on a sample con- 
taining a known quantity of one of the oxides. As mercurous oxide 
exists in mercurial preparations to a much greater extent than mercuric 
I considered it the most suitable for the purpose, and after preparing a 



^'"*ja°n"i88r''''} Oxldcs ill Mercurictl Preparations, 49 

fresh sample of pilula hydrargyri I added to it 5 per cent, of freshly 
precipitated mercurous oxide, and submitted portions of this mass to a 
careful analysis by the method em])loyed by Messrs. Dechan and 
Maben, and by the hydrocyanic acid method I have described. The 
results were : 

Hydrocyanic acid method 4*72 p.c. HggO. 

Messrs. Dechan and Maben's method *250 " 

Although there is no doubt more than one source of error in the 
process of Messrs. Dechan and Maben which contributes to this result, 
there can be little doubt that the most important one is the instability 
of mercurous acetate in presence of organic matter, especially glucose, 
it being rapidly reduced even at ordinary temperatures to oxide, a 
change which would be still more readily brought about by hot diges- 
tion. In support of this explanation of the opposite results obtained 
by Messrs. Dechan and Maben and myself is the fact that in hydrar- 
gyrum cum creta, a preparation free from organic matter and which, 
in my experience, is less liable to oxidation than pilula hydrargyri or 
unguentum hydrargyri, their process gives results coinciding very 
closely with my own and those of other workers on the same subject. 

When I completed my examination of blue pill in 1876 I preserved 
samples of each mass analysed, and thinking the present opportunity a 
fitting one, I have again estimated the quantity of oxides in one of 
these samples which eight years ago contained '24 per cent, of mer- 
curic oxide and '62 per cent, of mercurous oxide, but which I now 
find to contain 1'20 per cent, of mercuric oxide and 3'62 per cent, of 
mercurous oxide, thus affording another proof of the theory that the 
oxides of mercury, which undoubtedly exist in all samples of pilula 
hydrargyri, increase with the age of the sample. — Pliar. Jour, and 
Trans., November 8, 1884, p. 363. 

In the discussion upon the foregoing paper Mr. Umney stated that 
a sample of blue pill made about six months had contained about 2 
per cent, of mercurous and 1*2 ])er cent, of mercuric oxide. Blue pill 
made by machinery is slightly contaminated with iron, and this react- 
ing with the astringent principle of rose leaves may cause a change of 
color. Blue pill is generally made by triturating metallic mercury 
with confection of roses in the bed of a large mill, the stones being of 
granite and a sweeper frequently made of iron following the stones in 
their circuit. Mr. Umney prepares gray powder in a similar manner 
by triturating well dried prepared chalk with mercury under granite 
stones, the process for 100 pounds occupying seven or eight hours. 

4 



50 



Minutes of the College. 



j \m. Jour. Phaim. 
1 Jan., 1885. 



Professor Redwood referred to his investigations made in 1860, wlien 
in examining a gray powder, which from its effects was supposed to 
contain arsenic or antimony, numerous samples were found to be free 
from these impurities, but to contain variable amounts of the oxides of 
mercury. In his analysis then made he discarded acetic acid and 
treated mercurial preparations first with hydrochloric acid and sub- 
sequently with hydrocyanic acid. He had frequently observed mer- 
cury with chalk to be contaminated with the two oxides of mercury, 
but not blue pill, except to a small extent. Mercury and chalk pre- 
pared by simple trituration in a mortar is, and has long been held to be, 
a valuable and perfectly safe preparation. But on putting the in- 
gredients with several large pebbles into a cask, which is fastened up 
and turned by a steam-engine, the mercury is subjected to conditions 
in which oxidation takes place to a great extent; working under stone 
runners it would not be subject to the same oxidizing action. In 
blue pill oxidation may take place whilst the mechanical trituration is 
being effected ; but that portion of the mercury which is in the metallic 
state incorporated with the conserve of roses, cannot undergo a continu- 
ous process of oxidation. 

Mr. Schacht urged upon pharmacists to make hydrargyrum cum 
creta themselves, its oxidation being doubtless entirely a question of 
age. Mr. Gerrard coincided with this recommendation and extended 
it to other mercurial preparations which should be made at periods of 
about three or six months, so as to insure having them in a fresh con- 
dition, free from the injurious oxides. 



MINUTES OF THE COLLEGE. 

Philadelphia, December 29, 1884. 

A stated meeting of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy was held this 
day at the hall of the College, No. 145 N. Tenth street. 

In the absence of the President William B. Webb was called to the chair. 

Fourteen members were present and signed the register. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and on motion adopted. 

The minutes of the Board of Trustees for October, November and 
December were read by the Secretary of the College, and on motion 
approved. 

These minutes contained the report to the Board of the Committee of 
Instruction, relative to the subject of preliminary examination of students 
in the English branches before entering the Junior Class. 

Upon this subject considerable discussion took place, and Messrs. Blair 



Am-j-^oiir.^Pharm.| Miuutes of the PharmaGeutlml Meeting. 51 

and Thompson thought that the examination, as conducted was not of a 
preUminary character iu a proper sense, and requested an explanation of 
the worlving of tlie system adopted. They both expressed fears that it 
would be found to work unsatisfactorily. 

Professors Remington and Sadtler explained the mode of examination 
as recently conducted, and gave it as their opinion that it had worked well 
so far, and gave promise of a satisfactory result at the end of the course. 
Messrs. Bullock, Boring and Mclntyre acquiesced in these opinions. 

Resignations were then read from the following gentlemen, members of 
the College, viz. : Messrs. Frederick C. Orth, John A. Witmer and Charles 
A. Kurlbaum. On motion they were all accepted. 

Then on motion adjourned. 

WilIjIAM J. Jenks, Secretary. 



MINUTES OF THE PHARMACEUTICAL MEETING. 

Philadelphia, December 16, 1884. 

President Dillwyn Parrish in the chair. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and approved. 

Prof. Trimble made some remarks upon burdock fruit and oil, only to 
state that in the chemical examination he had obtained indications of an 
alkaloid, which was being further investigated. 

Prof. Trimble also read a paper upon Polygonum Hydropiper, or smart- 
weed, which was referred for publication. 

Prof. Remington read a paper upon the advances in the instruction and 
requirements of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. After the reading 
of the paper, the questions propounded for a preliminary examination in a 
Pharmaceutical institution were read and commented upon. 

Mr. Thompson stated that he had listened attentively to the reading of 
the paper and was pleased to learn so much in regard to the courses of 
instruction ; he must still say that he differed from the writer in one 
respect, that was that the methods pursued did not improve the character 
of the trade. We all know, he said, that it has degenerated, and he thought 
it was in part owing to the course of the College in not requiring its stu- 
dents to attain a certain standard before entering. 

Professor Maisch said that in all European countries the laws required 
that a young man on entering the drug business as an apprentice should 
prove certain educational acquirements ; but after such entrance there was 
no discrimination against obtaining further instruction in the pharmaceu- 
tical institutions. 

Mr. Zeller presented a fine specimen of kryolite, and called attention to 
the specimens of licorice and a.mmoniacal glycyri'hizin made by Mellor & 
Rittenhouse and presented to the College Cabinet. 

Mr. Wallace Procter presented a number of specimens of ditterent arti- 
cles that were the results of studies and examinations conducted bv his 
father, the late Professor Procter. They were accepted with thanks. 



52 



Editorials. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm, 
t Jan., 1886. 



A specimen of Irish broom, collected on the line of the Baltimore Rail- 
road. Prof. Maisch stated that many years ago scoparius grew plentifully 
near Fairmount avenue and Twenty-second street. 

There being no further business, on motion, adjourned. 

T. S. WiEGAND, Registrar. 



ALUMNI ASSOCIATION, PHILADELPHIA COLLEGE OF 
PHARMACY. 



The third social meeting was held at the College hall on the afternoon of 
December 9, the President, Dr. C. A. Weidemann, in the chair. A very 
interesting lecture was delivered by Dr. J. M. Anders, the subject being 
"Diet and Drink." The lecturer passed in review the different classes of 
food — nitrogenous and non-nitrogenous, animal and vegetable, and the 
various drinks — water, milli, fermented liquors, coffee, tea, etc., and allud- 
ing to the physiological observations made with many of these, showed the 
adaptability of the different articles under various conditions. In the dis- 
cussion following several speakers took the ground that wheat starch, 
which is cheaply produced in this country, is in every respect the dietary 
equivalent of the high-priced arrow-roots of tropical countries. 

After various recitations and the reading of a paper, entitled " What is 
the Best Way to Wait on a Customer," the meeting adjourned. 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT. 



The Endorsing and Vending of Nostrums by the American 
Pharmaceutical Association.— Under this caption Mr. A. E. Eberthas 
sent us a communication, which we print below, and which seems to be 
intended to correct an error in the communication published on page 654 of 
our December number. Mr. Ebert apparently assumes that Mr. Shoema- 
ker's remarks refer to the representatives of the American Pharmaceutical 
Association who were present at the St. Louis meeting of the National 
Wholesale Druggists' Association, while in point of fact, no allusion what- 
ever was made to that delegation, Mr. Shoemaker distinctly saying : " There 
were present .... a very respectable delegation from the National 
Retail Druggists' Association .... some at least prominent memders 
of the American Pharmaceutical Association." This fact is not disputed 
by Mr. Ebert, and the two sentences which we have italicized in his com- 
munication, clearly show that the facts, as stated by Mr. Shoemaker, are in 
accord with those observed by Mr. Ebert. The present communication, 
therefore, cannot be regarded as a correction of the previous one ; but it is 
a supplement thereto, and an imi^ortant one, since it shows that the delega- 
tion of the American Pharmaceutical Association was on the alert of avoid- 
ing compromises, repugnant to the history of the Association since its 
foundation. A synopsis of the position of this Association to nostrums and 



Am. .Jour. Pharm.") 
Jan., 1885. J 



Editorials. 



53 



secrecy in medicines was given by the Secretary at tlie meeting at Niagara 
Falls, and is published in the Proceedings for 1882, pages 641 and 642. 

To the Editor of the American Journal of Pharmacy : 

The December number of the " American Journal of Pharmacy" con- 
tains a communication from Mr. Robert Shoemaker, which in my opinion 
does great injustice to the membership of the American Pharmaceutical 
Association. Mr. Shoemaker makes the statement that at the St. Louis 
meeting of the National Wholesale Druggists' Association prominent mem- 
bers of the American Pharmaceutical Association were in attendance in 
the interest of nostrums, and the course pursued by them appeared as an 
endorsement of the importance and efficiency of this class of pretentious 
cure-alls and quack medicines. He further says : " I cannot help feeling that 
the worthy gentlemen who participated in the debates on this subject forgot 
for the moment their high calling as members of a truly honorable profes- 
sion, and lost dignity in asking the convention to endorse as legitimate the 
very articles against which they should set their faces." 

The writer confesses his inability to explain how the delegation of the 
American Pharmaceutical Association could be confounded with the offi- 
cials of the National Retail Druggists' Association who were present at this 
meeting, and were so prominent in the debates and so active in urging 
upon the wholesalers the importance and necessity of the adoption of the 
so-Tcalled "Campion" or nostrum plan. It certainly was no fault of these 
gentlemen if those present were not impressed with the importance of their 
representations ; for they claimed as their constituency the retail druggists 
of this hemisphere, or more correctly speaking, the space bounded on the 
east by the Atlantic and on the west by the Pacific ocean, to the north by 
Hudson Bay and to the south by the Gulfx)f Mexico ; or in other words, if 
the space is not "figuratively" speaking empty, it means representing 
from 30,000 to 50,000 druggists. 

When the delegation of the American Pharmaceutical Association pre- 
sented their credentials, the chairman, Mr. Eno Sander, conveyed in a 
very happy manner fraternal greetings, and in a few brief remarks stated 
the objects of the American Pharmaceutical Association, the work under- 
taken and performed in the past, the work laid out for the present and 
future, coupling with this the hope that the National Wholesale Druggists' 
Association would be found in the ranks, marching side by side, and shoul- 
der to shoulder with the American Pharmaceutical Asssciation in the noble 
struggle of promoting the progress and elevating the profession of Pharmacy 
in this country. 

Subsequently, when the report on adulteration of drugs, and the recom- 
mendations from the committee as to what active measures be at once taken 
to expose and bring to punishment the guilty, was read and adopted, the 
writer asked the privilege of making a few remarks ; this being granted, 
he, in behalf of the American Pharmaceutical Association, thanked the 
National Wholesale Druggists' Association, for the adoption of the report 
and the seeming very practical recommendations for correcting the exist- 
ing evil, with which the American Pharmaceutical Association had been 
battling for the last thirty-three years, and it was most gratifying to learn 
that henceforth the two associations would be joined hand-in-hand in this 
labor of making marketable only pure and honest drugs. 

The writer was present at all the sessions of the St. Louis meeting, and 
heard all the debates, and he does positively state that at no time were there 
any remarks made by the representatives of the American Pharmaceutical 
Association, either pro or con. on the subject of nosti^ums under considera- 
or debate by the Association. The delegation was very careful of not having 
the American Pharmaceutical Association connected with this question in 
any manner whatever ; and when a manufacturer of this class of goods, 



54 



Editorials. 



Am. Jour. Phaim. 
Jan., 1885. 



while advocating the Campion plan, undertook to drag in the American 
Pharmaceutical Association as endorsing the plan, the writer interrupted 
the speaker, and asked the gentleman to correct his statement as far as it 
related to the American Pharmaceutical Association, as the delegation 
present were in position to say that this Association did not favor the 
Campion or any other plan that furthered the interests of nostrums. The 
gentleman who had made the allusion accepted our corrections, and this 
adds to our perplexity of Mr. Shoemaker's charges, when he says: "One 
might have supposed, in listening to their long-continued and[ eloquent 
efforts, that the chief part of the business of the modern apothecary con- 
sisted in buying and selling proprietary remedies, secret preparations, of 
which they know nothing beyond the printed name, accompanied by cer- 
tificates of those who had been miraculously cured by their use." 

If Mr. Shoemaker will make the correction, that the remarks that were 
made at this meeting upon this subject of quack medicines, were not made 
by representatives of the American Pharmaceutical Association we will 
admit that it was a deplorable situation to listen to the remarks of men who 
are at the head and front of the National Retail Druggists' Association, and 
by. their cringing and whining appeals brought the tingling of shame upon 
the cheeks of all such who have the welfare of Pharmacy at heart. How- 
ever, a lesson can be learned, and attached is a moral : Scan the representa- 
tions of the Colleges of Pharmacy located east of the Alleghanies at the 
Milwaukee meeting of the American Pharmaceutical Association. 

If Pharmacy is degenerating, where are the existing evidences of it? 
Where is the dangerous shallow shore with its hidden reefs and turbulent 
surf? Let us from this time on ])lace competent and tried men at the helm 
of our ship of organization and we will be certain to steer clear of the 
breakers, whether they are east or west, north or south, and should the sea 
become too heavy, we will lighten our craft hy throwing overboard the 
nostrums, regain the deep and safe wide expanse of the open, calm sea, and 
make a prosperous journey in our ship of Pharmacal Progress. 

Respectfully, 

Albp]RT E. Ebert. 

CHiCAtJo, December 23, 1884. 



Destruction of Science Hall, Univ^ersity of Wisconsin.— On the 
evening of December 1, a fire broke out in the engine room of Science Hall, 
oneof the buildings of the University of Wisconsin, at Madison. It resulted 
in the total destruction of the building, which was four stories in height, 
the central building being 79 by 52 feet in dimension, while the two wings 
were 109 feet long and 42 feet wide The cost of the building exceeded 
$94,500, independent of its furnishings and later expensive improvements, 
and it contained besides various lecture rooms, laboratories for investiga- 
tions in physics, chemistry and mineralogy, and collections of art and natu- 
ral history. Many of the specimens cannot be replaced, and the results of 
years of labor by several of the j^rofessors have been lost. 

Serious as the loss has been by this calandty, the faculty, with commend- 
able energy, proceeded at once to make the best possible arrangements for 
continuing without interruption the instruction of the students in the 
remaining buildings. The pharmaceutical, botanical, and agricultural 
departments were not directly sufferers, though they naturally must expe- 
rience more or less inconvenience through the destruction of the laborato- 
ries and cabinets mentioned above. 



Am. jour. Pharm. ) 
Jan., 1885. f 



Reviews, etc. 



55 



REVIEWS AND BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 



A Manual of Organic Materia Medica. Being a Guide to Materia Med- 
ica of the Vegetable and Animal Kingdoms, for the use of Students, 
Druggists, Pharmacists and Physicians. By John M. Maisch, Phar. D., 
Professor of Materia Medica and Botany in the Philadelphia College of 
Pharmacy. Philadelphia : Lea Brothers & Co., 1885. 12nio. pp.511. 

Just three years ago the first edition of this work was published ; it was 
noticed on page 39 of this Journal, 1882. The edition was completely 
exhausted fifteen months ago ; but the appearance of the second edition 
was dela^'ed owing to the author's labors in connection with the recently 
published "National Disi)ensatory." In the work now before us the ar- 
rangement of the material remains substantially the same as before, but 
somewhat more iDrominence has been given to the histological characters of 
vegetable drugs, and those drugs, which are no longer recognized by the 
United States Pharmacopoeia, as a rule, are distinguished by the more 
closely printed text from the pliarmacopoeial drugs, among the latter being 
included several of which preparations or constituents only have been ad- 
mitted into the Pharmacopoeia, like Cocculus indicus, which is not recog- 
nized by the Pharmacopoeia, except through its poisonous constituent picro- 
toxin. A number of drugs have also found a place in the Manual which 
have been recently recommended, and others of American origin which 
are in more or less extended use in diflerent sections of the country. 
While the number of drugfe treated of has thus been increased, the text 
has been revised so as to embrace the results of all investigations, as far as 
they come within the scope of the work. A number of the old wood cuts 
have been replaced by new and more characteristic ones, and others have 
been added where it was deemed desirable, the total number being 242, or 
an increase of about 50. A list of " drugs arranged according to origin " 
covering 22 pages, has been added ; it embraces both drugs derived from 
animals and from plants. The latter list is necessarily the largest of the 
two and will be useful for the comparison of drugs furnished by bctanic- 
ally allied plants, and will also be of service to the student of medical bot- 
any. That paper and typography are excellent need merely be mentioned. 



Basic Pathology and Specific Treatment of Diphtheria^ Typhoid, 
Zymotic^ Septic^ Scorbutic and .Putrescent Diseases Generally. By Geo. 
J. Ziegler, M. D., etc. Philadelphia: Geo. J. Ziegler, M. D., 1884. 8vo, 
pp. 225. Price |2. 

The author endeavors to show that the diseases mentioned upon the title 
page are dependent upon, or complicated with, one conmion basic, alka- 
line, pathogenic factor, mostly the volatile alkali ammonia, and that the 
successful treatment must be based upon the neutralization or removal of 
this morbific factor. The subject is discussed under the following head- 
ings: 1. Introduction; 2. etiology and Pathology; 3. Treatment; 4. Ex- 
ternal Treatment; 5. Prevention; 6. Conclusions. 



56 



Rex'iews, etc. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
Jan., 1885. 



The Life Work of Carl Wilhelm Scheele. By B. Frank Hays, Ph.G. New 
York : P. W. Bedford, 1884. Pp. 14. 

The paper was read before the Alumni Association of the College of 
Pharmacy of the City of New York, and published in the " Pharmaceutical 
Record," December 1, 1884. 



List of Tests {Reagents) arranged in alphabetical order according to the 
names of the originators. Translated from the German of Mr. Schneider 
(Dresden), with additions from various sources. By Hans M. Wilder. 
New York : P. W. Bedford, 1884. 

This list contains one hundred and sixty-four tests, which need some cor- 
rections. The test for carbolic acid with pine wood moistened with hydro- 
chloric acid is attributed to Hoppe-Seiler, but was first suggested by Runge. 
Juiigmann's test with phosphomolybdic acid and ammonia was recom- 
mended for arbutin, not for alkaloids. DragendortT recommended testing 
for alcohol in essential oils by sodium ; the test giving potassium in place 
of sodium is erroneously attributed to Maisch, who recommended caustic 
potassa for the detection of nitrobenzol in oil of bitter almonds. 



Fifth Annual Report of the State Board of Health, Lunacy and Charity 
of Massachusetts. Supplement containing the Report and Papers on 
Public Healtb. Boston : Wright & Potter Printing Co., 1884. 8vo, pp. 
282. 

Of particular interest to pharmacists are the reports of tbe analysts on 
food, milk and on drugs, and a paper entitled "Arsenic as a domestic 
poison." In glancing over these reports we have not observed that any 
new hitherto unknown adulterants have been detected. The last paper 
mentioned shows that arsenical colors for papers and arsenical dyes are still 
largely used, although their dangerous character has been often shown. 



The Plaster of Paris Dressing in the Treatment of Fractures. By W. 
O'Daniel, M. D., Bullards, Georgia. 

Reprint from the Transactions of the Medical Association of Georgia, 

Pharmaceutical Journals. — A year ago "New Remedies" changed its 
title to "American Druggist," and the "St. Louis Druggist" to the 
"National Druggist." Now the "Druggist" published in Chicago has 
been converted into tbe "Western Druggist." This last mentioned paper 
has at the last meetings of the American and of the Illinois Pharmaceutical 
Associations published daily editions containing not merely a synopsis 
of the business done at these meetings, but likewise a good portion of the 
discussions and the papers, in abstract or entire, which were read at the 
meetings. 

The "Pharmacist," which is published by authority of the Chicago 
College of Pharmacy, has been placed under the editorial management of 
Prof. Oscar Oldberg, whose learning and experience in pharmaceutical 
practice, literature and education will doubtless be impressed upon the 
course of our valued cotemporary. 



Am. Jour. Phanu. 
Jan., 1885. 



Obituary. 



57 



OBITUARY. 



Joseph Janvier Woodward, M.D., Major and Brevet Lieut. Colonel 
U. S. A., died near Philadelphia, August 18th, aged fifty-two years. He 
graduated from the University of Pennsylvania in 1853, was appointed 
Assistant Surgeon U. S. A. in 1861, and in 1866 was assigned to the duty of 
editing the " Medical and Surgical History of the War of the Rebellion." 
His labors in connection with this work as well as with the Army Medical 
Museum, and more particularly his microscopical researches and photo- 
graphing, gained for him a world-wide reputation. Dr. Woodward had 
been ailing for several years, and on several occasions visited Europe for 
the benefit of his health. 



Robert Empie Rogers, M. D. died suddenly in Philadelphia, Septem- 
ber 6th, last, aged seventy years. He graduated in medicine from the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania in 1836, was afterwards Professor of Chemistry in 
the University of Virginia, the University of Pennsylvania and the Jeffer- 
son Medical College. The chair in the last institution, made vacant by his 
death, was filled by the appointment of Prof. J. W. Mallett of the Uni- 
versity of Virginia. 



James T. Lukens died in Philadelphia November 30, being in the 
seventy-eighth year of his age. He learned the trade of carriage making, 
and was subsequently, for a number of years, engaged in the manufacture 
of mineral water, the firm being Lukens & Lippincott, and the business 



from which Mr. Lukens retired many years ago being still carried on by 
the successors of the other partner. The annexed cut represents the first 
soda water apparatus constructed by the deceased. 



We have been informed of the decease of the following graduates of the 
Philadelphia College of Pharmacy : 

John H. Palethorp, Class 1854, graduated afterwards in medicine from 
the University of Pennsylvania, and was for a number of years engaged in 
the real estate business. ' 

Edward Jefferson, Class 1873, died suddenly at Atlanta, Georgia, 
from an overdose of morphine taken to relieve urjelnic convulsions. 

John L. Williams, Class 1874, was killed by being thrown out of a 
carriage near Bloomfield, Perry County, Pa., September 4th, last. 

C. Frank Mooke, Class 1877, dierl at North East, Md., of brain fever 
aged twenty-nine years. He was engaged in the drug business at Cherry 
Hill, Md. 

Robert F. Finck, Class 1884, died December 10, aged twenty-six years. 




58 



Catalogue of the Class. 



CLSSS OF THE PHILSD' R COLLEGE OF PHSRMSCY. 

SIXTY-FOURTH ANNUAL SESSION, 1884-1885. 



JUNIOR CLASS. 



Matriculmits. 

Abell, William Warner, 
Albright, Charles Wesley, 
Alexander, Everett Vincent. 
Allen, David Roberts, 
Arnold, Claude Horace, 
Ashton, Charles Butterworth, 
Aubley, Samuel, 
Backes, Thomas Joseph, 
Baer, .Jacob Michael, 
Baker, David Wiiey, 
Balbeirnie, Harold, 
Barlow, Louis Eugene, 
Barrowman, William G., 
Beale, Benjamin, 
Bear, John H., 
Becker, Henry Vane, 
Beevers, Joseph, 
Benuer, Isaac, 
Bernardy, Emile Seraphin, 
Berret, Arthur, 
Bickley, Milton Horace, 
Bicknell, Robert Cooke, 
Birt, Frank John, 
Blanding. E. L., 
Blickensderfer, Herman, 
Bonnet, Charles Frederick, 
Bowman, Lin. Lijiht, 
Boyd, John Charl-s, 
Brecht, Morris Winfield, 
Brehman, Charles Schaeffer 
Breneiser, Edgar, 
Brownley, Charles Jackson, 
Bryson, Charles Hodge, 
Buckley, James Edward, 
Burg, John Dellinger, 
Burk, Alfred Gray, 
Burkhart, Herman Adolpbus, 
Butts, Simon Mark. 
Crthill, Daniel William, 
Campbell Henry Belling, 
Carmack, George Winn »11, 
Carroll, Slierman Lincoln, 
Carter, Charles Lowber, 
Chamberlain, John Maurice, 
Cheney, Walter Bowden, 
Clenahau, Samuel John, 
Cohn, Arthur H., 
Colborn, Isaiah Grant, 
Comp, Harry Gerhart, 
Cummings, Charles Samuel, 
Comp, Harry Gerhard, 
Craig, Edwin Sherman, 
Creighton, Orville Sharp, 
Dauzberger, George William, 
Davis, Alfred Ivins, 
Davis, William Harry, 
Deibert, Thomas Irvin, 
Devine, Oliver Crawford, 
Donnell, George, James, 
Downes, Clarence Eugene, 
Downes, Randolph Hinson, 
Dunning, Floyd Morse, 



Toum or County. 

Philada., 
Camden, 
McConnelsville, 
Paris, 

Clifton Springs, 

Norristown, 

Scottdale, 

Trenton, 

Hanover, 

Trenton, 

Philada., 

Gallon, 

Scranton, 

Philada., 

Philad>i.. 

Fort Wayne, 

Ridley Park, 

Philada., 

Philada., 

Reading, 

Che<- ter, 

Madisonville, 

Trenton, 

Auburn, 

Tuscarawas, 

Zanesville, 

Camden, 

Paris, 

Lancaster, 

Philada., 

Reading, 

Portsmouth, 

Reading, 

New Tdcoma, 

York, 

Flemington, 

Bethlehem, 

Gettysburg, 

Watertown, 

Bridgeton, 

Phoenixville, 

Philada., 

Lewes, 

Oxford, 

South Manchester, 

Lansiugburg, 

Milwaukee, 

Ashland, 

Mt. Joy, 

Schuylkill Haven, 

Mt. Joy, 

Shreve, 

Somerton, 

Chambersburg, 

Pemberton, 

Coatesville, 

Pottsville, 

Philada., 

Clifton Heights, 

Denton, 

Templesville, 

Mt. Morris, 



Tenn. 
N. J. 
N. Y. 
Ohio. 
Ohio. 
N. J. 
Ills. 



Ohio. 
N. Y. 
N. J. 



Conn. 
N. Y. 
Wis. 



Preceptor. 

W. B. Abell. 

H. 0. Cox, M. D. 
John Alexander. 

F. Keegan. 
Joseph Hinds. 
William Stabler. 
J. M. McNeil. 
E. P. Camp. 

J. T. Shinn. 

I. W. Kelly. 

E. C. Tomlinson. 

B. W. Bethel. 
Thomas Barrowman. 
E. Beale, M. D. 

E. B. Garrigues & Co. 

C. E. Spencely. 
W. L. Hinchman. 

S. Rosenberger, M. D. 

H. Llewellyn. 
W. A. Musson. 
M. H. Bickley. 

Arthur Schwartz, 
C. H. Sayre. 
Bullock & Crenshaw. 
E. E. Hazlett. 
U. F. Richards. 

I. B. Addberger. 

C. A. Heinitsh. 

J. H. Stein. 
W. G. Day. 
J. B. Raser. 
J. F. Hayes. 
H. A. Hay. 
H. P. Lechlei, 

E. H. Lackenbach. 

D. S. Brumbaugh. 

H. G. P. Spencer & Son. 

Fred. Seitz. 

H. B. Taylor. 

P. G. A. Weber. 

T. 0. Nock. 

S. H. Shingle. 

W. H. Cheney. 

Barker, Moore & Mein. 

L. Lotz. 

W. F. Colborn. 

C. H. Clark. 

H. N. Cox. 

Charles H. Clark. 

T. M. Johnson. 

B. F. Creighton. 

J. S. Nixon & Son. 

S. S, Collom. 

George W. Davy. 

G. W. Kennedy. 
Dr. McVickar. 

G. R. Vernon, M. D. 
T. 0. Nock. 

F. A. Sanderson. 
N. A. Seymour. 



t 



Am. Jour. Pharm. "| 
Jan., 1885. J 



Catalogue of the Class. 



Matriculants. 

Eagle, Charles Augustus, 
Emerson, Henry Everett, 
Eldeo, William McKee, 
Falloure, Edwin Reed, 
Faust, John K., 
Ferguson, James Adams, 
Fisher, Jacob Livingood, 
Fletcher, Oscar Conrad, 
Flynn, John Joseph, 
Focht, Jacob Manger, 
Forsyth, George Washington, 
Fry, Albert Algert, 
Gardner, Francis Edward, 
Geilfuss, Alfred Victor, 
Gill, Cliarles Alfred, 
Glenn, Benjamin Franklin, 
Goodman, Oscar Teter, 
Graf, Albert Frederick, 
Graham, Percy Malcolm, 
Grant, James Smith, 
Greenawait, William Grant, 
Griffith, Lycurgus Edward, Jr., 
Grigg, Wilmer, 
Hall, Frank Devie, 
Hall, Harry Newberry, 
Hall, Willey Harrison, 
HarrigMu, John William. 
Harrison, Thomas Wesley, 
Hartzell, William Lincoln, 
Hasskarl, William Samuel, 
Hauck, Allen Wesley, 
Haugaard, Peter, 
Heiberger, Milton Ulysses, 
Heller, Charles Tomkins, 
Henderson, Clarence Rulin, 
Henderson, James Rutledge, 
Hergesheimer, David Shaid, 
Hettinger, Howard Huyett, 
Hiecke, William, 
High Edmund Gilbert, 
Hill, George Bruce, 
Hinterleitner, George Gustav, 
Hotfmann, George William Jacoby, 
Hollberg, Ferdinand, 
Holland, Edgar Attwood, 
Holloway, Henry Ward Beecher. 
Hooper, Edward Hay ward. 
Hooper, Sidney Lee, 
Horn, Henry Montford, 
Horner, Kasper 
Hughes, John Cooper, 
Hulshizer, John Clayton, 
James, William Megargee, 
Johnson, Seely Adams, 
Johnson, Seth Caleb, 
Johnstone, Henry Havelock, 
Jones, Samuel Stephen, 
Judge, John Aloysins, 
Keck, Frank Peter, 
Keim, Asher D., 
Kelly. William Daniel, 
Keogh, Francis Joseph, 
Kiedaisch, John Fred., 
Kiefer, John, 
Kin?, Everett Lincoln, 
Kizer, Thomas Joseph, 
Klopfenstein, John A., 
Kooker, Jacob Glaes, 
Kremers, Edward. 
Kroh, Henry Kiefer, 
Kuhn, Gustav Otto, Jr., 
Kurtz, David H., 
Lache, Osc^ir Julius, 
Lackey, Richard Henry, 
Lafean, P'dward Charles, 
Laferty, Jacob Eber, 
Lantz, .John Joseph, 
Law, George Fuller, 
Lcitch, Cliarles Thomas, 



Town or County. 


Stale. 


New Castle, 


Del. 


Mil ford. 


Pa. 


Columbia, 


Pa. 


Wheeling, 


W. Va. 


Reading, 


Pa. 


Fhilada., 


Pa. 


Puuxsatawney, 


Pa. 


Franklin, 


Ky. 


Mt. Holly, 


N. J. 


Pottstown, 


Pa. 


Farmingdale, 


Pa. 


Pleasant Valley, 


Pa. 


York, 


Pa. 


Philada., 


Pa. 


Philada., 


Pa. 


Pottsville, 


Pa. 


Omaha, 


Neb. 


Philada., 


Pa. 


Philada., 


Pa. 


Frostburg, 


Md. 


Chambersburg, 


Pa. 


Terrell, 


Texas. 


Greensboro, 


Ala. 


Newark, 


Ohio. 


Aguas Calientes, 


Mexico. 


Fairmont, 


W. Va. 


Philada.. 


Pa. 


Philada., 


Pa. 


Philada., 


Pa. 


Philada., 


Pa. 


Lebanon, 


Pa. 


Schleswig Holstein, 


Germany. 


Philada.. 


Pa. 


Bridgeton, 


N. J. 


Titusville, 


Pa. 


Spartensburg, 


S. C. 


Gerniantown, 


Pa. 


Reading, 


Pa. 


Milwaukee, 


Wis. 


Philada.. 


Pa. 


Hazelton, 


Pa. 


Pottsville, 


Pa. 


Terre Haute, 


Ind. 


Macon, 


Miss. 


Frazer, 


Pa. 


Akron, 


Ohio. 


Dorchester Co , 


Md. 


Philada., 


Pa. 


Lone Pine, 




San Antonio, 


Texas. 


Richmond, 


Ky. 


Hughesville, 


Pa. 


Doylestown, 


Pa. 


Atlantic City, 


N. J. 


Absecom, 


N. J. 


New Castle, 


N. B. 


Wilkesbarre, 


Pa. 


Philada., 


Pa. 


Allentown, 


Pa. 


Bethlehem, 


Pa. 


St. Paul, 


Min. 


Keokuk, 


Iowa. 


Loudonvilie, 


Ohio. 


Philada., 


Pa. 


Winchester, 


Ind. 


Gallon, 


Ohio. 


Norristown, 


Pa. 


Milwaukee, 


Wis. 




Pa. 


Philada., 


Pa.' 


Blue Rock, 


Pa. 


Philada., 


Pa. 


Philada., 


Pa. 


York, 


Pa. 


Philada., 


Pa. 


Philada., 


Pa. 


Willoughby, 


Ohio. 


Applclackville. 


Pa. 



Preceptor. 



P. S. Brugh. 

J. B. Reynolds. 

J. H. Stein. 

J. B. Ferguson. 

T. O. Nock. 

R. H. Moore. 

J. H. Hulme. 

Dr. M. A. Withus. 

W. W. Trout. 

Dr. M. H. Weaver. 

B. F. Johnson. 
J. A. Martin. 

A. W. Wright & Co. 
G. W. Cox. 

C. F. Goodman. 
J. R. Elfreth. 
French, Richards & Co. 

G. A. Wingert. 
C. H. Ciessler. 
Dr. L. E. Griffith, 
Dr. John Randolph. 

H. H. Ross. 

H. S. Squires M. D. 
Logan, Can- & Co. 
R. R. Stewart, M. D. 
Fred C. Lehman. 
J. G. Howard. 
R. R. Stewart, M. D. 
S. C. Blair M. D. 
Louis Murjahn. 

J. L. Curi y. 

C. E. Peck. 

H. E. Heinitsh. 

C. L. Eberle. 

J. B. Baser. 

Otto Schorse. 

Hance Bros. & White. 

McNair & Hoagland. 

T. S. Wiegand. 

J. F. Jones. 

C. E. Davis. 

C. H. Aughinbaugh. 

Bullock & Crenshaw. 

0. P. Hoeper. 

W. 0. Higgate, M. D. 

L. Orynski. 

Whi te & Stockton. 

W. J. Schaeffer. 

G. T. Harvey, M. D. 

Willard Wright, M. D. 

J. P. Waters. 

E. Lee Street. 
M. Syphers. 

Dr. J. M. Wallis. 
Harzell. Smitli & Co. 
Paul Kempsmilh. 
W. S. Getty. 
J. Wyeth & Bro. 

C. Shivers. 

D. F. ShuU & Co. 
T. M. Galbreath. 

L. R. Reisinger. 

F. H. Poley. 
L. Lotz. 

J. W. Harry. 
A. F. Gerhard. 
J. B. Raser. 
W. B. Webb & Co. 
Girvin & Co. 
L. E. Sayre. 
C. C. Vandeibeck. 
W. H. Lantz. 

(J. W. Clymer & Co. 



60 



Catalogue of the Class. 



f Am. Jour. Phaim. 
t • Jan., 1885. 



Matriculams. 

Letzkus, William George, 
Lintner, John Rathfon, 
Loewentlial, William, 
Long, John Nathan Grier, 
Longshore, John Liggett, 
Longhead, Raymond Blythe, 
Loughridge, Samuel L., 
Lunney, Alexander Browne, 
Macfarland, Burr William, 
Maurer, George Bright, 
Mawhinny, Frank, Jr., 
McClenachan, Jolin Thomas, 
McCoy, Clarence Herbert, 
McConnell, Charles Heury, 
McKee, Joseph, 
McNeil, George, 
McNeil, Robert Carson, 
Mayo, Caswell Armstrong, 
Means, Samuel Robert, 
Meek, William Henry, 
Melot, Irvin G. 
Miller, Jeremiah L., 
Miller, Joseph Charles, 
Miller, Luther Austin, 
Moftet, John, 
Moffitt, Edward Thomas, 
MoUer, John Daniel, 
Moyer, E. 0., 
Jioyer, William Ervin, 
Muir, John Robert, 
Munson, James Harry, 
Neely, Charles Godfrey, 
Neil, William Edgar, 
Nelson, William Heisley, 
Nieman, Levi Allen, 
Nuhn, George Christian, 
Oetinger, Albert, 
Ohl. William, 
Ousey, L. B., 

Outhwaite, Charles William, 
Outteii, Elmei', 
Pantzer, F. William, 
Pechin, George Joseph, 
Pinchback, Pinckney Napoleon, 
Piatt, Alfred Clark, 
Pochiier, Adolph Adam, 
Porter, William David, 
Pothler, Aimer W ,uT^n, 
Prewitt, Samuel W'Hshington, 
Price, Frank, 
Prickitt, Frank W., 
Rambo, Samuel Lee, 
Ranftle, Oscar, 
Rayner, Howard Lir-coln. 
Ream, Lake Jay. 
Reighter, Frank Clymer, 
Rentschler, Charles, 
Rh(jad8, Harry Franklin, 
Ricliter. Gustav A., 
Rinedoller, Cliarles Wesley, 
Ringler George Parson, 
Risher, Henry Cook, 
Rixstine, Livingston Everett, 
Roberts, Bolivar. Jr., 
Roberts, Joseph V. Culin, 
Robbins, George Hendricks, 
RolfF, Julius, 

Roseberry, John Mackey, 
Rosenbaum. David, 
Rottnor, Charles Selmar, 
Sample, Nathaniel Welshard, 
Sangston, James Allen, 
Saurer, William Henry, 
Savage, Thomas Albert, 
Scarborough, Geoige W., 
Schnatz, Kugene Phillip, 
Scliock, Fred Albert, 
Senles, Chailes Burgundy, 
Seary, William Notson, 



Town or County. 


State. 


Preceptor 


Lockhaven, 


Pa. 


T.'C. Hilton. 


Lancaster, 


Pa. 


W. H. Koons. 


Evansville, 


Ind. 


G. AppenzoUer. 


Honeybrook, 


Pa. 


J. P. Remington. 


Mansfield, 


Ohio. 


Perkins Bigelow. 


Chester, 


Pa. 


G. Banks Wilson. 


Philada., 


Pa. 


John Bley 


Darlington, 


S. C. 


Dr. J. Lunney, 


Bordentown, 


N. J. 


Wilson Cutter. 


Reading, 


Pa. 


F. X. Wolf. 


Philada., 


Pa. 


Keasby & Matteson. 


Galveston, 


Texas. 


C. C. Watson & Co. 


Lebanon, 


111. 


W. A. Nelden. 


Philada., 


Pa. 


D. F. Shu 11 & Co, 


Bordentown, 


N. J. 


H. F. Seely. 


Nanticoke, 


Pa. 


8. W. Sutliff. 


Philada., 


Pa. 


R. McNeil, Jr. 


Columbus, 


Miss. 


J. P. Bolton. 


Lewistown, 


Pa. 


D. L. Stackhouse. 


E. Douglass, 


Mass. 


J. F. Sndth & Co. 


Reading, 


Pa. 




Topton, 


Pa. 


W. F. Maulick. 


Philada., 


Pa. 


Charles Bauer. 


Steubeuville, 


Ohio. 


M. L. Miller. 


Philada., 


Pa. 


John Moftet. 


Scranton, 


Pa. 


L. E. Sayre. 


Plulada., 


Pa. 


William Delker. 


AUentown, 


Pa. 


S. Gerhard. 


Lockhaven, 


Pa. 


E. S Muir. 


Lancaster, 


Pa. 


J. B. Moore. 


York Springe, 


Pa. 


H. C. Blair's Sons. 


Mouudsville, 


Wis. 


Bullock & Crenshaw. 


Philada., 


Pa. 


Smith. Kline & Co. 


York, 


Pa, 


S. Howard Shingle. 


Philada., 


Pa. 


C, C. Spannagel, 


Philada., 


Pa. 


J. R. Ananey, M. D. 


Peoria, 


111. 


SutlifF, Shultz & Co. 


Clifiwu Heights, 


Pa. 


Barker, Moore & Mein. 


Canada, 




Wiley & Harris. 


Phihiila., 


Pa. 


Dr. S. D. Marshall. 


Sheboygan. 


Wis. 


M. R. Zaegel & Co. 


Philada., 


Pa. 


C. D. Frnme & Co. 


New Orleans, 


La. 


Wiley & Harris. 


Ansonia, 


Conn. 


C. E." Bristol. 


Philada., 


Pa. 


J. Wyeth & Bro. 


Mf-hony City, 


Pa. 


C. D. S. Friih. 


Strong, 


Maine. 


H. C. Watt. 


Columbia, 


Tenn. 


W. P. Woldridge. 


Philada., 


Pa. 


0. L. Coles. 


Mt. Holly, 


N. J. 


Louis Miller. 


Logan, 


111. 


F. Haniiigton. 


Long Island City, 


N. Y. 


George Goetting. 


Norristown, 


Pa. 


R. Shoemaker & Co. 


Somerset, 


Ohio. 


0. B. Ream. 


Carlisle, 


Pa. 


W. F. Horn. 


Beiuville, 


Pa. 


J. A. Gingrich. 


Lancaster, 


Pa. 


French. Richards & Co. 


Philada., 


Pa. 


W. Proctor, Jr. & Co. 


Philada,, 


Pa. 


C. G. Frowert, M. D 


Bloomsburg, 


Pa. 


Meyer Bros. 


Waco, 


Texas. 


Castles Morrison. 


Phtt'nixville, 


Pa. 


R. S. Keeler & Co. 


Salt Lake City, 


Utah. 


Roberts & Nelden. 


Philada., 


Pa. 


George V. Eddy. 


Philada'., 


Pa. 


C. C. Vaudeibeck. 


Canada, 




L. E. Sayre. 


Phillipsburg, 


N, J. 


W. D. Robinson, M. D. 






Emil Graff. 


Philada..^*^^' 


Pa.' 


P. Rottner. 


Wilmington, 


Del. 


Z. James Belt. 


Greensboro, 


Md. 


A. L. Belleville. 


Philada., 


Pa. 


C. B. Haenchen.* 


Germantown, 


Pa. 


William Conner. 


Philada. , 


Pa. 


Thomas D. Brown, M. D. 


Germany, 




G. D. U'etherill & Co. 


Philada. 


Pa. 


E. R. Burdick. 


San Francisco, 


Cal. 


S. P. Churchill. 


Philada., 


Pa. 


W. Notson, M. D. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
Jan., 1885. 



Catalogue of the Class, 



Matriculants. 

Seekel, Guy, Jr., 
Seither, Charles Albert, 
Shead, Almon Ami, 
Shoemaker, George Washington, 
Slaughter, John Virgil, 
Smith, Aloysins John, 
Smith, Frank F., 
Smith, Joseph, 
Smith, Worden Lorimer, 
South, Harry Grant 
Spalding, Charles, 
Stabler, Harry, 
Starr, John William, 
Stauffer, William Morrison, 
Stearns, Isanc 
Stevenson, Wellington, 
Stites, Charles Linford, 
Strunk, Lewis Curton, 
Sunderland, Henry, 
Super, Albert, 
Supplee, William Edward, 
Sutton, William Henry, 
Suydam, John Derr, 
Swansen, Charles Adolphus, 
Switzer, Lnin Burt, 
Todd, John Charles, 
Trauck, Charles Cadrick, 
Tretbar, George Brown, 
Vincent, Lorren S., 
Wagner, William Finley, 
Wallace, Edwin Corby, 
Ward, Christopher Columbus, 
Ward, Joseph Antonio, 
Ware, William Keed, 
Warren, Nathan Chew, 
Wayman John Martin, 
Week, Charles Erastus, 
Weyand, William Jacob, 
Whitaker, William Herbert, 
Wiedmayer, Frederick William, 
Wild, Charles Ferdinand, 
Wilkinson Edwin Hai mon, 
Williams, Joseph Pearson, 
Wilson, George Thomas, 
Wicgender, Wendel Phillips, 
Winslow, Colburn Thue, 
Wissler, Benjamin Abraham, 
Wyeth, Maxwell, 
Yealy, James Frank, 
Young, Frank John, 
Young, Robert Taylor, 
Young, William Schrack, 



Town or County. 


State. 


Preceptor. 


1 niiada., 


p 


G D Wetherill & Co 


Philada., 


v' 


Bullock & Crenshaw. 


Milwaukee, 


Wis 




Hummelstown, 


Pa. 


J F M dt 






T s' Bar tram 


Philada., 


Pa 


G D Wetherill & Co 


ic ID on , 


Ind. 


A. G Luken & Co. 




Del. 


B. Smith. 








11 a a.. 


P 


Dr W^ S Higbeft 


Austin, 


exas. 


J. J & W H Tobin 








1 e own, 


p 


.1. W Rewalt. 


yuincy. 


p 


F. Forthman. 


Cincinnati, 


nv!- 


feteams. 




Q p * 






N J 


Marcy Mecray 


QuakertcnN'n 


Pa. 


S. W. Strunk. 


Philada 




J F Wilgus 


Philada 


Pa 






Pa. 


E. A. Stabler, 


Phn^ada*^^' 






Philada. 


Pa 


T E Cona^rd ^ ^'^ 




N. Y. 


F W Palnieter 






J P Russell 


Maniyunk 


Pa ^" 


W C Todd M D 


Bucks Co. 


Pa. 


E C Jones & Co 


Philada 




W H Walling 




Mich 




h"^h' t 


Pa. 


N h Irl 1^- 


Springfield 




HaiTV Cox '° 


Crisfield 


Md. 


D. W. Blake, M. D. 




Del. 




Atlanta^*^''' 


Georgia. 


L H Bradfield. 


Upland 




C L Lacliell 




w. Va. 


p^'Ji^n^ ^Th^^^^' ^'^^ 


^yde^^'^^' 


-Kansas. 




Philada. 




Of \ T?"l h 




Ti\ 




Leetonia*' 




T E Duff^^ 


Philada 


Pa ^* 


Tj Wolff & Co 


Cleveland, 


Ohio. 


Strong, Cobb & Co. 


Wilmington, 


Del. 


J. M. Harvey. 


Franklin, 


Ky. 


William Swan. 


Camden, 


N. J. 


G. D. Burton. 


Benezet, 


Pa. 


A. M. Wilson. 


Millersville, 


Pa. 


Dr. Keeder. 


Philada., 


Pa. 


J. Wyeth & Bro. 


Bellefoute, 


Pa, 


John Harris. 


Detroit, 


Mich. 


E. S. Power, M. D. 


Coatesville, 


Pa. 


J. W. March & Co. 


Philada., 


Pa. 


W. H. Llewellyn. 



62 



Catalogue of the Class. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
Jan., 1885. 



Matriculants. 

Abou, Joseph William, 
Amsden, Geo. Sidney, 
Anthis, Philip, 
Ball, John Alexis, 
Barker, James Henr}^ 
Bartel, Max, 
Bechberger, Henry, 
Bell, Robert Matthew, 
Bender, William Piper, Jr. 
Bichy, William, 
Biddle, Richard, 
Bishop, Samuel Walter, 
Bissell, Wayne Barker, 
Bogart, Chas. Mount, 
Bijvvers, Luther Pascal, 
Bozenhard, William Theodore, 
Braddock, Chas. Shreve, 
Brandner, Henry, Jr., 
Brehman, Charles Schaeffer, 
Brown, Albert Edward, 
Brown, Frank L.. 
Bullwck, William Auihony, 
Burke, Wm. Thompson, 
Cadmus, Robert Clark, 
Cafky, Wm. Walter, 
Cahoou, Euward Daley, 
Carnan, George Lewis, 
Champion, Cat leton Cole, 
Christ, Chas. Wesley, 
Cohen, Natlian Alexander, 
Coltman, Thos. Clement, 
Cooley, James Sherman, 
Craythorn, Chas. Jrhu, 
Crothers, Samuel Ross, 
Dallett, Prosper Martin, 
Davis, Fred. Horace, 
Davison, Blythe James, 
Deakj'ne, Oscar Boone, 
Deem, David Ferguson, 
Do Long, Wm. Edward, 
Dennison, Ulysses Grant, 
Dennisson, Geo. J^icholtz 
Denniston, Wm. Milliken, 
De Reeves, Eugene. 
Deusche Wm. Dilk, 
Dickeson, Morton Phelps 
Diefenbeck, Henry, 
Dielman, Louis Henry, 
Donough, Wm. Edgar, 
Dreisa, Edward Frederick, 
Drew, Darner, 
Dunbar, Thomas, Jr. 
Dunn, Fred., 
Dunn, Walter, 
Ebeling, Geo. Henry, 
Eberly, Jacob Addison, 
Edmonds. George Washington, 
Eisenhart, Foster Benjamin, 
Eldredge, Joseph Johnson, 
Ely, Samuel S., 
Engler, John George, 
Evans, Geo. Brintfin, 
Fahey, Edward H., 
Feairheller, Theodore, 
Fetter, Henry Herman, 
Fetterolf, Daniel Webster, 
Fienhold. Edward Henry, 
Fischer. Albert Martin, 
Fritsch, Harrv, 
Gable, Ralph iBenton, 
Gebhard, Adolph Emil, 
Gehris, Peter Spang. 
Georges, Amandus George, 
GiflRn. Henry Riggeal, 
Green, Benj. Wallace, 



SENIOR CLASS. 



Town or County, State. 

Clinton, Miss.. 

Manchester, Iowa. 

Pittsburg, Pa. 

Philada., Pa. 

Plaquemine, La. 

Milwaukee, Wis. 

Sandusky, Ohio. 

Philada., Pa. 

Camden* N. J. 

Buffalo, N. Y. 

Philada., Pa. 

Beverly, N. J. 

Waterville, N. Y. 

South Amboy, N. J. 

Jefferson, Md. 

Dayton, Ohio. 

HaJdonfield, N. J. 

Atchison, Kansas. 

Philada., Pa. 

Mobile, Ala. 

Chester. Pa. 

Philada., Pa. 

Bristol, Pa. 

Philada., Pa. 

Jacksonville, 111. 

Dover, Del. 

Mt. Laurel, N. J. 

Philada., Pa. 

Selinsgrove, Pa. 

Selinsgrove, Pa. 

Jenkintown, Pa. 

Flemington, N. J. 

Beverly, N. J. 

Zion Md. 

Philada., Pa. 

Camden, Del. 

Canton, Pa. 

Wilmington, Del. 

Union City, Ind. 

Bangor, Pa. 

New Castle, Del. 

Downington, Pa. 

HoUidaysburg, Pa 

Trinity, Texas. 

Chilicothe, Ohio. 

Media. Pa. 

Allegheny City, Pa. 

New Windsor, Md. 

Bernville, Pa. 

San Antonio, Texas. 

Warsham, Va. 

Philada., Pa. 

Philada., Pa. 

Clifton Heigh t8, Pa. 

Wheeling, W. Va. 

Mechanicsburg, Pa. 

Philada., Pa. 

Hellertown, Pa. 

Cape May City, N. J. 

Philada., Pa. 

Hartford, Conn. 

Plymouth, Pa. 

Wilmington, Del. 

Philada., Pa. 

Philada., Pa. 

Ashland, Pa. 

Philada., Pa. 

Philada., Pa. 

Philada., Pa. 

Reading, Pa. 

Muskegon, Mich. 

Reading, Pa. 

North Java, N. Y. 

Philada., Pa. 

Millington, Md. 



Preceptor. 

Dr. P. Fitch. 

E. J. Cougar. 
J. L. Wessel. 

R. D. Jones, M. D. 
S. Hiriart. 

F. W. Hartwig. 
J. H. Emrick. 
Dr. C. J. Nice. 
Dr. J. R. Angney, 
W, A. Rumsey. 

H. C. Van Meter. 

E. G. Bissell. 
(j. W. Jacques. 
Warrington & Pennypacker. 
Benkert & Co. 

Isaac A. Braddock. 

G. A Chapman & Co. 

B. Ward. 
J. M. Stover. 
Bullock & Crenshaw. 
Alex. Kennedy. 
Dr. W. J. McCleane. 
W. E. Lee. 

F. Rap p. 

G. M. Smyser. 
Bullock & Crenshaw. 

E. J. Lehman. 

H. A. Borell. 
J. W. Rid path. 
A. B. Allen. 

A. W. Taylor, M. D. 

F. W. E. S'edem. 
Bullock & Crenshaw. 
T 0. Nock. 

N. W. Whitman. 
J. H. Morgan. 
D. H. Ross. 
S. F. Ware. 
H. C. Walker. 
J. V. Antill. 

F. H. West. 

G. W. Shingle. 
John A. Nipgen. 

W. T. W. Dickeson, M. D. 
J. T. Hoskinson, Jr. 
T. 0. Nock. 
M. A. Davis. 
Adolph Dreiss. 

H. C. Man love. 

J. w. Dallam & Co. 

J. M. Rudolph. 

A. Tatem. 

Thos. H. Potts. 

Dr. H. Muller. 

Martin & Sommers. 

Wm. F. Owens. 

Marcy & Mecray. 

Wiley & Harris. 

A. Maverick, & Co. 

D. K. Spry. 

H. K. Watson. 

W. H. Lacey. 

J. A. Witmer. 

S. A. Marshall. 

G. A. Bachman. 

G. W. Notson. 

W. R. Warner & Co. 

Wm. Weis. 

J. Je*son. 

J. B. Raser. 

H Opperman. 

F. E. Morgan. 

W. C. Ebaugh, M. D. 



Am. Jour. Pliarm. ) 
Jan., 1885. j 



Catalogue of the Class. 



Matriculants. 

Griffin, Cyrus Byer, 
Groom, Ellerslie Wallace, 
Groom, Joseph, 
Haffa, George Adam, 
Hagenbucli, James Hervy, 
Hall, Jesse Barklay, 
Hammond, Arthur Browne, 
Hamilton, Will., Swearingen, 
Harper, Wm. Franklin, 
Harrington, Silas Marion, 
Harris, Clinton Kelly, 
Harris, Norton 0., 
Hassler, Daniel Herr, 
Haynsworth, Julius Dargan, 
Heider, Henry George, 
Heini, Henry Lewis, 
Henderson, James Ashton, 
Heinitsh, Harry Ernest, 
Herrman, Ralph Christian, 
Hess, Edwin Hutter, 
Hiestand, John Summy, 
Howells, James Owen, 
Hunter, James, Jr., 
Hunter, James Stant<>n, 
Hurd, George Edward, 
Jacobson, Frank F.dward, 
Jones, Harry Ellsworth, 
.Johnson, Elmer Ellsworth, 
Johnston, Frank Elmer, 
Kalteyer, Moritz, 
Keller. Alexander ^^eorge, 
Ketcham, Stephen Rush, 
Keyes. Frank Williamson, 
Kirk, Grant Elmer, 
Kirkham. Walter Agan, 
Kisner, Charles Nelson, 
Knight, Howard, 
Knisell, Sidney Lackey, 
Koch, Charles Herman, 
Kuehnel. Gustav. Fred., 
Kunkel, Wm. Evans, 
Kyle, Elmer Biyan, 
Kyner, James Aimer, 
Lammer, Francis Joseph, Jr., 
Landis, Frank Theodore, 
Lautenbacher, Irvin Lincoln, 
Laval, Wm. John, 
Lawrence, Samuel Comfort, 
Lewis Llewellyn Hughes, 
Lichtenburger, Fred'k Jacob, 
Lochman, Chas. Napier, 
McCarthy, Cornelius Joseph, 
McFarland, Thaddeus Day, 
Maisch, Henry Charles Christian, 
Malatesta, .(oseph Mark, 
Mallon, James Peter, 
Marbourg, John George, 
Matter, Robert Borton. 
Mauch. Chas. Milton, Jr., 
May Roll in R., 
Mayer, Chas. Eugene, 
Meissner, Paul Ernest, 
Mitcheson, Robt. Stockton Juhnsoi 
Moore, John Demuth, 
Morrett, Wm. Heniy, 
Morrison, James, 
Morse, Frank, 

Moses, Matthew Ulysses S. Grant, 
Monnt, Elmer Marshall, 
Meyer, Edwin Oliver, 
Naudain Edgar Harman, 
Nebig, Wm. George, 
Nebinger, Jacob Lewis, 
Newton, John W., 
Odenwplder, Harrv S., 
Pdncoast George Widditield, 
Parrish Callistus Mitchell, 
Patterson, Albert Raymond, 
Pechin, Edgar Vogan, 
Pechmann, Wm., 
Pemberton, Samuel Lovering, 



Town or County. State. 

Lewisburg, Pa. 

Bristol, Pa. 

Philada., Pa. 

Philada., Pa. 

Mahonoy City, Pa. 

Norristowr, Pa. 

Baltimore, Md. 

Fairmont, W. Va. 

Madison, Ind. 

Piano, Texas. 

Salem, N. .J. 

Dover, Del. 

Carlisle, Pa. 

Darlington, S. C. 

Fon du Lac, Wis. 

Philada., Pa. 

Maytown, Pa. 

Philada., Pa. 

AUentown, Pa. 

Harrisburg, Pa. 

Mt. Joy, Pa. 

Bridgeport, Conn. 

Philada., Pa. 

Pittsburg, Pa. 

Philada., Pa. 

Bethlehem, Pa. 

Mt. Holly. N. J. 

Shenandoah Pa. 

Clifton Heights, Pa. 

San An ronio, Texas. 

Philada , Pa. 

Phibida., Pa. 

York, Pa. 

Philada., Pa. 

Newark, N Y. 

Berwick. Pa. 

Bucks Co., Pa. 

Woodbury, N. .J. 

Carlisle, Pa. 

Milwaukee, Wis. 

Harrisburg, Pa. 

York, Pa. 

Orrstown, Pa. 

Philada., Pa. 

Palmyra, Pa. 
Schuylkill Haven, Pa. 

Evansville, Ind. 

Attica, N. Y. 

Chester, Pa. 

Freeport, 111. 

Bethlehem , Pa. 

St. Clair, Pa. 

Hudson, Ohio. 

Philada., Pa. 

Philada., Pa. 

Philada., Pa. 

Bedford, Pa. 

Lewistown, Pa. 

Hellertown, Pa. 

Wilmington, Del. 

Boyertown, Pa. 

Milwaukee, Wis. 

1, Philada., Pa. 

Wrightsville, Pa. 

Mechanicsburg, Pa. 

Roxboro, Pa. 

Hanover, Ind. 

Trenton, N. J. 

Wilmington, Del. 

Catasauqua, Pa. 

Wilmington, Del. 

Philada., Pa. 

Philada., Pa. 

Gallipolis, Ohio. 

Easton, Pa. 

Moorestown, N. J. 

Ebensburg, Pa. 

Zanesville, Ohio. 

Philada., Pa. 

Bremen, Germany. 

Phil da.. Pa. 



Preceptor. 

H. C. Watt. 
Dr. H. Pnrsell. 
Hance Bros. & White. 
W. R. Warner & Co. 

C. C. Hagenbuch. 
Attwood Yeakle. 

E. Ball. 
Carr Bros. 

J. E. C. F. Harper. 
S. J. Rogers, M. D. 
J. T. Shinn. 
S. Levin Dilks. 
S. S. Bunting. 
Dr. J. A. Boyd. 

G. Bille. 

Aschenbach & Miller. 
Bullock & Crenshaw. 
J. P. Remington. 

A. Weber. 
Thomas Combs. 

D. G. E. Mussel man. 

F. Zimmer. 
D. H. Ross. 

M. M. Schneider. 
Dr. W. H. .Jayne. 

C. .lacoby. 

J. J. Ottinger. 
S. C. Spalding. 

H. M. Brenuan. 

G. H. Kalteyer. 

G. H. Toboldt. 

D. L. Stackhouse. 
L. E. Sa>re. 

J. W. Knhlerman. 

M. M. Kenyon. 

R. H. Little. 

W. Procter, Jr. & Co. 

Bullock & Crenshaw. 

J. T. Shinn. 

L. Oliphant. 

H. C. Blairs' Sous. 
J. L. Bispham. 

J. C. Altick & Co. 
J. Wyeth & Bro. 
Dr. W. C. Kline. 
H. C. Mohr. 
J. Laval. 
Dr. Snitcher. 
Lockard & Jones. 
Fred. Weise. 
Simon Ran & Co. 
Bullock & Crenshaw. 

E. S. Bentley. 
Dr. L. Wolff. 
J. H. Blakp. 

J. M. Fronefield. 
C. Shivers. 

J. T. White. 
G. W. Knight. 
L. Seifel. 

Baumbach & Rosenthal. 

W. R. Warner & Co. 

P. S. Briigh^ 

J. A. Shelly. 

W. M. IMorriKon. 

G W. Kvlins. 

R. H. Vansant. 

B. R. Veasev. 

C. B. Lowe & Co. 
W. B. Dan forth. 
C. C. Huffhe". 

T. S. Wicgand. 
.Tames H. Sanns. 
R. Shoemaker & Co. 
J W. Worth in gton. 
William Lemmon, M. D. 
W. H Barnes. 
G. H. Johnson. 
L. Dembinski. 
Bullock & Crenshaw. 



64 



Catalogue of the Class. 



j Am. Jour. Pharm* 
t Jan., 1885. 



Matriculants. 

Peters, Leopold, 
Pfaeffle, Root Wm., 
Post, Philip Von Riper, 
Purdy, Frank Vansant, 
Ramey, Clias. Clifton, 
Read, Clinton Hubert, 
Reagan, Dennis 
Rebner, Chas. Morris, 
Rebsamen, Chas. Fred., 
Reese, Biich Taylor, 
Reinnoldt, Henry Otto, 
Reynolds, Walter, 
Rhodes, Chas. Henry, 
Rhoads, Wm. Stevens, 
Ridington, Wm. Augustus, 
Riggs, Elias Ellsworth, 
Roberts, Jos. Cuttell, 
Rosenzweig, Benj. 
Rossler, George Frederick, 
Santee, Andrew Cnrtin, 
Saunders, Henry Sclioley, 
Schaible, Emil, 
Schlegel, Carl Edward, 
Schofield, Allen Curtis, 
Schofield, Thos. La Blanc, 
Schuchard, Herm m Julius, 
Scull, Andrew Stewart, 
Schwartz, Fred., 
Seiler, Wni. Frederick. 
Serfass, Abraham Lincoln, 
Shaw, Henry Clay, 
Sher, Fred. Paul, 
Sinne, Hans Heinrich, 
Smith, Christopkier Columbus, 
Smith. George Mark, 
Snavely, Harry Barr, 
Snyder, Harry Lincoln, 
Stager, Edwin Wesley, 
Stearns Moses, 
Steinecken, Geo. Augustus, 
Steiumetz, Wm. F., 
Sternier, John Henry, 
Stichter, Henry D., 
Stiles, Henry Lippincott, 
Stinebeck, William Adam, 
Stoll, Samuel Franklin, 
Strasser, John Jacob, Jr., 
Swann, San.uel D., 
Swain, Harry, 
Tateni, Harry Randolph, 
Thieb.iud, Hugh McCallum, 
Thomiieim, Wm. Cochran, 
ThumiiSdH, George Washington, 
Tim, Fied. Alden, 
Trefrv, Thomas Crowell, 
Trout, Winfield Scott, 
Yru Buskirk Samuel Levick, 
Vannort, Wm. Augustus, 
Von Achen, Frank Herman, 
Wain, Chas. Herbert, 
Ward, Joseph Poletus, 
Watson, Maurice, 
Webb, Richard John. 
Webster, Samuel ^, 
Wegener, Hen>y, 
Wefsel, Benjamin Franklin, 
Wetteroth, Henry, 
Whilden, Chas. Bennett, 
Whitney, Hestou, 
Wilkinson. Wm. .Fohn, 
Williams Neri Barndt. 
Windolph, J. Frederick, 
Wittiger, Hugo Otto. 
Wood. Alfred Conard, 
Woodill, Robert Wellesley, 
Wright. Jiimes Edward, 
Yost, Wm. Oscar, 
Zieber, Paul, 



Town or County. Stale. Preceptor. 



Fulton, 


111. 


Leslie Williams. 


Philada., 


Pa. 


L. Wolff & Co. 


Philada., 


Pa 


W. B. Webb & Co. 


Doylestown, 


Pa, 


Dr. G. T. Harvey. 


Norristown, 


Pa. 


W. S. Thornley, 


Wattsburg, 


Pa. 


George Holland. 


Easton, 


Pa. 


H. G. Hariug. 


Atchison, 


Kan. 


McPike & Fox. 


Leavenworth, 


Kan, 


G. Ummethun. 


Philada., 


Pa. 


W. R. Warner & Co. 


Sheboygan, 


Wis. 


M. R. Zaegel & Co. 


Philada., 


Pa. 


B. F. Shell. 


Philada., 


Pa. 




Hontzdale, 


Pa. 


Dr. J. W. Rhoads. 


Conshohocken, 


Pa. 


William McKenzie, M. D. 


Heightstown, 


N. J. 


Dr. G. E. Titus. 


Wilmington, 


Del. 


Smith & Painter. 


Philada., 


Pa. 


J. B. Moore. 


Berlin, 


Germany. 


E. Jungman. 


Town Line, 


Pa. 


W. C. Stillwell, M. D. 


London, 
La Fayette, 
Davenport, 


Ontario (Can.) 


Wm. Sauoders. 


lud. 


E. B. Garrigues & Co. 


Iowa. 


Gus. Schlegel. 


Piqiia, 


Ohio. 


C. J. Biddle. 


Philada., 


Pa. 


Hance Bros. & White. 


San Antonio, 
Atlantic City, 


Texas. 


G. H. Kalteyer. 


N. J. 


Dr. M. West. 


Philada., 


Pa. 


E. W. Herrmann. 


Philada , 


Pa. 


B. W. Fetters. 


Easton, 


Pa. 


C. Lawall & Son. 


Piedmont, 


W. Va. 


Dr. W. A. Shuey. 


I'hilada., 


Pa. 


Dr. Sher. 


Germany, 


Prussia. 


Dr. A. Nebeker. 


Philada., 


Pa. 


J. F. AVilgus. 


Aniivilie, 


Pa. 




Lancaster, 


Pa. 


S. B. McClearj-. 


Jlechanicsburg, 


Pa. 


H. A. Borell. 


Lebanon, 


Pa. 


J. S. Armstrong, ^M. D. 


Cincinnati, 


Ohio. 


C. A. Rutherford. 


Wilmington, 


DeL 


Dr. W. S. Hitch. 


Philada., 


Pa. 


M. G. Briggs. 


York, 


Pa, ' 


W. A. Burns. 


East Greenville, 


Pa. 


E. B. Ga'rigues & Co. 


Moorestowu, 


N. J. 


J. R. Stevenson. 


Columbia, 


S, C. 


Dr. D. S. Pope. 


Bucyrus, 


Ohio. 


C. A. Spence. 


Trenton, 


N. J. 


F. R. Jummel. 


Fernandina, 


Fla. 


Horsey & Co 


Georgetown, 


Del. 


S. D. Marshall, M. D. 


Collingwood, 


N. J. 


J. W. Lutz. 


Vevay, 


Ind, 


A. W. Peek. 


Coatesville, 


Pa. 


Dr. L. Wolff. 


Titu.sville, 


Pa. 


M, Goldsmith. 


Camden, 


N. J. 


J. Griffith Howard. 


Yarmouth, 


Nova Scotia, 


Dr. C. A. Black. 


Philada., 


Pa. 


W. R. Warner & Co. 


Bethlehem, 


Pa. 


Van Buskirk & Apple. 


Hainesville, 


Md. 


Peoria, 


in. 


F. C. Bourscheidt & Bro. 


Yardville, 


N. Y. 


L. E. Sayre. 


Gaston , 


Ala. 


L. A, Podolski. 


Bristol, 


Pa. 


S. Douglass. 


Scranton, 


Pa. 


J. L. Rea, M. D. 


Philada., 


Pa. 


S. C Webster. 


Oshkosh, 


Wis. 


Geo. Phipps. 


Elizabeth Cit}', 




Wood & Wadsworth. 


Bordentown, 


n! j." 


Bunting & Hankins. 


Charlertton, 


S. c. 


G. I. McKelway. 


Glassboro, 


N. J. 


J. G. Wells. 


Philada., 


Pa. 


C. A. Lang. 


Easton, . 


Pa. 


E. T. Meyers. 


Dover, 


DeL 


T. C. Tomlinson, M.'D. 


Kntztown, 


Pa. 


M. Shoffner. 


Hatboro, 


Pa. 


T. L. Buckman. 


Halifax, 


Nova Scotia, 


Avery. Brown & Co. 


Philada., 


Pa. 


F. E. Himmelwright, M.'D. 


Norristown, 


Pa. 


W. Stabler. 


Hanover, 


Pa. 


B. A. Ilertsch. 



THE AMERICAN 

JOURNAL OF PHARMACY. 



FEBRUARY, 1885. 



THE ADVANTAGE OF PRELIMINARY EXAMINATION 
• TO PHARMACY, AND TO THIS COLLEGE. 
By Wm. B. Thompson. 
Read at the Pharmaceutical Meeting, January 20, 1885. 
If it should be thought that this paper is not entirely appropriate 
to the object of this meeting, its acceptance is asked for on the ground 
that it is in part a reply to a paper read at the December meeting, 
On the Recent Advances in the Methods of Instruction in the Phil- 
adelphia College of Pharmacy," whicli paper and some' subsequent 
remarks by its author are likely to lead to erroneous impression as to 
exactly what is meant, and what is contemplated by Preliminary 
Examination. 

The present system, recently adopted by the College, of progressive 
or trial examinations of the junior students, was accepted by the 
Trustees as a step towards an ultimate view, upon careful considera- 
tion, and in deference to the openly expressed sentiment that some 
better means of discrimination in the materiel of the classes should be 
made. This tentative plan has not been favored, however, by those 
who advocate preliminary examiuation in its proper sense and relation, 
because it in no wise reaches the principle involved — it fails to afford 
the result desired, or to radically change the defect of method, and is^ 
moreover, an act of injustice to the student. 

The necessity of such a system as is now urged upon this College is 
based upon a wise precedent — upon the future welfare of pharmacy, 
upon the future status of the graduate, and upon the mutual relations 
of this institution to the profession at large — and further by reason of 
the fact that, so far as we are made aware, there is no inquiry insti- 
tuted here on the entrance of a matriculant, or candidate, to determine 
his fitness, not only in reference to his rudimentary knowledge of 
pharmacy, nor as to his as much needed educational requirements in 
the common branches of learning. To read intelligently, to write 
legibly, to be creditably proficient in simple mathematics, and to 

5 



66 Advantage of Preliminary Examination. {^^'Y^h\i^^^^' 

understand the primary construction of the Latin language, are clearly 
and plainly essential qualifications, and any young man not thus 
equipped enters this institution and pharmacy at great personal disad- 
vantage ; it is simply the dictate of candor and truthfulness to tell 
him so, and advise further preparation. It is to determine the posses- 
sion of these qualifications that preliminary examination will be insti- 
tuted — before the student is admitted to collegiate courses — to require 
this after his entrance, presuming that he is deficient, is to embar- 
rass his progress, dispirit and discourage him, and to involve him in a 
mental effort for which he is wholly unprepared. With all the unfa- 
vorable conditions apparent, he is yet received here, and entered upon a 
theoretical and technical course. With an ambition worthy, perhaps, of 
more consideration, without reference to his inability to retain and 
comprehend he has to keep pace with his better favored associates in 
the end only to be relegated back, rejected, mortified, and disgraced. 
How much more just and generous to intercept his entrance, point out 
his palpable deficiencies, and advice a better course of preliminary 
preparation ! Without further remark on this, it will be evident, we 
think, to any one that reflects that ^' no consideration as to confronting 
the candidate with an apparent difficulty should be allowed to weigh 
against imposing a set of conditions framed with the sole object of 
bringing him to the examination room more thoroughly equipped for 
the ordeal itself, and for the creditable fulfillment of the duties of his 
life work.'' 

In September of the year 1870, a Pharmaceutical Educational Con- 
ference was held in Baltimore, at which all the then existing colleges 
were represented. A resolution was offered by Mr. A. B. Taylor, of 
this purport : ^' That there be an educational standard established, the 
evidence of which shall be given previous to the admission of any stu- 
dent to attendance on the lectures of the Colleges of Pharmacy ; " with 
a modification which did not change the spirit of the resolution, this 
was adopted.^ We quote simply to show the existing state of opinion 
at that time on this subject. 

1 Whether the spirit was ciianged or not is best learned from the resolution which, as 
oflFered by Prof. Procter and adopted, is as follows (italics our own): 

Resolved, That in the opinion of this Convention, more attention to the preliminary- 
education of those who propose to enter the business of pharmaceutists is needed, and it is 
earnestly recommended to the Colleges and Societies of Pharmacy to urge their mem- 
bers and the profession of the United States generally to give greater care to this sub- 
ject in taking apprentices. 

The complaint expressed in this resolution was not of recent date; for at the Con- 



Yeh^Sb"^^'} Advantage of Pi^eliminary Examination. 67 

President J. Faris Moore, of the American Pharmaceutical Associ- 
ation, at the session held in Cincinnati, September, 1864, in his annual 
address, holds the following language : " We often find young men, 
thoroughly apt in their manipulations, and possessing more than ordi- 
nary talent in other respects, most woefully deficient in their general 
education, and this is, in many cases, a drawback of no small impor- 
tance to themselves, the profession, and the community at large. I 
should think means could be easily devised by which the standard of 
necessary education might be raised to such a height as would be both 
beneficial and acceptable to all, and especially contributory to the dignity 
of the profession, pharmacy being, in the highest and most exalted 
acceptation of the word, ^ a science.' '' 

An eminent and honored pharmaceutical teacher of this College, the 
late Professor Parrish, a man of extended experience and observation, 
based upon unusual opportunities of comparing students of medicine, 
many of whom had the advantage of academic study, with students 
of pharmacy whose preliminary education as a rule had been cut 
short, states as his conviction that what is " most needed in phar- 
macy is a higher grade of preliminary education.'' Were such re- 
ferences necessary, we could extract voluminously from the most 
authentic sources to sustain this view. " The needed element to secure 
successful attainment in any effort to raise the influence and standing 
of such a body of men as pharmacists, in their relation to the public 
and to medical science, is to be found in education — scholastic, techni- 
cal, or scientific." There are five points or specifications which indi- 
cate clearly the purpose of preliminary examination, and the condi- 
tions which make such a method a necessity of the present time. 
They are as follows : 

First. The imperfect mental training with which so many young 
men commence their so-called scientific work. 

Second. The large proportion who present themselves for class 
teaching without any genuine intention of mastering the sciences 
taught. 

Third. The generally prevailing intention to make as little knowl- 
edge as possible suffice to carry candidates through the examination, 

vention of 1852, when the American Pharmaceutical Association was organized, a 
committee, consisting of Wm. Procter, Jr., S. M. Colcord and G. D, Coggeshall, reported 
as follows : ''Proprietors often do not consider the fitness of applicants, both as regards 
natural endowments and preliminary education, with that care and attention that a 
due regard to such applicants demands."— Editor Xts.. Jour. Phar. 



68 



Advantage of Preliminary Examination. 



Am. Jour. Pharm,. 
Feb., 1885. 



and the habit of regarding the passing of the examination as the chief 
purpose of that knowledge. 

Fourth. The difficulty of properly estimating the true value of what 
an examinee appears to know, due in great part to complete ignorance 
of his previous training, and therefore*doubt as to whether the answers 
given be a mere effort of mental retention, or the expression of an 
understanding that has really grasped the subject. 

Fifth. The want of a legitimate relationship between pharmaceutical 
education and pharmaceutical examination. 

So important has this subject become in the deliberations of the 
Board of Trustees, and so imperative seems to be the demand from the 
profession at large for some radical change in the methods of receiving 
matriculants, that, by a resolution, the subject was committed to the 
Permanent Committee on Instruction, who were directed to submit the 
question to the members of the College. This committee, pursuing 
the object of their instructions, addressed, in printed form, four inter- 
rogatories, as follows, requesting answer : 

First. Do you favor a preliminary examination of students apply- 
ing for matriculation in the Junior Class of the College ? 

Second. AVhat branches of English education should be included in 
S'uch examination? 

Third. Should any knowledge of the Latin language be included? 

Fourth. What should be the extent or limit of such examination ? 

The replies came in due time, and, with suggestive views on the 
lateral question, formed a part — an interesting part — of the commit- 
tee's report. A compilation of the answers showed that the majority 
were decidedly in the affirmative upon the leading question, and in 
some cases remarks were appended giving positive favor to the adop- 
tion of some such form of preliminary examination as would not only 
test the educational acquirements, but the practical experience as well', 
of the applicant in advance of his admission. 

How^ever disproportionate the expressed sentiment of the Board of 
Trustees may be upon this immediate question, there is a striking una- 
nimity of favorable opinion in the more open and extended member- 
ship of the College. The Committee on Instruction evidently felt the 
weight of this, for the chairman, ungenerously, we thought, sought to 
lessen its effect by alluding to those favoring the plan as a class guilty 
of lack of personal interest in their general duties to the College. 

Upon the acceptance of the report of this committee it was further 



'^™"reb"^i885^^'""} Advantage of Preliminary Examination. 69 

resolved to make this subject one of special consideration and discus- 
sion at a stated meeting of the College in May next. 

It will thus be seen that the preliminary plan is not substituted, as 
we think has been erroneously supposed by some, by the present tenta- 
tive, but will yet come before, the body of the College at the time 
designated for final adjustment. 

One of the objections frequently urged against the adoption here of 
a radical reform, such as preliminary examination, is the possible result 
to the financial interests of the College, and grave apprehension has 
pictured a diminished roster, a corresponding loss of revenue, and a 
number of other effects which timid minds view with alarm. But 
what, we ask, have these considerations to do with that which is 
involved in correct principle ? Are we to measure the value of the 
professional status of pharmacy by the pecuniary interests of this or 
any other College ? What interests have this body of Trustees (with 
some individual exceptions) in the revenues of the institution except to 
meet its obligations and sustain the dignity of its various departments ? 
all of which can be well and faithfully done by more conservative 
management.^ 

When, some five or six years ago, the University of Pennsylvania, 
the oldest and most distinguished institution in the country, took the 
initiative, so far as its own medical school was concerned, in adopting 
the graded system of education, it was not without expressed fears and 
misgivings. The change was construed to mean a loss of students, for 
many men would naturally go where they could get their diploma 
most easily, rather than where they would have to work the hardest 
for it ; it meant a loss of revenue, and it meant a great many things 
which the imagination viewed with fear. But the Trustees and the 
Faculty rightly felt that it would be even better for the leading medi- 
cal school of the county to graduate one well-equipped physician than 
a hundred or so who had simply crammed for their final examination, 
and they resolved to proceed. The result has more than justified the 
wisdom of their resolution. The diploma of the medical school of th<^ 
University of Pennsylvania now means something. 

1 It seems but fair to state, in thisconnection, that the CoUege hasalways fearlessly in 
curred obligations, when it was necessary, for advancing the cause of pharmaceutica 
education, by erecting suitable buildings and providing facilities for instruction ; and 
that the College has also recognized it as a duty to cancel these obligations as rapidly as 
was consistent with her best interests, tliereby keeping the credit of the institution free 
from reproach.— Editor Am. Jour. Phar. 



70 Advantage of Preliminary Examination. {'^™Feb"'^i885*™' 

With such precept before us, no apprehension need be entertained 
that the honorable prestige of this College will suifer decline. Its- 
standing among the similar institutions of the country has steadily 
advanced, as its present character and popularity amply testify. Its 
various scientific departments have been entrusted to able hands — the 
seniors of its faculty stand eminent in their profession — the College 
has established the most advanced and improved plan of instruction — 
the public appreciation has been manifested in the throngs of young 
men constantly eager to embrace that instruction — its methods of edu- 
cation are perhaps superior to any other institution of the land. All 
this is accorded by the profession as a merited tribute to an honored 
and venerated alma-mater, and from this profession has come, through 
many channels of influence, a generous and liberal endorsement. It is 
this same profession, however, which presents itself here to-day, and 
asks, in respectful tone, that this College, having reached a wondrous 
growth of prosperity — having at this time its representatives in every 
city, town and village of this extended land, shall, halting, interpose 
its offices to check a tide wliDse direction and current have overleaped 
the bounds of safety, and been strong enough in its unchecked flow tO' 
exhaust quite all the remunerative resources of pharmacy as a profes- 
sion, with the result of debasing it to a trade level, without even the 
dignity of being distinctive in that ! 

We need hardly pause here to say, that this matter is grave and im- 
portant. From an intimate association with my confreres of the Board 
of Trustees who are honored men of matured thought and sound judg- 
ment, we recognize a disposition in determining this question, to be con- 
siderate, just and fair to those upon whom the greater exactions in the 
future may fall, but at the same time there is resolution to perform 
that which their duties as guardians of a trust impose, among these a 
duty which now seems to be demanded by the common professional 
welfare of pharmacy. 

It is not assumed, nor is it asserted, that this College, or other 
similar institutions are wholly responsible for the present status of 
pharmacy educational and moral, but it is contended that the educa- 
tional colleges constitute an essential part in a common agency, in 
which whatever of responsibility exists is divided, and believing that 
by the adoption of a better system of discrimination in its proteges 
this College can elevate the standing of pharmacy, and relieve itself of 
all reproach ; such course impresses itself upon the mind as a duty 



Am. Jour.^pharm.j Advantage of Preliminary Examination. 71 

demanded alike by the welfare of the body and a conscientious regard 
for the interests of pharmacy. 

Let me ask you whether you think it an overdrawn statement, that 
scores of young men who having attempted pharmacy as a pursuit, 
without fitness, suddenly confronted with a realizing sense of the 
arduous task before them, diverted from any inclination to the pursuit 
of study by the exactions of business, placed at many, and serious dis- 
advantages — without qualified instructors — promised a knowledge of 
the business, but never permitted to use the means of attaining it, 
should eagerly grasp at any other prospect than the tedium of shop 
study, should present themselves here under a pardonable delusion 
that this College can assume the entire charge and responsibility for 
their complete and perfect education, and ultimately go forth under 
the still worse self-delusion that they have obtained it ?^ 

William Procter, a man eminent and honored throughout the world 
wherever pharmacy is known, whose memory is revered here with 
profound respect, whose mind was instinctive with the best interest of 
pharmacy, writes eiitorially in the Journal as follows, April, 1871 : 
No amount of tuition by lectures will be equivalent to that which the 
earnest student receives in the dispensing shop under the personal in- 
struction of a well qualified pharmaceutist who takes an interest in his 
pupil ; " again on the same subject, in 1871, he says, ^' It is not to be 
expected that a large proportion of students of pharmacy can get the 
tuition they need in college schools, and it is time that some eiforts 
should be directed by disinterested (disinterested so far as any connec- 
tion with the College was concerned, we presume) members of our 
profession towards encouraging this home effort among the present 
generation of apprentices and assistants;^' and again in 1869, ^' An 
apothecary without shop experience is like a medical graduate without 
hospital or other practice. They are both of doubtful reliability." 

Let us go back to the earlier history of this College, and dividing 
its term of existence into periods, note some significant facts. The 
College was incorporated in 1821 — five years elapsed before any 
graduate went forth — taking the period from 1826 to 1869, inclusive — 
forty-three years — we find by the record that this College graduated 
701 young men, or an average of 16 J per year — now observe — that in 

iThe College still adheres to its By-law as rigorously as it ever did, viz., that the can- 
didate for the diploma shall " have served an apprenticeship of at least four years with 
a person or persons engaged in and qualified to conduct the drug business." — Editor 
Am. Jour. Phak. 



72 Advantage of Preliminary Examination. { ^'"■reb^^isss*^™" 

the fifteen years following the average number has reached 99|-, almost 
a 100 each year. We present this statistical statement without com- 
ment, although it would be a matter of interest to connect cause and 
efFect.i 

It must be borne thoughtfully in mind in considering this subject 
that with the growth of this College handsome pecuniary interests have 
also grown and continue to increase — interests which, if kept sub- 
servient to the ethical status of the College and of the profession, would 
be looked upon simply as gratifying evidence of prosperity, but which, 
if permitted to exercise their natural influence, are at variance with 
and inimical to those principles of ethics controlling professional wel- 
fare. Professor Parrish, an eminent authority, writing in 1854, see 
Am. Jour, of Pharm.,'' page 215, Vol. ii. No. 3, says, "Against the 
establishment of numerous schools of pharmacy there lie many objec- 
tions founded upon the difficulty of maintaining them, and upon the 
almost inevitable lowering of the standard of graduation consequent 
upon this kind of competition.'' 

A conviction now well settled in the public mind and largely added 
to by the expressions of the public press, is that the degree granting 
institutions of this country have let go the old-time safeguards and 
entered into an era of business rivalry. That the diploma has lost a 
measure of its credit of value, except as a testimonial of a certain 
amount of zeal and industry in the pursuit of study. 

By a retrospect of the history of this College we are able to ascertain 
something of its origin and the causes which promoted it. As original 
members whose connection with the College dates with the beginning, 
ten respected names appear, seven of whom were, we believe, classed 
in the directory of the day as wholesale druggists. From this and 
other historical information which surrounds its foundation and early 
history, we are led to believe that it had its conception in the fact that 
the assistants of the wholesale stores were deprived of that important 
rudimentary education of greater familiarity with drugs which the 
retail shops at that time so well afforded, and this disparity of oppor- 
tunities resulted in throwing upon the profession a class of illy-in- 
formed men, many of whom, by drift of circumstances, ultimately 
found their way into retail establishments as assistants or principals 
and thus ignorance multiplied. In other words, the original object of 

iThere are about 28,000 proprietors of drug stores in the United States; how many of 
these are Graduates iu Pharmacy ?— Editor Am. Jouk. Phar. 



^^'■Feh^mt^'} Advantage of Preliminary Examination. 73 

this institution was to afford a theoretical knowledge of pharmacy as a 
science, and to inculcate a better comprehension of its collateral 
branches of botany and chemistry, which latter, particularly, the too 
limited (at most) term of apprenticeship failed to afford. 

We here assert without fear of reasonable contradiction that it never 
was the intent and purpose of this institution in its foundation, or sub- 
sequent course, to assert the prerogative or office of imparting full and 
Gom'plete instruction in a vocation which includes mechanical scope, nor 
to arrogate to itself any broad scheme of education which should pro- 
fess to supercede that practical information which the shop only and 
no other means could properly supply. 

It has been the expressed conviction of the most eminent men in the 
profession since the early history of pharmacy in this country that the 
art, or the rudimentary branches, without which no deep foundation 
of requisite knowledge can be had, could be better acquired in the work 
shop, implement in hand, with tutoring oversight than by any theo- 
retical instruction away from familiar surroundings, and that the 
mechanical principles involved in the various operations to be per- 
formed, can only be impressed and comprehended by renewed and re- 
peated familiarity with the processes themselves. This seemed to apply 
with greater force to pharmacy than to any other of the higher occupa- 
tions, because its work is not only scientific but mechanical, and with 
manual dexterity must go a certain amount of reasoning power, and 
the combined working and thinking were calculated to make a deep 
and lasting impression upon the expanding mind, which no amount of 
didatic or superficial teaching could equal. 

To quote too freely in illustration of what we present would be to 
impose too much upon your time, but we desire at this point to refer 
to the general remarks on this subject in the syllabus of study pre- 
pared for students by William Procter, under the auspices of the 
American Pharmaceutical Association, printed in the Proc. of 1858, 
also to the article of Edward Parrish, published in the proceedings of 
the American Pharmaceutical Association of 1872, On the prelimi- 
nary education of apprentices these two articles from the pens of 
honored authors, now deceased, seem like legacies left for our benefit, 
and will well repay perusal by those interested in this subject.^ 

1 We agree with the author that the papers alluded to should be regarded as legacies 
from men who were eminent as pharmacists and as teachers of pharmacy. Prof. Proc- 
ter's views on the preliminary education of apprentices are given in the foot-note on 
page 66, those of Prof. Parrish in the paper mentioned above, which was the last one 



74 Advantage of Preliminary Examination. {^^ YeT^m^' 

A reference to the numerous articles extant, and to the public 
utterances of the most observant minds of earlier pharmacy, indicate 
one general view of this subject, and this view, that the shop tuition 
and practice was the one vital principle underlying all true foundation 
of pharmaceutical knowledge, and that, without this, no apprentice to 
pharmacy could be prepared for the higher attainments in scientific 
knowledge, that this training should preferably precede, or be coincident 
with collegiate courses, and that the two should be so fitted and adapted 
as to secure the best results to the student. 

If we turn a look of inquiry into the existing condition of phar- 
macy of this country, and compare it with that of twenty years since, 
we will observe a marked decline ; its morale is not what it then was, 
its personnel has undergone most distinctive change, and that essential 
esp7^it du corps which should characterize a body of scientific men is 
totally lacking. The value and usefulness of its offices are still recog- 
nized, but its representatives fail to command that public respect and 
confidence accorded to those of former years. Instead of the mer- 
chandizing features of the business being auxilliary to the scientific 
art, the latter is only an appendage to the former, and if the mere 
insignia of the occupation be taken away there would be scarcely 
features enough left to recognize pharmacy. A groundling and mer- 
cenary spirit has absorbed the ethical sentiment, and pharmacy seems 
to be threatened with disintegration. If asked to trace these results to 
a cause, we should ascribe them to an occupation vastly over-crowded. 
An occupation no longer remunerative as a distinct vocation, it has 
become naturally subservient to the arts of trade, as evidenced by the 
inroads of manufacturers, the adoption of nostrums and quackery, the 
piracies of commerce. That a spirit of rivalry in the collegiate insti- 
tutions has had much to do with augmenting the ranks of pharmacy, 
we think none will deny. The temptation has been great to open wide 
doors to the clamoring throngs seeking admission to educational 
methods, which promise a comparatively quick and easy accomplish- 
ment of a work, the work of a life otherwise tedious and difficult ! 

The statistics of the census show a ratio of one apothecary to every 

written by him on a pharmaceutical subject a few months before his death; the paper 
concludes with the following earnest advice (italics our own) : " Let our Colleges then 
be kept open to all, let their instructions be popularized and made as comprehensive as 
possible, and while we seek gradually to raise the standard of graduation, let us vot 
choke the entrance to the schools by restrictions calculated to exclude those who most need 
their tn^^rttc^iom."— Editor Am. Jour. Phar. 



'*^"^*Fiu"'^i^85*'^™' } Advantage of Preliminary Examination. 75 

1,500 of population in the city of Philadelphia; in the country at 
large the proportion is as one to 1,800. 

There has been a steady growth of business rivalry in the more 
prominent pharmaceutical institutions of this country; some have 
wisely withdrawn from all competitive effort, and such course has been 
received with approval. The future work and standing of these 
institutions will give ample evidence of a wise foresight. 

The University of Michigan was the first institution in this country, 
we believe, to take the long, bold stride of graduating pharmacists 
without any requirement of preliminary educational or shop training. 
The action of the Michigan University was not without remonstrance, 
but this was answered with the ingenious plea that the College was 
not engaged in making mere ready tradesmen in pharmacy, but of pre- 
paring men for higher and more responsible positions, educating 
scientific experts, drug assayers, toxicologists, men habituated to accu- 
racy, etc.; presuming such to have been a hona-fide intention, would 
the country find a need of so many men to fill positions only casually 
made necessary ? No ; and we believe the view was firmly maintained 
that it was an unsafe departure from time-honored precedent, and 
could end only in degeneracy and demoralization, but it marked, as we 
have said, a step in the methods of rivalry. 

If time permits, suppose we look a little farther, and compare 
pharmacy in its status or standing with its associate profession, medi- 
cine. Here are two professions, whose offices, both liberal and 
humane, whose educational requirements include the same general 
scope of study, yet differ so widely, in the public respect, deference 
and appreciation. We believe not as a pharmacist, but as an honest 
conviction, that a thorough pharmacist requires a better education than 
his medical brother, and yet medicine takes higher social rank than 
pharmacy ; yea, higher scientific rank. That this should be the case 
must be explained by the fact that the votary of medicine, deservedly, 
has the credit of being the better equipped of the two in educational 
advantages. And there are many who hold to the opinion that phar- 
macy will never take equal rank with medicine until it includes in its 
personnel a more considerable proportion of well educated and cultured 
men. 

Pharmacy it must be borne in mind draws its recruits from the 
great middle classes, including the better educated laboring element,, 
who seeking more remunerative occupations for their wards, and being 



76 Advantage of Preliminary Examination. {^^'^^h^imb^^^' 

yet too limited in means to bestow a liberal education, the sons must 
be at labor at an early age for self-sustenance, thus trenching, through 
necessity, upon those precious years of tutelage, and finally launching 
them into some pursuit (it may be pharmacy) for which they are in 
no manner qualified. 

Does the literature of the pharmaceutical profession of this country 
give any evidence of the value of its scientific education ? We think 
not ; there is an apparent absence of effort, and no especially important 
contributions emanate from American authors, in the line of valuable 
research and discovery, a fact of significance to those prone to boast of 
improved methods and enlarged opportunities.^ Take the higher type 
of our own periodicals, take our own offspring, the " American Journal 
of Pharmacy,'' and from what source does it derive its best material ? 
Most certainly from the close and thorough students of that grand old 
Empire, Germany, comes an everflowing flood of light and know- 
ledge ; " an empire upon whose educational system (pharmacy included) 
all others, with some modifications, are formed; an empire which has 
for generations been rearing up a complete system of education for all 
classes, which whilst it lays foundation broad and deep in general 
culture, directs at the same time mental research into the channels of 
art and science, and fosters this with a wisely guiding and directing 
hand." 

The present condition of pharmacy in England and America are 
somewhat similar; the same determining causes exist there as here, 
with the same general result. Complaint loud and persistent has 
awakened our transatlantic brethren to a realizing sense of a profession 
imperilled, and they have instituted as prerequisites to pharmacy, indi- 
vidual capacity, educational fitness, preliminary training, and are seek- 
ing parliamentary enactment to protect the commercial features of the 
business. 

If we take a view of pharmacy of Continental Europe, we find a 
wholly different condition prevailing, a high educational requisite pre- 
scribed by law, in some countries a governmental supervision and con- 
trol, territorial limitation to business, legal sanction and license, each 
and every one of which exactions aims to secure, and it unquestionably 

1 We are not disposed to overrate the importance of contributions to pharmaceutical 
knowledge from American authors; yet it is but proper to state that such papers 
receive due attention on the other side of the Atlantic, and are, as a [rule, regarded as 
possessing practical— if not scientific— value.— Editor Am. Jour. Phar. 



^""Ver'^isS*™' } Advantage of Preliminary Examination. 77 

does secure, for the profession, its highest possible attainment, dignity 
and usefulness. 

The question of pharmaceutical education assumed great promi- 
nence at the meeting of the International Pharmaceutical Congress, 
held in London, August, 1881. The various representatives of 
pharmacy, in reply to interrogatories, gave statements of the legal 
and professional status of pharmacy in France, Italy, Sweden, Den- 
mark, Belgium, Holland, Austria and Hungary. In all of these 
countries the Government controls pharmacy. The standard of edu- 
cation is prescribed and rigidly determined, and there are special laws 
bearing upon the relation of pharmacy to the State and to the public. 
Such restriction would be obnoxious, and difficult of imposition in a 
country like this, but the main point which is essential to our purpose 
here is to show the universally admitted importance of the first pro- 
gressive step, preparatory education.^ 

The code of ethics of this College — the moral law, upon which all 
provisional should be based, in paragraph 9, on the subject of appren- 
tices in their relation te this Institution, reads thus : " It is recomended 
that those applicants who have had the advantage of a good prelimi- 
nary education, including the Latin language, should be preferred 
in the selection.^ A law of essential importance, yet heretofore openly 
disregarded by non-compliance, ever since the time, perhaps, when 
oral examinations were discontinued, a method immensely superior to 
that now adopted, for through it examiner and examinee were brought 
into close personal relation, and the former had many opportunities of 
ascertaining the proficiency of his pupil in general culture by conver- 
sational tests, opportunities which are now wholly shut out. A student 
in the processes of examination, as subsequently conducted, may be 
profoundly ignorant of all else ; his chirography may be bad, his ety- 
mology even worse, yet an acute mental retention, in a certain line of 
instruction, may save him from failure. 

It has been stated that this College would have no legal right to bar 
out candidates. The preamble to the charter refutes such idea, in the 

1 This preparatory education is required in tlie countries named, as it is in England, 
before the young man can become an apprentice in pliarmacy.— Editor Am. Jour. 
Thar. 

2 The quotation refers to the selection of apprentices by employers and members of 
the College ; the subject of preliminary examination before entering the College is not 
alluded to, directly or indirectly, in the code of ethics, charter, constitution or by-laws. 
-Editor Am. Jour. Phar. 



78 Advantage of Preliminary Examination. {^""'FeT^sld^^^' 

language which says : " to dispense and prepare drugs and medicines 
requires knowledge and skill of a peculiar kind/^ " it is the duty of 
good government to protect its citizens from ills and dangers/^ " insti- 
tuted (the College) for the purpose of cultivating, improving and 
making known a knowledge of pharmacy and its collateral branches 
of science.'^ 

In the application of these remarks, in so far as they may apply to 
all interested, no spirit of unkindness exists ; nor tendency to deter the 
earnest and thoughtful student from the pursuit of a study congenial 
to his tastes and inclination. Pharmacy wants cultured and educated 
men, needs them urgently to raise up the status of a dignified and 
worthy profession ; but she wants none to venture under a self-imposed 
conviction that the path to her portals, and through her broad fields of 
science is smooth, straight and easy of pursuit. This College is eager 
to extend to all fitted aspirants a helping hand, and extending to these 
her offices, share in the pride of their success and future eminence. 
The range of studies required to fit the man has become so wide 
that a great part of his preparation must be accomplished before the 
College assumes the guardianship of his further progress ; if deferred 
until afterwards, the deficiency will never be made up. The Phila- 
delphia College of Pharmacy is not willing longer to assume the risks 
of the past. A sound elementary and rudimentary instruction before 
collegiate courses will make the students' instruction here a matter of 
far more easy comprehension, and when the final test comes he falls 
back upon a well-grounded structure of preliminary knowledge, with 
a self-dependent feeling of confidence greatly to his credit and advan- 
tage. This College, like a parent, feels the greater pride in her 
brightest children, but nevertheless with true parental instinct she 
loves them all. 

Philadelphia, January 20, 1885. 



Use of Cocaine.— Dr. Jelinek obtained temporary relief in a ease of 
painful deglutition by applying to the back part of the mouth a ten per 
cent, solution of cocaine ( Wiener Med. Woch. Schr.) Dr. Murrell has 
used cocaine hydrochlorate in neuralgia, relief being afforded by hypo- 
dermic injection ; but he prefers a 20 per cent, solution of the salt in oil of 
cloves, of which from 5 to 10 minims are rubbed in with the finger.— ^H^. 
Med. Jour. 



Am. Jour. Pharm . ) 
Feb., 1885. j 



Spiritus Ammonice AromaticuSy 



79 



SPIRITUS AMMONIA AROMATICUS. 
By Andrew Blair. 
Bead at the Pharmacetitical Meeting, January 20, 1885. 
It is a very important matter that all preparations, especially of a 
medicinal nature, should be, as far as it is possible to make them, per- 
manent in appearance, taste, smell and activity. About a year ago, 
the attention of the writer was called to a lot of aromatic spirit of ammo- 
nia, of which complaint had been made on account of its deep red or 
brown color. This was very marked, and so much so as to induce an 
examination of the cause. 

If we look at the Pharmacopoeia of 1870, we find the following 



formula : 

R Carbonate of ammonium 

Water of ammonia f^iii 

Oil of lemon f^iiss 

Oil of nutmeg irixl 

Oil of lavender rrixv 

Alcohol Oiss 

Water, q. s. ft Oii 



This preparation has been satisfactory, and no occasion to modify, 
improve or alter it has ever existed, that the writer is aware of. It is 
permanent in its color to a marked degree, the change in 18 months 
being so slight it is hardly worth noticing. (See sample No. 1.) 

Let us now look at the formula in the Pharmacopoeia of 1880, and 
we find it contains : 



R Carbonate of ammonium 40 parts. 

Water of ammonia 100 " 

Oil of lemon 12 " 

Oil of lavender 1 *' 

Oil of pimenta 1 " 

Alcohol, recently distilled and kept in glass 

vessels 700 " 

Distilled water, q. s. ft 1,000 " 



(See sample No. 2, which changed to its present color about a month 
after it was made.) 

In the main it is like the formula of 1870, the only difference being 
in one of the flavoring constituents. Investigation determined that 
this trifling change was the cause of the trouble. Why such an altera- 
tion to a formula that has been satisfactory for 10 years or more it is 



80 



Spiritus AmmoniGe Aromaticus. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
Feb., 1885. 



hard to understand, unless the idea prevails that with each new issue 
of our official book of formulas some changes " must " be made, or 
the revisers will be accused of neglecting their duty. 

A condition of the formula of the Pharmacopoeia of 1880, which 
the writer did not regard in making these samples, is the use of 
" recently distilled " alcohol. How many pharmacists have recently 
distilled alcohol, or would be able to procure it when making aro- 
matic spirit of ammonia ; or who would take the trouble to make it 
when needed for such preparation ? This is one of the many absurd 
hindrances put in the way of pharmacists by the revisers of the last 
Pharmacopoeia, to discourage and in some instances absolutely prevent 
them making their own preparations, except at very great cost, and by 
unnecessarily complicated and tedious processes, thereby encouraging 
them to buy the ready-made goods provided by the host of wholesale 
- druggists who supply all and everything ready made that the Pharma- 
copoeia contains. The simplest preparations, such as paregoric, Hux- 
ham's tincture, and such like, are now supplied by the gallon, and at 
prices in some cases, forced by close competition, that, counting the 
cost of ''good" ingredients, would leave no margin or profit for the 
maker. 

The causes of or advantages derived from the change in the prepa- 
ration under consideration is wrapped in mystery, as far as the writer's 
knowledge goes. Such changes are an injury rather than a benefit. 

To conform as much as ])ossible to the official formula, the writer 
has been in the habit of using that ordered in the Pharmacopoeia of 
1880, using oil of nutmeg instead of oil of allspice, and disregarding 
the order to use ''recently distilled" alcohol. The formula reads thus : 



Carbonate of ammonium 40 parts 

Water of ammonia 100 " 

Oil of lemon 12 " 

Oil of lavender flowers 1 " 

Oil of nutmeg 1 " 

Alcohol 700 " 

Distilled water, q. s. ft 1,000 " 



and you have the result in sample No. 3, which has now been made 
over a year. It has been and is satisfactory in every way, and needs 
no improvement. 

For sake of comparison, there are here samples made within the 
past 24 hours according to the Pharmacopoeias of 1870 and 1880. 



Analysis of Fouquieria Splendens. 81 



PKOXIMATE ANALYSIS OF THE BAKK OF FOU- 
QUIERIA SPLENDENS. 
By Helen C. De 8. Abbott J 
In the published proceedings of the Mexican Boundary Survey of 
1859, conducted by General William H. Emory, are found numerous 
references to Fouquieria splendens. No region of equal extent presents 
more marked illustrations of the relations of the vegetation of a coun- 
try to its topography and geology than that lying along the Mexican 
boundary line. The traveler traversing the desert table-lands will not 
fail to unite in his recollections of these tracts the dull foliage of the 
creosote bush, the palm-like Yucca, and the long thorny wands of the, 
Fouquieria splendens. The vegetation of the El Paso basin and the 
Upper Rio Grande valley is described as strikingly different from that 
of the immediately adjoining country ; new and strange plants are 
seen on every side. Upon the table-lands many plants grow not to be 
found in the more fertile valleys ; among these is Fouquieria, a tree 
locally known by its Mexican name ocotiTla. A full description of the 
appearance of the plant is given in the Mexican Boundary Survey ; 
also one in an article by Edward Lee Green.^ The author describes 
Fouquieria. splendens in these terms : " It is a splendid oddity and not 
more odd than beautiful, flourishing in great abundance in many places. 
It grows to the height of from eight to twelve feet, and in outline is 
quite precisely fan-shaped. The proper trunk, usually ten to twelve 
inches in diameter, is not more than a foot and a half high. A few 
inches above the surface of the sands this trunk abruptly separates into 
a dozen or more distinct and almost branchless stems. These simple 
stems rising to the height of eight or ten feet gradually diverge from 
one another, giving to the w4iole shrub the outline of a spread fan. 
Each separate stem is clothed throughout with short gray thorns and 
small dark green leaves, and tenninates in a spike, a foot long, of 
bright scarlet trumpet-shaped flowers. The stems are not so thickly 
armed with thorns, but that they can be handled if grasped circum- 
spectly, and being very hard and durable, as well as of a convenient 
size, they are much employed for fencing purj^oses about the stage 

' Paper read before the Chemical Section of the American Association for 
the Advancement of Science, at Philadelphia, 1884, by H. C. De S. Abbott. 
^ Botanizing on the Colorado Desert, " American Naturalist," 1880. 

6 



82 



Analysis of Fouquieria Splendens. 



A.m Jour. Pharm. 

Feb., 1885. 



stations and upon the ranches adjoining the desert/^ The author states : 
^' Give a skillful Mexican ocotilla poles and plenty of raw hide thongs 
and he requires neither nail nor hammer to construct a line of fence, 
which for combined strength, neatness and durability fairly rivals the 
best work of that kind done in our land of saw-mills and nail factories/' 
The plant is botanically described under the order Ihmariscineoe, tribe 
III, Fouquierece, new genus and species.^ For other sources of in- 
formation see ^' A Tour in New Mexico f^^ and in " Plantse Wright- 
ianse Texano-Mexicause.'^^ The writer has not been able to find any 
notice of chemical studies made upon it. 

The specimens of ocotilla, at the writer's request, were collected and 
transmitted from Lake valley, Southwest New Mexico, through the 
kindness of Professor E. D. Cope. The portions of the stem, similar 
to those used in the analysis, vary in diameter from an inch to an inch 
and a half. The bark shows a thickness of over an eighth of an inch, 
and is of a sage color generally. The exterior surface is made rough 
by an interlacement of hard projecting material ; some of the smaller 
stems are encircled with the gray thorns described, arising in regular 
series from the projecting portions of the bark. Between the inter- 
lacements are oblong and diamond-shaped intervals, which are filled 
with superimposed layers of a yellowish color and looking as if coated 
with a wax. They appear to be cemented together by a glistening 
substance which on warming the bark exudes and possesses a resinous 
or gum-like consistency. 

In the present investigation, the scheme proposed by DragendorflP^ 
has been followed out, with the exception of the maceration at the 
ordinary temperature ; an apparatus similar to the one devised by 
ToUens^ has been used for the extractions. The air dried material re- 
duced to a very fine powder was again dried at 100° C. giving 9*4 per 
cent, moisture. The great importance of powdering the material for 
the various estimations as insisted upon by DragendorflP^ was fully con- 
firmed in these examinations. Quantitative determinations with 

1 Bentham and Hooker. Genera Plantarum. 

2 By Dr. N. Wislizenus. 

3 Gray, Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge. Vol. iii, Part i, p. 85 
and Ft. ii, p. 63. 

* Plant Analysis, Qualitative and Quantitative. G. Drageudorff, Ph.D. 
Translated from the German by H. G. Greenish. London, 1884. 

5 '* Zeitschrift f. anal. Chemie," xiv, 82, 1875, and xvii, 320, 1878. 

* Loc cit. 



ieh^ssb^'''^'} Analysis of Fouquieria Splendens. 83 

ocotilla bark reduced to fine pieces gave 2 per cent, and 3' 5 per cent, 
less than the percentage obtained from the estimations with the 
powdered substance. Determination of total ash gave 10*26 per cent.; 
a qualitative ash analysis showed the presence of calcium, magnesium, 
aluminum, potassium, sodium and a trace of iron, sulphates, phosphates 
and chlorides. 

Ten grammes of the air-dried powder treated with petroleum spirit 
of boiling point 46° C. extracted a substance without aromatic odor, 
communicating to the liquid alight color. From 100° C.C a measured 
portion was evaporated for determination of total amount of substances 
brought into solution. The residue dried at 100° C. gave 9 per cent., 
at 110° C. 8-87 per cent., at 120° C. 8*875 per cent, and a loss of '125 
per cent, showing scarcely appreciable trace of volatile oil. The 
remainder of the petroleum spirit extract on evaporation at the ordinary 
temperature left a solid yellowish-green wax substance of specific 
gravity '984, melting from 84° C. to 85° C, insoluble in water, slowly 
soluble in boiling 95 per cent, alcohol, readily in absolute alcohol, in 
cold ether, chloroform, amyl alcohol, benzol, carbon disulphide, oil of 
turpentine and linseed oil ; slightly dissolved in aqueous alkalies, but 
not saponifying with them. It is colored yellow by nitric acid, acted 
upon by concentrated sulphuric acid, and not by hydrochloric acid nor 
aqua regia. By means of combining sulphuric acid and solvents, I 
was able to obtain several color reactions that may prove upon further 
investigation of value in identification of the different vegetable waxes. 
With Japanese wax, the only specimen of vegetable wax, I could ob- 
tain, the color reactions differed in each test from the substance under 
consideration. The following color reactions were obtained with the 
petroleum spirit residue. When small fragments were stirred on a 
watch crystal with two or three drops of concentrated sulphuric acid of 
1*84 sp. gr. the substance at once changed color to a clear garnet red 
and w^as slowly dissolved by the acid, the liquid remaining colored ; 
with different portions of the red acid liquid stirred on a watch crystal 
with various solvents used in excess, it was noted as follows : With 
absolute alcohol the color was instantly dissipated leaving a white 
precipitate ; petroleum spirit discolored the acid solution, leaving no 
precipitate ; ether discolored with gray precipitate ; chloroform changed 
the red acid liquid to yellow, no precipitate; with benzol the red 
color was changed to snuff-brown gradually passing to red-brown ; 
amyl alcohol gave a rose-pink and slowly passing through varying 



84 Analysis of Fouquieria Splendens. {'^™*F*Sr^i885*'™' 

tints to a fine purple. So called pure amyl alcohol was used and when 
tested did not give a color reaction alone with sulphuric acid. The 
petroleum spirit residue on boiling with absolute alcohol and when 
warm, thrown into several times its volume of cold water separated out 
as a white cloud. 

Employing a method by which melissyl alcohol has been obtained 
from Carnaiiba wax,i the petroleum spirit residue was submitted to a 
like treatment. It was boiled with alcoholic potash and saponified,, 
the alcohol distilled off and lead acetate added ; a heavy light-yellow 
colored precipitate formed, and on boiling yellow masses separated out. 
They were washed, dried, and boiled with absolute ether. The filtered 
liquid on cooling deposited a yellow crystalline substance, which on 
heating on platinum foil turned black and disappeared. Beyond ascer- 
taining the fusing point, solubilities, and color reactions, the substance 
was not further examined. It was found to fuse between 43° C. and 
60° C, the greatest change occurring between 57° C. and 60° C. ; to 
be soluble in chloroform and ether ; scarcely soluble in cold absolute 
alcohol; very slightly soluble in boiling 95 per cent, alcohol ; not 
acted upon by nitric acid nor aqua regia. Sulphuric acid dissolved the 
substance and gave an orange color reaction discolored on adding alcohol, 
ether, chloroform and ammonia to the acid liquid, with no precipitate ; 
with amyl alcohol a pale rose pink quickly fading, and with benzol a 
brown color, were obtained. The color tests differed from those ob- 
tained with the substance before saponification and treating with boiling 
ether, indicating that the petroleum spirit residue can be separated into 
at least two substances and possibly more, which remain to be determined 
by a future study. 

The powder exhausted by petroleum spirit, was dried and similarly 
treated with absolute ether as in the previous extraction. The ethereal 
extract of a greenish color gave an acid reaction with litmus, and on 
addition of alcohol the liquid became turbid. Spectroscopic examina- 
tion failed to detect the characteristic chlorophyll bands. The ethereal 
residue on evaporation presented differences in color and solidity from 
the petroleum spirit residue. It was quite brittle, and was not ap- 
preciably softened at 120° C. It gave when dried at 100° C. 4*52 per 
cent, solids extracted, at 110° C. 4*44 per cent, and at 120° C. 4*42 
per cent. The residue when evaporated at ordinary temperature was 



1 Liebig, Aimalen, 183, p. 344; Watts Diet. Chem. 



'^"^ rtr'^isss*^™'} Analysis of Fouquieria Splendens. 85 

insoluble in petroleum spirit, slightly soluble in 95 per cent, alcohol 
and carbon disulphide, quite soluble in cold absolute alcohol, amyl 
alcohol, chloroform, benzol and oil of turpentine. Nitric acid gave 
no reaction. With sulphuric acid and small portions of the ethereal 
residue, I obtained a dark mahogany color. This solution on adding 
absolute alcohol was partially discolored, no precipitate. With ether 
the sulphuric acid solution gave a greenish precipitate, with amyl 
alcohol the acid solution was discolored changing to pale red, then 
green. These tests show in each case a wide difference in color re- 
actions from those obtained with the petroleum spirit residue. The 
amount of solids taken up on treating the ethereal residue with water 
was '36 per. cent. The aqueous liquid was neutral to litmus, portions 
tested for alkaloids gave negative results ; on warming and addition of 
dilute sulphuric acid, Fehling's solution was reduced, indicating possibly 
glucosides. The portion insoluble in water was then treated with 
absolute alcohol. The liquid gave an acid reaction with test paper. A 
measured part of the liquid was evaporated and the weighed residue 
showed 1*6 per cent, of solids dissolved. The residue from the evapo- 
rated alcoholic liquid was partially dissolved by aqueous alkalies. It 
readily saponified with alcoholic soda, forming a soft brown soap, 
which on boiling with lead acetate yielded a yellow precipitate. This 
was collected on a filter and washed. When the precipitate was boiled 
with absolute ether and the filtrate allowed to slowly evaporate, a 
white organic crystaline substance separated out. Under the microscope 
particles of coloring matter were found to be interspersed among the 
crystalline structures. 

The indications would show an acid resin to have been extracted by 
the ether. 

The ten grammes of powdered bark, after exhaustion with petroleum 
spirit followed by absolute ether, were treated with absolute alcohol. 
A measured quantity of the alcoholic extract was evaporated in a 
weighed platinum dish, dried until weight noted was constant. After 
incineration the amount of ash was found to be '15 per cent, of the 
original material. The alcoholic extract for determination of total 
amount of organic solids dissolved, was evaporated in a current of car- 
bonic acid, when the residue dried gave 8*6 per cent, and 7*98 per cent, 
of solids respectively. A cloudiness formed on the addition of water 
to the residue, which cleared up on addition of alkalies. It was 
Tostored by acid. The aqueous liquid gave precipitates with calcium 



86 



Analysis of Fouquiena Splendens. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
Feb., 1885. 



and lead salts. It reduced Fehling's solution on adding dilute acid 
and warming. Negative results followed tests for alkaloids. Treating^ 
with two volumes of absolute alcohol, according to Dragendorff for 
detection of gum, vegetable mucilage was separated. Tests failed to- 
detect the presence of tannin. 

The residue of the powdered bark, after exhaustion with absolute 
alcohol, was treated with cold water. A deep red mucilaginous liquid 
which became frothy on shaking, was extracted. The amount of solids- 
in this solution, on evaporating the liquid and weighing the residue 
was found to be 19*11 per cent.; in absence of acid or boiling glucose 
was identified by Fehling's solution, also by Mulder's test. A gum 
separated by absolute alcohol and quantitatively estimated, show^ed 
4*8 per cent, of the amount of substances dissolved in water. The 
powdered residue, after treatment with water, was macerated with 
dilute acid, and gave negative tests for alkaloids. The extraction with 
caustic soda for identification of albuminous substances, followed by 
chlorine water for the estimation of lignin and cellulose, have not yet 
been determined. 

The results of the proximate analysis, as so far completed, may be 
stated as follows: 



Moisture 9 4 

Petroleum spirit residue , 9* 

Ethereal residue 4*52 

Alcoholic residue 8*6 

Water residue 19*11 

Total ash 10*26 

Alcoholic extract ash 00*15 



61*04 

The difference of 38*96 per cent, would include pectose, coloring 
matter and cellulose or woody fibre. 

Petroleum spirit extracted a solid substance, yellowish green in color 
of sp. gravity .984, melting from 84° C. to 85° C, insoluble in water 
slightly soluble in boiling 95 per cent, alcohol, soluble in absolute 
alcohol, cold ether, chloroform, amyl alcohol, benzol, carbon disul- 
phide, oil of turpentine and linseed oil. It was slightly acted upon by 
aqueous alkalies ; but readily saponified with alcoholic soda. Treat- 
ing the soap with lead acetate and boiling the precipitate with ether, a 
yellow crystalline substance was obtained, melting from 43° C. to 
60° C. Sulphuric acid combined with solvents gave characteristic 



^^Fer'iss?*'^™ } Analysis of Fouquieria Splendens. 87 

and distinct reactions with the yellowish-green petroleum spirit residue, 
and with the crystalline substance separated from it. 

A scheme has been proposed for the identification of various waxes 
based upon quantitative experiments/ The examination rendered 
division into two groups possible, according to the solubilities of the 
waxes with chloroform. Again their action with ether, and acetate of 
lead solution added to the alcoholic solutions, allow the several varieties 
of waxes to be distinguished from each other. 

The petroleum spirit residue was submitted to the tests proposed in 
Hirschsohn's scheme. It was boiled with ten times its volume of 
chloroform and when cool the liquid became cloudy. By this test the 
petroleum spirit residue was placed in the group with Carnaiiba and 
Bahia wax. An ethereal solution of the petroleum spirit residue, on 
adding an equal volume of alcohol, remained clear. According to 
Hirschsohn^s Scheme,^ an ethereal solution of Bahia wax similarly 
treated remains clear, and by this means the wax is distinguished from 
Carnaiiba wax, which it is said to resemble in mo."^ of its properties. 
The wax from Copernicia cerifera, the Carnaiiba tree of Brazil, and 
Carnaiiba wax obtained from the leaves of Corypha cerifera, are 
related very closely by their chemical properties and possibly are 
identical.^ 

Carnaiiba wax is described as a clear yellow wax with a greenish tinge, 
and harder than bees' wax. It contains a notable percentage of free 
melissyl alcohol and other alcohols very difficult to separate. Insoluble 
in water, it is dissolved with difficulty by alcohol and ether, though 
readily sohible in carbon disulphide and oil of turpentine. It is not 
acted upon by linseed oil ; it is changed yellow by nitric acid ; with 
sulphuric acid no appreciable effect. The melting point is variously 
stated from 82° C. to 85° C. The specific gravity from -998 to -999. 

A table of the specific gravity of the different kinds of waxes pre- 
pared by Dietrich^ shows the density of animal wax to be notably low 
compared with vegetable waxes. Allen^ states that the presence of 

' Contributions to the Chemistry of several varieties of wax, by E. Hirsch- 
sohn, Pharmaceutical Journal and Transactions, vol. x, March, 1880. 
2 Log. cit. 

^ Gmelin. Handbook of Chemistry, vol. xviii. Translated by H. Watts, 
London. 

* E. Dietrich. Specific Gravity of Wax. Journal of Chemical Society, 
1882, vol., xlii, p. 1139. 

^ A. H. Allen. Commercial Organic Analysis. (Also see in same work 
tables of sp. gr. waxes.) 



88 



Analysis of Fouquieria Splendens. 



f Am, Jour. Pharm. 
t Feb.,1885. 



vegetable wax in adulterations of bees^ wax is positively established if 
the density of the sample exceed '970. 

By the method followed out in this analysis, petroleum spirit 
extracted from the powdered bark a substance of constant melting point 
which is identified as a wax. It resembles, in its ethereal solution not 
clouding on addition of alcohol, Bahia wax ; in melting point and specific 
gravity, Carnaiiba wax, also the latter wax by its insolubility in water 
and action with nitric acid. It differs from Carnaiiba wax in its 
greater degree of solubility in absolute alcohol, ether and aqueous 
alkalies. Linseed oil is an active solvent for it, but does not dissolve 
Carnaiiba wax. The color reaction of the petroleum with sulphuric 
acid have been described above. It is. stated that sulphuric acid pro- 
duces no effect with Carnaiiba wax.^ 

The wax obtained from the bark of Fonquieria splendens differs gener- 
ally in its properties from known vegetable waxes, and is evidently a 
new wax, peculiar to this plant. I propose that it be called Ocotilla wax. 

In the ether, absolute alcohol, and water extracts, the presence of an 
acid resin, a white crystalline substance, gum resin, glucose, possibly 
glucosides, gum, and a red coloring matter were indicated. 

The investigations described in the preceding pages were conducted 
in the Chemical Laboratory of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, 
August and September, 1884. 



Thalline is said to have been used successfully in a large number of 
cases in the clinic of Professor Nothnagel, and has the constitution of a 
secondary ehinoline base, being one of a number of chinoline derivatives 
prepared by Professor Skraup, and is represented by the systematic name 
" tetrahydro-parachinanisol." The salts of this base, which have an acid 
reaction, are all freely soluble in water, and have the property of forming 
green compounds when treated with solution of ferric chloride and oxidiz- 
ing agents. On account of this peculiarity, the cumbrous systematic name 
has been dropped in favor of the shorter designation "thalline" (QahKo?). 
The hydrochlorate, sulphate and tartrate of thalline and the hydrochlorate 
of ethylthalliue are the salts that have been used, and these are said to 
show great antipyretic activity in doses of quarter, half and three quarters 
of a gramme, a point in which thalline would seem to compare favorably 
with some of its competitors. The lowering of the temperature is said to 
take place gradually and to last a considerable time, whilst it is not ac- 
companied by any secondary disturbances. Thalline can be conveniently 
administered in wafers containing a quarter or half of a gramme of the 
sulphate. — Phar. Jour, and Trans. ^ November 29, 1884 ; Phar. Post. 



1 A. B. Prescott. Outlines of Proximate Organic Analysis. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
Feb., 1885. 



Some Native Southern Remedies. 



89 



SOME NATIVE SOUTHERN REMEDIES. 
By H. H. Rusby, M.D., Detroit, Michigan. 
The following information is taken from the author's paper, based 
upon a report and collection of plants sent him by Dr. E. W. Lane, 
Scarboro, Ga. 

NATURAL ORDER SARRACENIACE.E. 

1. Sarraceilia variolaris, Mx., Spotted Trumpetleaf, Spotted Pitcher 
Plant, Spotted Side-saddle Flower, or Small-pox Plant, reported under 
the additional name of the "Hood-topped Fly-catcher.^' The last 
name possesses interest as being the first reference in the common 
names to a peculiarity of this and other species of the genus, which 
has lately been the subject of special scientific investigation, namely, 
their carnivorous habits. A narrow line of sugary secretion is deposited 
on the outside of the pitclier-shaped leaves, running from near the 
ground up to the edge of, and a little way down into, the cup. Insects 
ascending and feeding from this viscid line, become intoxicated by the 
time they have reached the interior, and fall into the fluid contained 
within the leaf. This fluid contains a substance closely akin to the 
gastric juice, by means of which certain portions of the insects' bodies 
are digested. This proteid matter is then absorbed. The only medical 
virtue heretofore attributed to this genus is that of a small-pox specific, 
which, as pointed out by Dr. Lyons, is probably on the " absurd theory 
of signatures." But Dr. Lane describes it as tonic and slightly ano- 
dyne, and of use in dysenteries. These properties would seem to accord 
well with the physiological habits above given. A secreted substance 
capable of intoxicating insects would be likely to give it "slightly 
anodyne properties," and its digestive principle would be likely to 
render it tonic. As to its use in dysenteries, its abundant astringency 
would render it serviceable in diarrhoeas which often assume a dysen- 
teric type, but scarcely in a real dysentery. The same remarks are 
applicable to the next and other species of Sarracenia. 

2. Sarracenia flava, L., the Yellow-flowered Pitcher-plant, etc., now 
reported as the "Umbrella-topped Fly-catcher." 

NATURAL ORDER CALYCANTHACE^. 

3. Calycanthus Icevigahis, Willd. Sweet-scented Shrub. Reported 
as " Southern Peruvian ;" the bark said to have done good service as a 
tonic and anti-periodic. 



90 



Some Native Southern Remedies. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
t Feb., 1885. 



NATURAL ORDER LEGUMINOS^E. 

4. Phaseolus diver sifolius, Pers. Wild Bean. Reported under the 
name of " King Cure-all/' It grows in sand, from an immense, stout 
club-shaped root, which abounds in starch. It is reported as beneficial 
to dyspeptics, the root being chewal and the saliva swallowed. The 
doctor judges the benefit to be derived from the increased amount of 
saliva swallowed. 

NATURAL ORDER RUBIACE^. 

5. Galium pilosum, Ait., var. Hairy Bed-straw. Reported as 
^' Snake-bite- weed and " Flux-weed/' and the absurd name " Four- 
corners-of-the-earth,'' which last it has probably received in allusion to 
its four-angled stem. It is one of the innumerable weeds, of which every 
village has one or more, said to be a specific for the bite of the rattle- 
snake and other venomous creatures, and without much doubt worthless 
in this respect. Belonging to a family which yields the cinchonas and 
other powerful stimulants, and being so near to the Galium aparine^ 
L., it very possibly has medicinal properties; but the objection to the 
property here proposed rests on our knowledge of the nature of the 
rattle-snake's venom. 

NATURAL ORDER COMPOSITE. 

6. Eupatorium foenicidaceum, Willd., the Fennel-like Boneset. Re- 
ported as the "White-flowered Dog-fennel" (but the true Dog-fennel 
is Anthemis Cotula, L.). Dr. Lane testifies to it as a strong diuretic 
and one used with success for both man and beast. One pint of the 
strong decoction is an effectual drench for horses afflicted with " what 
is commonly called gravel.'' 

7. Eupatorium perfoliatum, L. Boneset or Thorough-wort. 

8. Eupatorium rotundifolium, L. Reported under the name of 
"Wild Horehound." 

9. Eupatorium aromaticum, L. Reported as "Upland Wild Hore- 
hound." The report on the three last confirms the well-known proper- 
ties of these plants. It is a noteworthy fact that E. foeniculaceum should 
possess such marked diuretic power, while its congeners are nearly or 
quite deficient in that respect. 

10. Serieocai'pus tortifolius, Nees. One of the White-topped Asters. 
Reported as " Edgeweed," and said to be useful for colic in horses. 

11. Solidago odora, Ait., the Odorous Golden-Rod. Used as a 
styptic; in the case of wounds, by applying the bruised plant; in the 
case of epistaxis, by snuffing up the powdered dried leaves. It may be 



Am. Jour. Pharm.l 
Feb., I885. J 



Some Native Southern Remedies. 



91 



noted here that attention has recently been called to the fact that in 
certain parts of the country an infusion of the leaves of this plant is 
very generally used as a beverage, as a substitute for tea, a regular 
trade in the article having sprung up in the shops. 

12. Chrysopsis graminifolia, Nutt., the Grass-leaved Silver Aster. 
Reported as "Blue-grass^' and "Fever- grass." Used as a poultice to 
sprains. 

13. Helenium nudifloy^um, Nutt., the Naked-flowered Sneeze-weed. 
Report refers to its well-known irritating properties when applied to 
the nostrils. 

14. Gnaphalium purpureum, L., the Purple-flowered Everlasting. 
Reported as " Cough-weed/' and as a remedy for coughs and colds. 

15. Gnaphalium polycephalam, Mx., the Sweet-scented Life-ever- 
lasting. Reported as a diaphoretic and a poultice in tympanitis. 

16. Pterocaulon pycnostachyum, Ell., the Indian Black-root. Said 
to posses tonic and emmenagogue and oxytocic properties. The latter 
is an interesting announcement as bearing on its well-known narcotic 
properties. 

:natural order gentianace^. 

17. Gentiana ochroleuca, Froel., the Sampson Snake-root. Dr. 
Lane confirms its value as a substitute for the other gentians. 

NATURAL ORDER LOGANIACEiE. 

18. Gelsemimn sempervirens, Ait., the Yellow Jessamine. Concern- 
ing this, the most important and valuable upon the list, and one of the 
most valuable plants in the entire materia medica, the doctor speaks in 
no stinted terms. In his hands, and in the hands of his acquaintances, 
it has sustained the reputation it has generally gained. An interesting 
fact is that a majority of the country practitioners in that section pre- 
pare their own extracts, using eight ounces of the bark of the green 
root to the pint of dilute alcohol. If this practice is general through- 
out the south, it would materially affect the estimate of the consump- 
tion of this drug. 

NATURAL ORDER AMARANTACEtE. 

19. Telanthera polygonoides, Moq. Reported under the name " Piss- 
a-bed,'' and as a diuretic and anti-spasmodic, used in cases of strangury. 

We would repeat that it is most desirable that similar reports, 
accompanied in all cases by specimens showing as much as possible of 
the plant, mailed flat between sheets of pasteboard, should be contrib- 
uted, particularly from the south and southwestern regions. — Therap. 
Gaz., Dec, 1884, p. 546. 



Red Bark of the Nilgiris. 



/Am, Jour. Pharni. 
t ■ Feb., 1885. 



THE DISPUTED IDENTITY OF THE KED BAEK OF THE 
NILGIRIS. 
By W. T. Thistleton Dyer, C.M.G., F.R.S. 

Assistant Director, Royal Gardens, Kew. 

I cannot but regret that Mr. Cross has reopened in the pages of the 
Pharmaceutical Journal/' a question which I imagine most persons 
interested in the subject had hoped had been finally laid to rest.^ 

In 1880, Mr. Cross was employed by the India Office to take out to 
the Nilgiris the plants of Santa Fe and Carthagena barks which had 
been under his charge in the Royal Gardens, Kew. After successfully 
accomplishing this difficult task, he remained in India for some time 
in charge of the plants. 

Early in 1882, I received a letter from Mr. Clements Markham, 
inclosing one from Mr. Cross, dated Government Gardens, Ootaca- 
mund, 21st January, 1882. From this I extract the following passage : 

" After the fullest and most careful examination of Neddivattum planta- 
tion, I found that the most stupendous mistake that has ever occurred in 
the history of planters has been committed. The whole plantation, instead 
of consisting, as was believed, of pure succirubra, does not contain more 
than 5 per cent, of that species, the remaining 95 per cent, being of the 
gray bark or Huanuco sort, which, botanically, is either the C. miorantha 
or C. peruviana.^' 

Mr. Cross subsequently wrote to Kew, March 21, 1882, to much the 
same effect. 

The Government of Madras regarded Mr. Cross's statements as of 
sufficient importance to deserve careful investigation. Surgeon-Major 
Bidie, M.B., Superintendent of the Government Central Museum, 
Madras, was accordingly instructed to report upon them and to make 
a careful collection of specimens of every kind of cinchona grown at 
Naduvattum for transmission to Kew. 

Surgeon-Major Bidie met Mr. Cross at the plantations, and with 
regard to the question raised he reported to his Government, March 3, 
1882: 

" With reference to the assertion that the tree called by us Cinchona suc- 
cirubra is a gray bark, C. micrantha, my first act was to show Mr. Cross 
oxact reproductions of Fitch's plates of the two species^ but without any 

1 See paper by Rob. Cross' on page 96. 

^ From Howard's " Nueva Quinologia of Pavon." 



i 



^""'Feb^isS;*'™ } ^^'^^ Nilgiris. 9S 

names attached, and as he hesitated about giving an opinion as to which 
was the red bark, I did not then push the inquiry further. Subsequently, 
while collecting botanical and bark specimens, I was in daily intercourse 
with Mr. Cross, but found that he M^as immovable from his assumption 
that a mistake had been committed as regards the identity of the red bark 
tree.i I attach no importance to this however, for, notwithstanding his 
presumed familiarity with the botanical characters of the red bark, he took 
nearly a year to arrive at this conclusion and never even hinted at the 
possibility of such an error when in constant communication with a botan- 
ical expert like Colonel Beddome. In my opinion there can be no doubt 
that the tree known as the Bed bark on the Government Plantations is the 
Cinchona succirubra, Pav., and it does not seem necessary to occupy the 
time of Government in offering proofs tlaat such is the case, although for 
my own satisfaction I went carefully through all the botanical evidence on 
the subject." 

The Governor of Madras, Mr. Grant Duff, himself no mean bot- 
anist, had previously looked into the matter personally. I quote the 
official minute in which he records his own opinion : 

Minute by the Right Honorable, the Governor, dated January '26, 1882. 

^' Para. 9. From Ootacamund I went on to Neddiwuttum, where 
Dr. Bidie was established, busily engaged in examining our plantations 
with Mr. Cross and making a most complete collection of all those 
specimens which would be required for finally setting to rest the 
doubts as to the genuineness of our succirubra with which Mr. Cross 
fluttered us a few weeks ago. Col. Jago was most anxious that Mr. 
Cross should have the fullest opportunity of stating his views to me, 
untrammeled by the presence of a third person. We went accord- 
ingly alone into the woods together, and he pointed out to me what he 
called ' true succirubra/ ' succirubra of the Pata variety,^ and ' micran- 
tha.^ Colonel Jago then joined us and we went together to one of the 
trees, which our people have hitherto believed to be micrantha, and 
read the description of the tree under its branches. Most unques- 
tionably the tree that we have hitherto called micrantha, and not the 
tree which Mr. Cross has now taken it into his head to call micrantha, 
is the micrantha of the books; that is, the micrantha heretofore known 
to botanists. The distinctions between it and any form of succirubra 
are most clearly marked, and are infinitely wider than the distinction 

1 His Excellency, the Governor, on his visit to the estates, at once saw 
Mr. Cross's error, and pointed it out to him, but he still adhered pertina- 
ciously to his assertion. 



94 Red Bark of the Nilgiris. {^'^'leh'^'^m'''^' 

between the two varieties of succirubra, one of which, Mr. Cross, who 
never was, I believe, in the micrantha country, which lies far to the 
south of the district which he knows so well, has recently christened 
micrantha. 

"10. I left our plantations with no shadow of doubt upon my 
mind, and wish all botanical questions were as easy. I may add, too, 
that I, on more than one occasion, introduced the subject while in the 
Wynaad, with a view to seeing whether Mr. Cross's doubts had created 
any alarm among the planters ; but I found them treated, on all 
hands, as illusions." ...... 

At Kew we had exceptional opportunities for testing immediately 
the accuracy of Mr. Cross's statements. Colonel Beddome had sent 
us a splendid set of dried specimens of every cinchona form grown in 
tlie Nilgiris, on which we reported early in 1882. Besides these we 
possess in the case of C. micrantha authentic specimens of the South 
American plant collected by Weddell and by Pritchett, in addition to 
what is presumably a type from Ruiz and Pavon's herbarium. Besides 
abundance of Indian specimens, we have one in particular known to 
have been raised at Ootacamund from Pritchett's seeds, and the accu- 
rate determination of which has been verified by Howard. In the 
case of C. succirubra we have Spruce and Cross's own specimens from 
the slopes of Chimborazo and a specimen, presumably from Ruiz and 
Pavon's herbarium, verified by Howard. Colonel Beddome's admir- 
able specimens were carefully examined by my colleague. Professor 
Oliver, the Keeper of the Kew Herbarium, and he found no reason 
to doubt that the species of Cinchona which passed as micrantha and 
succirubra on the Nilgiris were what they professed to be. Dr. Trimen, 
the Director of the Royal Botanical Gardens, Ceylon, also examined 
them (together with the further set collected by Dr. Bidie) with me 
while he was at home on leave in 1882, and we could see our way to 
no other conclusion. 

Finally, Dr. Trimen, at the invitation of the Madras Government, 
visited their cinchona plantations in 1883, and reported upon them. 

What he says on the subject of the red bark may be taken as the 
last word in the matter : 

" C. succirubra, Pav, — In regard to red bark I can very confidently 
endorse the opinions expressed by all the botanists who have examined the 
matter, that the well-known tree which forms the bulk of Naduvatam is 



Am. .Jour. Pharm. 
Feb., 1885. 



Red Bark of the Nilgiris. 



95 



the true C. suceirubr-aj Pav. I have examined Pavon's own specmiens in 
the British Museum, which precisely correspond with the ordinary red 
bark of India, Ceylon and Jamaica." 

Mr. Cross has further expressed the opinion, in which he has 
received more independent support than in the other case, that the 
hybrid form commonly met with in our Indian plantations, and now 
generally known as Cinchona robiisfa, is identical with the Fata de 
Gallinazo of Chimborazo. 

In this identification I equally disagree with him. As the investi- 
gation of the matter led to a good deal of correspondence, I cannot 
do better than quote the passage from the Kew Report for 1882 (pp. 
38, 39), in which the net result of the whole discussion is briefly sum- 
marized by Sir Joseph Hooker : 

" Cinchona robusta. — In tlie Kew Report for 1881, pp. 25, 26, 1 referred to 
the hybrid between succirubra and officinalis^ which seems in the east first 
to have made its appearance in Ceylon, and thence to have been introduced 
by seed into the Sikkim plantations. 

" This form has, during 1882, given rise to a rather protracted correspond- 
ence with the Madras Government. Mr. Cross, who was employed by the 
India Office to convey the Columbian barks from Kew to Southern India, 
insisted that the two supposed hybrid forms grown on the Nilgiris, under 
the names of pubescens and magnifolia, were not hybrids but distinct 
species, of which the seed had been sent by himself from the slopes of Chim- 
borazo. After some shifting of opinion, .he seems finally to have settled 
down to the statement tliat magnifolia was the Cinchona called in the 
Chimborazo bark district ' Pata de Gallinazo,' thsit pubescens was true suc- 
cirubra^ and that the succirubra of the Madras plantations was micrantha 
(gray bark). 

" In all these identifications his recollections of plants seen no less than 
twenty years before seem to have misled him. Unfortunately, his views 
were, to a certain extent, adopted by the eminent quinologist, Mr. Howard, 
and it therefore became necessary to critically examine them, as such 
gigantic errors in nomenclature could not but very seriously affect the 
future policy of administration of the Madras cinchona plantations. 

"Under instructions from the Madras Government, very copious and 
carefully prepared sets of all the Cinchonas cultivated in the Nilgiris were 
despatched to Kew, both by Colonel Beddome and by Surgeon-Major Bidie, 
the Superintendent of the Madras Central Museum. They were very 
thoroughly examined, and tliere appeared no valid reason for disputing 
the accepted names under which the plants had been grown or for adopting 
those assigned to them by Mr. Cross. 

" The authentic specimens of the Pata de Gallinazo, collected by Spruce, 
and described by him in his official report, are preserved in the Kew Her- 
barium. They have been subsequently identified at Kew by Spruce (con- 



96 



Red Bark of the Nilgiris. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm , 
t Feb., 1885. 



firmed by Howard) with C. erythrantha^ Pav., and Triana, the most recent 
monographer of the genus, has referred this species as well as Spruce's 
specimen to C, puhescens, Vahl. Neither the magnifoUa nor pubescens of 
the Nilgiri plantations can in any way be confounded with Cinchona pubes- 
cens, Vahl, but are, no doubt, as has always been contended, marked 
members of the variable series of hybrids which appear to invariably arise 
in plantations where officinalis and succirubra are cultivated in proximity. 

" Mr. Cross's other two conclusions proved equally baseless. As, how- 
ever, these questions of synonomy had excited a good deal of perplexity 
in Ceylon as well as in Southern India, I suggested to the Government of 
Madras that Dr. Trimen, the Director of the Royal Botanic Garden, Pera- 
deniya, should be invited to visit the Cinchona plantations of the Madras 
Government, in order to bring about, if possible, some uniformity of nomen- 
clature in the forms and species of Cinchona cultivated both in Ceylon and 
Madras. This he accordingly did, and he has given the results of his 
exhaustive study of the whole question in a very able and lucid report 
(dated June 30, 1883), which, representing, as it also does, the opinions 
arrived at by the Kevv staff, appears to me to flnallj^ dispose of the whole 
subject. Both the name^ pubescens and magnifolia Dr. Trimen, for reasons 
which he gives, proposes to discard in favor of robusta which is in use on 
some estates in India, and 'is now commonly employed in Ceylon for the 
trees in question.' Dr. Trimen describes those he saw on the Nilgiris in 
the following words : 'I found the forms to be just those so common in 
Ceylon plantations. Generally'' robust well-grown trees, larger, hardier, 
and healthier than either the officinalis or succirubra, among which they 
were scattered, and often flourishing where neither of them can thrive. 
Botanically. there was the same range of variety, the extreme form in one 
direction, with its dark green smoothly shining leaves, closely approaching 
some of the large-leafed forms of C. officinalis ; and that in the other direc- 
tion with its larger, paler, thinner leaves, more or less pubescent beneath, 
so close to the hairy form of C. succirubra as to be often with difficulty 
distinguished from it. Between these, as regards color and pubescence, 
were many intermediates, though, undoubtedly, with a little ingenuity, 
the whole can be thrown into two groups.' 

" He further adds : 'We have direct testimony of its origin. I am 
assured by planters of credit that they have grown both glabrous and 
pubescent robusta from seed of ordinary officinalis, and that it is by no 
means unfrequent for seedlings of them to appear in seed-beds on estates 
where no trees but officinalis and succi?mbra occur. I have myself seen 
seedlings of robusta self-sown where there are no parent trees of the sort 
whence they could have been derived ; and at one time I was inclined to 
regard it merely as a variety of officinalis. There are, I think, grounds for 
believing that succirubra generally supplies the pollen, and is, therefore, 
the male parent, both in the case of robusta {succirubra and officinalis) and 
anglica {succirubra and Calisaya).^ " — Phar. Jour, and Trans., Dec. 20, 1883. 

Paraldehyde in Mental Disorders. — Benda has used paraldehyde 
as a hypnotic in 34 cases of mental disorder, in doses varying from f ^ss to 
f,:^ii. In 16 cases sleep was produced; in the remaining cases the action 
was uncertain or entirely negative. — Med. and Surg. Rep., Nov. 29, 1884. 



Am. Jour. Pharm.) 
Feb., 1885. J 



Red Bai'k. 



97 



RED BARK. 

By Robert Cross. 

A little over two years ago, after arrival on the Nilgiri hills, in 
Madras, with a collection of cinchona plants — for which I was sent bj 
the India Office to South America — I called attention to the mistake 
which had been committed in planting at Naduvatum and other places 
on the hills a comparatively useless cinchona, the Huanuco bark of 
Peru, for the true "red bark'' of Chimborazo, Cinchona siiGcirubrcij 
plants of which were dug up by myself on the slopes of that moun- 
tain and brought direct to India twenty years previously. To those 
who thought I might be mistaken in my assertions I may say that, 
after having dressed and transplanted the original stock of "red bark" 
plants twice in their native forest, I would just as likely be liable to 
mistake my own handwriting. 

At the time of the introduction of the cinchonas into India it so 
happened that the Huanuco and " red barks " reached the JSTilgiris 
about the same time, were propagated in the same hothouse, and so 
had become indiscriminately mixed up together. In this way the 
" red bark " was lost sight of, and was mistaken for the Huanuco spe- 
cies, which it resembled in the form and color of the leaves, especially 
when forced in a hothouse. As the plantations grew up a sprinkling 
of " red bark " trees were found thinly dispersed therein. Had the 
two sorts been kept carefully separate the loss experienced by planters 
and others would have been avoided. An examination of the cinchona 
blue books will show that it never was intended to cultivate the Hua- 
nuco bark to any extent. 

In India, as in South America, two distinct varieties of "red bark" 
are observed. One of these, which possesses smooth foliage, is called 
by South American collectors Pata bark; while to the other, the 
leaves of which are hairy underneath, the term teja or " tile " bark is 
applied. These sorts are not kept separate in commerce. The Pata 
sort, however, seems to inhabit a rather higher zone on the mountain 
slope, and so may prove hardier than the other. Probably both vari- 
eties are of equal merit as quinine-producing plants. 

Before leaving India I collected a little bark of both sorts for pur- 
poses of comparison, together with a few samples of " crowii " barlv. 
Most of the samples were taken from renewed trees, the aim being to 

7 



98 



Red Bark. 



/Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I Feb., 1885. 



secure as near as possible bark of each sort of the same age. Yet it 
will be understood that, even among trees of similar size, one tree from 
any particular circumstance may develop slightly thicker bark in the 
same space of time than another which may be growing under more 
modified conditions. The trees selected were growing at the same 
general elevation. The special objects in view were : 

1st. To compare the yield of the Pata with the " tile bark. 

2d. To place these two sorts against " crown." 

3d. To observe the increase of alkaloid which takes place as the 
bark grows older. 

To the obliging kindness of David Howard, Esq., F. C. S., I am 
entirely indebted for tlie examination of the samples, a copy of which 
is annexed. 



Analysis of samples referred to 
by D. Howard, Esq., F. C. S. 



True "red bark," C. succirubra, Teja, 
or "tile" variety of South Ameri- 
can bark collectors, one year old 
renewed bark 



True "red bark," C.succirubra, "tile" 
variety, two years old renewed 
bark 

True "red bark," C. succirubra, Pata l 
variety, one year old renewed bark j 

True " red bark," C. succirubra, Pata \ 
variety, two years old renewed ' 
bark 

"Crown," one year old renewed [ 
bark 



three years old renewed 



"Crown," four years old renewed j 
bark 

"Crown," apparently original bark, j 
Tree twelve years old 

Root bark from large primary roots ' 
of true C. succirubra, Pata tree, 20 
feet high. 

"Crown," a variety with small \ 
leaves, the Paramo bark of Loxa : 
collectors, three years old renewed I 
bark 



Quinine sul- 
phate, per 
cent. 


Quinine alka- 
loid, per ct. 


Cinchonine 
alkaloid, per 
cent. 


Cinchonidine 
alkaloid,per 
cent. 


! Quinidine al- | 
: kaloid, per 
; cent. 


5-32= 

i 


4-00 


1-42 


0-66 


0-14 


4-40= 


3-30 


trace 


0-23 


0-06 


5-68= 


4-26 


trace 


0-08 


08 


5-82= 


4-37 


ti'ace 


0-32 


0-17 


2 -60= 


1-95 


trace 


trace 


0-18 


i 3-10= 


2-33 


0-17 


0-06 


0-17 


1 7-64= 


5-23 


0-38 


0-18 


0-66 


i 

1 8-80- 


6-60 


trace 


0-12 


0-37 


i 

12-30= 


9-22 


0-00 


0-12 


64 


i 4-68= 


3-51 


2-10 


2-26 


0-77 


6-28= 


4-69 


103 


0-48 


0-34 



I beg to direct attentioL to the small proportion of the inferior 



Am. Jour, rharm. 
Feb., 1885. 



Pine or Forest Wool. 



99 



alkaloids contaiDed in the bark when compared with the yield of qui- 
nine. It seems to me that when really good sorts of trees are properly 
cultivated and carefully managed, a steady yield of the best alkaloids 
may be relied on. It would, I think, be important to ascertain the 
highest sustained yield of quinine that any or all of t*he best species 
can attain to. On this, in my opinion, rests the future prosperity of 
planters wherever bark trees are cultivated. — Phar. Jour, and Trans., 
Dec. 13, 1884, p. 463. 



PINE OR FOREST WOOL. (WALD-WOLLE. LAINE DES 
BOIS.) -1,. J 
By Thomas Greenish, F.C.S., F.R.M.S. 

About the year 1840 a new and curious industry sprang up at a 
place called Humboldtsau, or the Meadow of Humboldt, situated near 
Breslau, Upper Silesia, which, like most novelties, had for several 
years to struggle with difficulties before it could be said that its posi- 
tion was established, — that, in fact, it occupied a place in the estima- 
tion of the public or was noticed by the medical profession. This in- 
dustry consisted in the utilization of the acicular leaves or leaflets of 
the pine in the production of a substance to which the name " Wald- 
Wolle,^' rendered pine or forest wool, was applied ; and it evidently 
extended itself, iov there subsequently arose new manufactories at 
Remda in the Thiiringen-Wald ; at Jonkoping in Sweden ; Wagen- 
ingen in Holland ; as well as in some parts of France. 

Schledel, in his " Waaren-Lexicon,"^ mentions this substance under 
Wald' WoUe, and describes it as the fibres of the needles of Pinus 
sylvestrisy also of the black pine, Pinus niger austriaca, fabricated after 
the process introduced by Joseph Weiss, of Zuckmantel, Austrian 
Silesia. When prepared, it resembles horsehair, and has been used 
for stuffing mattresses, which purpose it seems to have fully answered, 
and the mattresses stuffed with it possess an aromatic odor. In the 
process of its manufacture a volatile oil is obtained called Wald-wolle- 
ol, or forest-wool oil, which is used as an external application in 
rheumatic affections. The Wald-wolle products can be procured in 
Berlin, Vienna, Leipzic, etc." 



' Sixth edition. Leipzic, 1850. 



100 



Pine or Forest Wool. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
Feb., 1885. 



According to Hager/ Weiss used the fibre of the pine leaf in the 
manufacture of paper, and observed that those workmen who happened 
to be afflicted with gout or rheumatism were relieved by the applica- 
tion of the pine-needle products. Hence their introduction as remedial 
agents into me(5ical practice. 

Simmonds, in his " Dictionary of Trade Products," calls the article 
pine-needle wool or pine- wood wool, a fibrous vegetable substance 
obtained in Prussia by treating the buds and leaves of coniferous trees 
with a strong solution of carbonate of soda. The fibre, so obtained, is 
used there for u])holstery purposes, such as stuffing for mattresses, 
intended as a protection against insects, and also for wadding ; blankets 
are made with it ; and oil and soap are also obtained from it." 

Tlie term pine-?/?oo(i-wool is incorrect, and confounds this with a 
very different article, called " Holz-wolle," also of German origin, con- 
sisting of the pine wood reduced to a coarse fibrous powder, an article 
which impregnated with bichloride of mercury . is now recommended 
as an antise})tic dressing in surgery. 

In the Journal d' Agriculture pratique,"^ there is an article by 
Professor Charles Morren — mainly a translation from the Bernische 
Blatter fi'ir Landwirthschaft, January, 1852, Note on the Vegetable 
\yool extracted from the Leaves of the Finns sylvestris,^' of which the 
following is a summary : In the neighborhood of Breslau, in Silesia^ 
in a property called the Meadow of Humboldt, there exist two extablish- 
ments — one a factory where the leaves of the pine are converted into a 
kind of cotton, called pine or forest wool ; the other an establishment 
for invalids, where the waters used in the manufacture of the pine 
wool are employed as curative agents, affording relief to the sufferers 
from rheumatism. Both of these owe their existence to Monsieur De 
Pannewitz, inspector of forests and inventor of a chemical process, by 
means of which there is extracted from the long and fine pine leaves a 
fibrous substance called forest wool, because it curls, felts, and can be 
spun as ordinary wool. 

The wild pine, from which this wool is obtained, is much esteemed 
in Germany for its many valuable properties, and instead of leaving it 
to its natural growth, extensive plantations are cultivated, and the use 
Monsieur De Pannewitz has made of the leaves will contribute to ex- 
tend the cultivation of the pine in other countries. 

^ " Pharmaceutische Praxis". 
2 Vol. V, 1852, p. 322. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
Feb., 1885. 



Pine or Forest Wool. 



101 



The acicular leaves of pines, firs, and conifers in general, are com- 
posed of a bundle of fine and tough fibres, surrounded and kept 
together by a resinous substance. Boiled with an alkali, the resinous 
substance is dissolved, when it is easy to separate the fibres and to 
wash and free them from all foreign substances. 

According to the process employed and the leaves used, the woolly 
substance is of a fine quality or remains in a coarser state. 

In the first case it is used as wadding — in the second for upholstery 
purposes. 

The first use that was made of this filamentous substance, was to 
l' substitute it for cotton or wool wadding in quilted blankets. In 1842 
the hospital of Vienna bought 500 of these blankets, and after a trial 
of several years a further supply was ordered. It was observed that 
under the influence of pine wool no noxious insects sheltered in the 
beds ; it was found also that the aroma was agreeable to the occupants. 
Soon after the workhouse of Vienna was furnished with similar quilted 
blankets. 

Similar articles, as well as mattresses, stufl:ed with the wool, have . 
been used in the hospital of charity, in other hospitals at Berlin, and / 
in the barracks of Breslau. 

An experience of five years in these establishments has proved that 
articles made of pine wool are very useful and durable, never troubled 
with moths and only one-third the price of horsehair. Besides, it can 
be spun and woven. The finest quality gives a yarn resembling hemp 
and equally strong. Spun and woven as cloth it yields a fabric that 
may be used for carpets, horse blankets, etc. The exhibitors of these 
products were awarded a bronze medal at the Exhibition of Berlin, 
and a silver one at that of Altenburg. 

Such is the account given by Professor Morren of the pine-wool 
productions, but I am informed that the quilted blankets referred to 
by him are not now used in the Vienna Hospital, straw having super- 
seded the pine wool as a stuffing for mattresses. 

Bentley^ says : From the leaves of this species (Finus sylvestris), 
the substance called pine wool or fir wool is prepared. It is used for 
stuffing mattresses, etc., and is said to be repulsive to vermin. Wad- 
ding for medical use, and cloth for various articles of dress, etc., are 
.also manufactured from these leaves." 



1 " Manual of Botany," 1882, p. 678. 



102 



Pine or Forest Wool. 



Am. Jour. Pharni. 
Feb., 1885. 



Martiiidale^ thus refers to it : " Fir wool or fir-wool wadding, ob- 
tained from the pine leaves, is sold as a brownish-yellow fibre, in 
sheets like cotton wool. It has a faint agreeable odor of the pine leaf^ 
and is manufactured into blankets, jackets, spencers, stockings, etc.'' 

The two last authors refer to the source of true pine wool, but 
describe an entirely different article. 

In the National Dispensatory,'' Stille and Maisch refer to these 
products, and state that the leaves of the different species of pine,, 
when distilled with water, yield volatile oils, which differ from the 
volatile oils obtained from the resin of the same species. Such an oil 
is known, and to some extent employed in Germany as Fichtennadelot 
(fir-leaf oil), and the leaves by pounding are converted into a fibrous 
substance known as FichtenwoUe (fir wool)." 

I am indebted for samples of the true pine or forest-wool, wald- 
wolle, to M. Bernardin, Musee de Melle, Belgium, to Herr Dittrich,. 
Prague, and to Dr. Maschke, in Breslau. I have also received two 
samples from S. Graetzer, of Carlsruh, the depot for conifer prepara- 
tions of Humboldtsau. These two differ in quality ; the finer is 
labelled ''adapted for coverlets," and the coarser for ''stuffing cushions." 
This substance, more or less fine, and with a faint pine odor, con- 
stitutes the article known as Wald-wolle, pine or forest wool, through- 
out Germany and the Continent generally, and all authorities to which 
I have had access agree as to its origin, the pine leaf ; its character, a 
fibrous substance ; and the several uses previously enumerated, to 
which it has been applied with more or less of success. 

Some eminent members of the medical profession on the Continent 
have spoken favorably of these pine-wool productions, but whether 
they deserve or not the high enconiums passed on them it is never- 
theless an important fact that a material, before considered almost use- 
less, is now converted into articles of domestic utility. 

The several samples just referred to, more or less coarse, of a red- 
dish-brown color, as forwarded to me from those different Sources, were 
subjected to a careful histological examination, and were found to be 
composed of the tissues of the pine leaf. 

Fig. 1 is a transverse section of the leaf of Plnus sylvestris, and 
presents to the naked eye three very distinct tissues. A, the epidermal 
layer ; the fibro-vascular bundles, composed of bast and wood cells ; 
C, the parenchymatous chlorophyll tissue, with the oleo-resin secret- 



1 " Extra Pharmacopoeia," 1883, p. 216. 



Am. Jour, Pharm. 1 
Feb., 1885. J 



Pine or Forest Wool. 



103 



ing cells ; and D, the parenchymatous tissue surrounding the vascular 
bundles. 

Fig. 2 shows the tissues of which these fibrous substances are com- 
posed. A, the epidermal tissue, a series of elongated cells alternating 
with a series of tabular cells, the latter containing the stomata ; the 
side walls have an undulating outline, so that the adjoining cells fit 
into each other. The parenchymatous tissue within the epidermal 
layer and that surrounding the vascular bundles, fundamental tissue, 
being thin and delicate, is for the most part disintegrated and destroyed 
in the process for the preparation of the wool, leaving the more tenaci- 
ous epidermal cell tissue (^A\ with the fibro-vascular bundles, repre- 
sented by B the bast cell, and C and D annular and spiral vessels, as 
the component parts of this fibrous material. 




Fig. 1. Fig. 2. 



The several tissues of each sample were found to correspond with 
those in the leaf of the pine ; there was no tissue found that had not 
its counterpart m the pine leaf, and the pine leaf being equally exa- 
mined had no tissue that was not present in the samples of this fibrous 
material. 

It is therefore evident that this fibrous substance, to which the term 
pine or forest wool was originally applied, and to which it now applies 



104 



Pine or Forest Wool. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
t Feb., 1885. 



throughout Germany, the birth-place of the industry, is manufactured 
from the acicular leaves of one or more species of pine previously ex- 
hausted of its volatile oil and extractive in the process of boiling. 

There is now in English commerce a fibrous article, in sheets like 
cotton wool, to which the same names of pine or forest wool, pine and 
fir-tree wool, pine leaf wool, are indiiferently applied. Samples of this 
substance were obtained from different sources, but they so clearly 
corresponded that they pointed to one common origin. They were 
subjected to a micro-chemical and microscopical examination with the 
view of determining the true nature 'of an article which is just now, 
as a fibrous material, and also as forming textile fabrics, receiving 
more or less of attention from the medical profession as well as the 
public. 

The samples were composed of fine fibres of a reddish-brown color. 
When boiled in water the color was not affected. Boiled in a solution 
of caustic alkali a faint pine leaf odor was perceptible and the color 
was partly discharged. A solution of chlorine completed the bleach- 
ing process, leaving a white fibrous material which was afterwards 
washed and dried. 

A few threads only of the bleached fibres were used for the applica- 
tion of the following reagents : 

Chloro-iodide of zinc produced a violet tint. A solution of iodine, 
followed l)y sulphuric acid, gave a blue color. The fibres dissolved 
completely in a solution of ammonio-oxide of copper. The results 
from these simple experiments w^ere sufficiently convincing that the 
fibres in question consisted of pure cellulose, and not that altered or 
lignified condition of cellulose which the fibrous materials previously 
referred to show under the same reagents. 

It will be understood that these experiments were conducted under 
the microscope, and that two or three fibres only were used on each 
occasion, so that the observer was enabled to follow the delicate reac- 
tions which were not visible to the unaided eye. The individual fibres 
were then placed under the microscope, aided by polarized light, and 
from their physical characters, which confirmed the results of the 
previous chemical reagents, it was evident that they were neither more 
uor less than the unicellular hairs on the outer coat (tesfa) of the. se^ 
of Gossypium which constitute ordinary cotton, whose habitat is not 
Thuringia, but rather the Southern States of America or one of the 
other cotton producing countries of the East, and that it owed its brown 



Am Jour. Pharm. 
Feb., 1885. 



Pine or Forest Wool. 



105 



color not to extractive from the pine leaf, but to the application of the 
usual dyeing material for that purpose. That peculiar epidermal cell 
tissue which characterizes the pine leaf was entirely absent. 

In addition to this fibrous article now described, there is another 
material called " pine foliage forest wool flannel/' hygienic flannel, 
also " from the forest of Thuringia,'' claiming public and professional 
patronage. It professes to be made from the fir wool, the produce of 
the Black Forest fir, Pinus sylvestris. This is a woven material of the 
same color as that previously described. The warp was detached from 
the weft in order that they might be examined separately ; the warp 
when the dye was removed corresponded in every respect with the 
fibre previously examined and behaved in a like manner with the same 
reagents ; in fact it was cotton. The fibres of the weft were next 
examined. In burning they gave off that peculiar horny empyreumatic 
odor indicating an animal origin ; boiled in caustic alkali they were 
completely dissolved ; examined under the microscope the imbrications 
on the individual hairs proved previous suspicions to be correct, that 
this fibre consisted of wool. The woven material was, therefore, a 
combination of ordinary cotton and sheep's wool, the former probably 
rather preponderating. 

These fibrous materials profess to owe their origin to the leaves of 
the Pinus sylvestris ; but the venation of most of the Conifers is simple, 
one single unbranched midrib, and the only available true fibres are 
the fibro- vascular bundles of this midrib, which are surrounded by 
parenchymatous tissue. The fibro-vascular tissue of the midrib shows 
with the previously-mentioned reagents a distinct difference from that 
of cotton. 

It would appear, then, that this " curious industry," consisting in 
the utilization of the leaves of the pine in the formation of a fibrous 
material called pine or forest wool, has given birth to another curious 
industry, which is endeavoring to attract the attention of the medical 
profession ; the results of this investigation may assist in determining 
its true value as an addition to our remedial appliances. — ^arm. Jour. / • 
and Trans., Nov. 15, 1884, p. 381. 



Pari^irink Hydrochlorate has been found valuable by Dr. Ferreira 
in chronic cases of latentague, in doses of 2 grams or more a day — Lancet, 
December 6, 1884. This is doubtless the alkaloid of pareira brava, which is 
better known as pelosine and is regarded as being identical with buxine 
and bebeerine. 



106 



Gleanings in Materia Medica, 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ Feb., 1885. 



GLEANINGS IN MATERIA MEDICA. 
By the Editoh. 

Drosera rotundifolia. — H. Biisgen has made comparative experi- 
ments intended to answer the question whether the capture of insects 
by these and similar plants assists their development. The experi- 
ments were made with seedlings grown in peat, which were previously 
boiled in a nutritive solution ; these were placed on saucers and covered 
with bell glasses ; one set were fed with the lice from vine leaves, the 
other received no such nourishment. The unfed plants were less 
strong and healthy, 16 plants producing 9 flower branches and 20 
capsules, while 14 of the fed plants produced 17 flower branches and 
90 capsules ; the total dry weight of the fed plants was 0*352, and of 
the unfed plants 0*119 grams. Other trials under less favorable con- 
ditions gave similar results, and the author considers it as proved that 
the plants of drosera are capable of utilizing animal food and assimi- 
lating it beneficially for the production of seeds. — Jour. Chem. Sog., 
1884, p. 917; Bied. Centr., 1884, p. 47. 

Pinus Sylvestris. — Phenol has been found in this tree by A. B. 
Griffiths, the quantity present in the different parts being in the old 
stem 0-1021, in the young stem 0*0654, in the leaves between 0*0936 
and 0*0315, and in the cones between 0*0774 and 0*0293 per cent. — 
Chem. News, vol. 49, p. 95. 

A New Cotton Plant — For many years A. A. Subers, of Macon, 
Georgia, has been carefully experimenting to hybridise the cotton plant 
that grows wild in Florida, with the common okra. The new plant 
retains the okra stalk and the foliage of the cotton. Its flower and 
fruit, however, are strikingly unlike either cotton or okra. The plant 
has an average height of two feet, and each plant has only one bloom- 
This is a magnificent flower, very much like the great magnolia in 
fragrance, and equally as large. Like the cotton bloom, the flower is 
white for several days after it opens, after which it is first pale pink, 
and gradually assumes darker shades of this color until it becomes red, 
when it drops. For about ten days the fruit resembles the cotton boll, 
and then its growth suddenly increases, as if by magic, until it reaches 
the size of a big cocoanut. Not until it reaches this size does the lint 
apj)ear. Then its snowy threads begin to burst from the boll, but are 
securely held in place by the okra like thorns or points that line the 
boll. One experienced picker can easily gather 800 pounds a day, 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
Feb., 1885, / 



Gleanings in Materia Medica. 



107 



and fast hands much more. Each boll produces about two pounds 
of very lon^ stapled cotton, superior to the Sea Island, and at the 
bottom of the boll there are from four to six seeds, resembling per- 
simmon seed. This new cotton, therefore, needs no ginning. Such 
a plant w^ould revolutionize the cotton industry of the South. — Florida 
Times- Union, 

Epilobium angustifolium, Linne. — J. W. Chickering, Jr., relates in 
" Botanical Gazette,'^ that a tract of about four thousand acres of cleared 
land in Maine, from which the underbrush had been burned in June^ 
was in the following August covered with the plant named flowering. 
The plant is locally known as fireweed, which name is usually applied 
to Erechthites hieracifolia, Rafinesque, and in some localities to 
Erigeron canadense, Linne. Senecio gracilis, Pursh, is also said to be 
called fireweed in some places. 

Crescentia Cujete, Linne. — The fruit of the calabash tree was 
analyzed by Dr. Peckolt, who ascertained the presence of an aromatic 
compound, bitter principle, two resins, tannin, tartaric acid, malic acid, 
a dark blue coloring matter, sugar, etc., and isolated, a new acid, 
named crescentic acid, which is precipitated by lead acetate. An alco- 
holic extract of the pulp acts as a mild aperient, in doses of O'l Gm. 
and as a drastic without griping, in doses of 0*5 Gm. Boiled with 
water and vinegar the pulp is used as an application in erisypelas. — 
Rundschau, N. Y., August, 1884, p. 166. 

Bartung is a seed in great repute in Persia for dysentery. A sample 
of the seed received by Colonel Beddome, F. L. S., from Persia, was 
sowed at Kew, and according to W. T. T. Dyer, turned out to be 
Plantago major. Dr. Forbes Watson in his Index to Native and 
Scientific Names,^' gives the following identifications of bartung with 
various species of Plantago, viz., PI. lanceolata, Lin. (Irvine), PL 
major, Lin. (Honigberger) and PI. Psyllium, Lin. (Birdwood). — Phar, 
Jour, and Trans., Aug. 9, 1884, p. 101. 

Under the name of semences de psyllium (herbe aux puces) the 
French Codex recognizes the seeds of PI. Psyllium, Lin., and (?) of 
PI. arenaria, Waldstein et Kitaibel. The seeds of the latter are some- 
what smaller and darker colored than those of the preceding species. 
The larger and lighter colored seeds of PI. Cynops, Lin., are said to 
be likewise used as psyllium seed or fleaseed. The mucilage obtained 
from these seeds is stated to be used in Southern Europe in the finish- 
ing processes of muslin. 



108 



Gleanings in Materia Medica. 



Am Jour. Pharm. 
Feb., 1885. 



Soja hispida. — E. Meissl and F. Bocker give the composition of 
the soja bean, in ronnd numbers, as follows : water 10, soluble casein 
30, albumin 0*5, insoluble casein 7, fat 18, cholesterin, etc. 2, 
dextrin 10, starch 5, cellulose 5, ash 5 per cent., traces of sugar and 
amido compound. — Jour. Chem. Soc, 1884, p. 918; Bied. Centr., 1884, 
p. 52. 

Bassia longifolia. — E. Valenta ascertained the seeds to contain fat 
51*14, alcohol extract 7*83, tannin 2*12, bitter principle, soluble in 
water 0*60, starch 0*07, mucilage 1*65, soluble albumin 3*60, extract- 
ive 15'59, insoluble proteids 4*40, total ash 2*71 (in the soluble 
portion 0-95), fibre (and loss) 10*29 per cent. The fat is yellow, is 
bleached on exposure, and soon becomes rancid. It has the specific 
gravity 0*9175 at 15° C, melts at 25*3°, solidifies at 17*5 to 18*5, and 
contains considerable quantities of free fatty acids, but only a small 
amount of glycerol. It is partly soluble in alcohol, entirely soluble 
in ether, carbon bisulphide, benzene, etc., and contains palmitin and 
oleiu. The mixed fat acids obtained from the soap melt at 39*5° and 
solidify at 38° C. — Dinyi Polyt. Jour , vol. 251, page 461. 

Oil of Rose has been prepared by Schimmel & Co., Leipzig, from 
ro.ses grown in Germany ; the oil is of a finer aroma than the Turkish 
oil, and solidifies at 32 °C. The congealing point of Turkish oil of 
rose i.s given by Baur at between 11° and 16°C. The fusing point of 
the .solidified oil is not given ; according to Hanbury's observations 
(1859), this seems to be higher for oil distilled in northern localities; 
for oil of rose distilled in London melted between 30*5° and 32*2°C. 
(87° and 91°F.) ; Zeller (Studien, 1850) observed 37-5°C. for German 
oil. 

Belladonine. — On boiling commercial belladonine with baryta solu- 
tion the atropine contained therein is decomposed, and belladonine 
remains behind as a brown resin, which, according to G. Merling, 
cannot be crystallized. Its composition is CiT-HgiNOg. Dissolved in 
diluted alcohol, and boiled with baryta, it yields tropine and several 
acids, probably tropic, atropic and isatropic acids. 

The liquid obtained above, after removing the baryta with carbonic 
acid, yields to ether several bases, among them the one named oxytro- 
pine by Ladenburg (see "Am. Jour. Phar.,'' 1884, p. 597), which the 
author believes exists ready formed in commercial belladonine. — 
Berichte, 1884, p. 381-385. 



^"'rer'^is^s*™'} Minutes of the Pharmaceutical Meeting. 109 

Annatto. — The two principal constituents are orantin and carotin^ 
the former of which is obtained by digesting 50 Gm. of annatto with 
100 Gm. of sodium carbonate in 1 liter of water, and evaporating to 
one-half, while carotin is prepared by digesting annatto in oil. — BiecL 
Centr.j 1884, p. 215. Carotin was discovered by A^^ackenroder (1832) 
in the root of Daucus Carota, Linne. 



MINUTES OF THE PHARMACEUTICAL MEETING. 

Philadelphia, January 20, 1885. 

The Pharmaceutical meeting of the College was held this day, Dillwyn 
Parrish, President, occupying the chair. 

The minutes of tlie last meeting were read and adopted witliout alteration. 

The Registrar ^^resented to the College the report of the Superintendent 
of Public Schools, and a copy of the work entitled " Elementary Lessons on 
Electricity and Magnetism," by Silvanus Thompson ; also a " Text-book of 
Physics," by Henry Kiddle ; the first being from the Superintendent of 
the Public Schools, the other two from our fellow-member, Mr. John E. 
Cook. The thanks of the College were voted to the donors. 

A paper upon " The Advantages of Preliminary Examination to Phar- 
macy and to this College," was read by Mr. Wm. B. Thompson, and on 
motion of Mr. Blair, seconded by Mr. Hancock, referred to the Committee 
of Publication (see page 65). 

Prof. Maisch afterwards read the resolution which had been offered by 
Prof. Procter at the first Convention of Colleges, and was adopted. 

Mr. Thompson thought that this did not change the spirit of Mr. Taylor's 
resolution, while Mr. Maisch believed that there was a decided difference, 
the former aiming at determining the educational acquirements of the 
young man before becoming an apprentice, and the other subsequently 
when the young man was seeking further instruction at a college. 

Professor Maisch said that he well remembered the excellent paper by 
Prof. Parrish, referred to by Mr. Thompson, and that from his intercourse 
with Professors Procter and Parrish he was quite familiar with their views ,* 
that while both desired the apprentice to have completed his general educa- 
tion before entering the business, they had considered it wrong to exclude 
young pharmacists from the College. He said that in Europe the educa- 
tional standard was determined before the young man was permitted to 
become an apprentice, but that afterwards he encountered no obstacle in 
pursuing his studies. In answer to a question by Mr. Blair, he explained 
that in Germany a young man had to attain a prescribed grade in the clas- 
sical school, called Gymnasium, before he could become an apprentice 
^Lehrling), that his employer was by law compelled to instruct him in 
practical botany and chemistry, that at the close of his apprenticeship he 
had to pass an examination as assistant, and after having served for several 
years as such, could enter, without further examination, the university to 



110 Minutes of the Pharmaceutical Meeting. { '^"'Feb^'isS'*'^™ 

prepare himself for the final examination (Staats-examen) in the higher 
branches of his profession. 

Mr. Blair said that Professor Procter had been in the habit of sending his 
young men to the College during the first and last year of their apprentice- 
ship. 

Prof. Maisch remarked, that at that time the junior and senior students 
heard the same lectures, and that he had no doubt that with the present 
graded courses, Prof. Procter would have sent his apprentices for three or 
four years. Referring to the admitted fact that pharmacy was vastly over- 
crowded, he said that the same was true of all other professions and trades. 
Regarding the legal status of medicine he said that the laws recently passed 
required of aj^ractitioner of medicine the registration of a diploma, and that 
in Illinois and other States the Board could, and very properly did, dis- 
criminate between the schools and would not recognize diplomas from 
institutions that did not require sufficient preliminary education of their 
students. Not one of the numerous pharmacy laws required a diploma as 
evidence of qualification; many recognized pharmaceutical diplomas;, a 
number recognized also medical diplomas; one law discriminated against 
the schools of other States; several recognized no diploma ; but all the laws 
admitted to the practice of pharmacy those who could pass examination 
before the appointed Board; even in Philadelphia any person could carry 
on the drug business after passing the examination before the Board, with- 
out ever having been at a college of pharmacy. Prof. Maisch thought that 
all those who could legally enter the drug business, had a right to be in- 
structed therein, and in his opinion, they deserved commendation, if they 
were seeking instructions beyond what was legally required of them. 

Mr. Daniel S. Jones remarked that he was glad to be present and hear 
the subject discussed ; that many present knew the active interest he had 
exhibited in the College in years past, and that circumstances rendered it 
too painful for him to frequent these halls as he formerly did ; he neverthe- 
less had a most abiding interest in the welfare of the institution, and he 
knew the views of those whose opinions had been quoted and how earnest 
they were in desiring only the best personnel in the ranks of pharmacists; 
he felt sure that good would come of the discussion of so important a topic. 

Mr. Andrew Blair read a very modest advertisement about cod liver oil, 
which gave rise to considerable amusement. He also read a paper upon 
"Spiritus Ammonise Aromaticus," showing the advantage of the product 
of the formula of the Pharmacopoeia of 1870 over the present officinal ; the 
paper was accompanied with samples of the respective preparations. On 
motion, it was referred to the Committee on Publication (see page 79). 

Mr. Worthington exhibited a bottle which had been enclosed in a tin can 
and had contained oil of bitter almonds ; the stopper had been left out and 
the oil had been almost entirely volatilized, covering the inside of the can 
and the bottle with a film of crystals of benzoic acid, and it was for this 
reason brought to the notice of the meeting as a curiosity. 

There being no further business, on motion, the meeting adjourned. 



T. S. WiEGAND, Registrar, 



FebTisTs!*''"* } Editorials. Ill 

ALUMNI ASSOCIATION, PHILADELPHIA COLLEGE OF 
PHARMACY. 



At the fourth social meeting, held January 13th, Dr. E. T. Bruen, of the 
University of Pennsylvania, delivered a lecture on "the germ theory of 
disease," giving a historical sketch of the various views held in regard to 
the contagiousness of certain diseases, more particularly since the discovery 
of spermatozoa, in 1679, in regard to malaria, fermentation, the physico- 
chemical theory, and, finally, the germ theory of the present day. He 
divided the infectious diseases into three classes, according to the manner 
in which they are communicated; explained the causes of immunity 
against various diseases, and pointed out the manner in which the growth 
and reproduction of the germs may be inhibited. The best agent for this 
purpose is mercuric chloride in very dilute solution, this being far more 
effectual than other chemicals ; but the different germs do not behave alike, 
and there are only very few reliable germicides, the surest being destruc- 
tion of the infected material by fire. 

Mr. Sayre afterwards read a paper on " cocaine," giving a history of the 
coca plant, its cultivation and uses, and its chemical history, with the ther- 
apeutical uses of the alkaloid. 

After various recitations the meeting adjourned. 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT. 



Preliminary Education of Pharmacists.— The deficient education 
of many young men entering upon the pursuit of pharmacy in the United 
States, has been frequently commented upon, and proprietors of drug 
stores have been repeatedly urged to pay more attention to the educational 
acquirements of those whom they take as apprentices ; yet a practical plan 
of securing greater uniformity in their previous education has not been 
presented. The committee entrusted by the American Pharmaceutical 
Association with preparing the draft of a pharmacy law sixteen years 
ago, had this subject under consideration, and after a lengthy discussion 
could not discover a direct way, promising success, for accomplishing that 
which in Europe is reached by the enactment of laws or government regu- 
lations. A compromise was finally reached and agreed to by Professor 
Edward Parrish, who, however, had no hope that the point aimed at would 
be gained. This draft of a pharmacy law was reported to the Chicago 
meeting in 1869 and recommended by the Association ; it recognized the 
existing state of things and provided for the future that pharmacists before 
commencing business, should become Graduates in Pharmacy, the avowed 
aim being that the Colleges of Pharmacy should be made responsible for 
the education of all pharmacists, and thus in an indirect manner secure the 
general education of the young men before they became apprentices. 

Rhode Island is the only State where this law was enacted, in March, 
1870, only to be repealed and modified in the year following. No other 
pharmacy law has had a provision with a similar object, either directly or 
indirectly. This failure, which came not unexpected to Professor Parrish, 



112 



Obituary. 



j Am. Jour. Pharm. 
t Feb., 1885. 



induced him to write that paper, referred to elsewhere (see pages 67 and 73), 
on " The Preliminary Education of Apprentices," and while writing it he 
had also the counsel of Professor Procter, who agreed with the views ex- 
pressed therein. 

The laws regulating the practice of medicine, which have heen enacted 
in a number of States, take precisely the position which was recommended 
to the pharmacists in 1869, and the Medical Colleges are now responsible 
not only for the knowledge in medicine and surgery, but also for the gene- 
ral culture of their graduates. If the Medical Colleges in the United States 
would cease to exist, no one could become a physician in the States referred 
to, except by studying and graduating in a foreign country. But if all the 
Colleges of Pharmacy in the United States were wiped out of existence, 
the number of pharmaceutical aspirants would not be less — perhaps greater 
— than at present, because no pharmacy law makes attendance and gradu- 
ation at a College a prerequisite for carrying on the drug business. The 
difference between practitioners of pharmacy and of medicine will still be 
greater if the efforts now being made in several States should be successful 
requiring of the latter to be graduates in medicine and to pass a professional ex- 
amination before a board of physicians not connected with a medical school. 

It is our conviction that there is a decided improvement in the personnel 
of the pharmacists throughout the country ; but it is not denied that there 
is room for more imi:)rovement ; this, however, should come in at the 
beginning of the pharmaceutical career, if the claims of pliarmacy as a 
profession are to be made good and maintained. In whatever manner the 
desirable liberal preliminar3' education may be secured, it certainly cannot 
be done by excluding those in quest of further instruction from the present 
or other educational institutions, since they cannot, on these grounds, be 
prevented from carrying on the apothecaries' business. 



OBITUARY. 



Dr. Hermann Kolbe, Professor of Chemistry at the University of 
Leipzig, died suddenly, November 25th, in the 67th year of his life. He 
studied chemistry under Woehlerand Bunsen, and was for a time assistant 
to Playfair, in London, and occupied for 14 years the chair of chemistry at 
the University of Marburg. His investigations are very numerous ; the 
synthetical preparation of salicylic acid from phenol has made his name 
widely known, also among those not directly interested in chemistry. He 
was the author of several works on chemistry, and of numerous essays 
which were mostly published in the "Journal fiir praktische Chemie," 
edited by him. He was a sharp critic and fearless in expressing his con- 
victions of what he conceived to be wrong. 

Dr. Benjamin Silliman, Professor of Chemistry at Yale College, died 
January" 14th, aged 69 years. For seven years he occupied the chair of 
chemistry and toxicology at the University of Louisville, and afterwards 
succeeded his father at Yale, where he taught his favorite science for thirty 
years until his death. His numerous contributions to science were mostly 
published in the "American Journal of Science and Arts." 



THE AMERICAN 

JOURNAL OF PHARMACY. 



MARCH, 1885, 



TINCTURE OF FERRIC CHLORIDE. 
By Joseph W. England, Ph.G. 
Read at the Pharmaceutical Meeting^ February 17, 1884. 
In the ebb and flow of pharmaceutic progress, it is interesting and 
instructive to note the strange and passing changes in its history ; the 
rise and fall of its many so-called infallible agencies, without whose 
supposed aid human effort to combat disease was thought fruitless ; but 
time's crucial test of the survival of the fittest has left but few, com- 
paratively, of the many brought forth from nature's hiding-places, and 
these few have, through their inherent worth and true usefulness in 
certain morbid physical conditions, not only retained their original 
hold upon popular favor, but despite the introduction of new fancies 
with asserted, similar properties, advanced still higher in popular pro- 
fessional opinion and general application. Enrolled among these few 
there is one, which we will consider, that may be fairly and rightly 
classed within its ranks as a fit representative; for without question its 
useful, characteristic qualities have been so long recognized, that no 
studied words are needed to sound its praise ; and tliat one is Tinctura 
Ferri Chloridi. 

Upon entering this frequently trodden path of pharmaceutical litera- 
ture, the writer is fully aware of the many able investigations which 
have preceded his effort ; but as accuracy in the statement of fact, irre- 
spective of source, is the main element in the upbuilding of scientific 
knowledge, any statement or suggestion which promotes that end, 
enhances the real intrinsic value of the truth already known and paves 
the way to more profitable exertions in the future. With an earnest 
desire to seek and grasp the real, underlying features of the subject 
under consideration, and fully appreciating the high value of previous 
works in this direction, the subject must necessarily partake, partially 
at least, of the nature of a review of past and present methods, with an 

8 



114 



Tincture of Ferric Chloride. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
1 March, 1886. 



account of their discrepancies and advautages, and the offering of sug- 
gestions for improvements in the light of newly discovered facts. 

Our accepted authority^ of 1850, ordered the preparation of the 
tincture by saturating a definite quantity of hydrochloric acid with 
subcarbonate of iron, filtering and making up to the requisite volume 
with sufficient alcohol. This solution contained, generally, both fer- 
rous and ferric chlorides in varying proportions, and when exposed to 
atmospheric influences, gradually became oxidized with the deposition 
of insoluble ferric oxide; no free acid (HCl) being present to prevent 
the change. 

These objections were, in a measure, remedied by the next revision 
(U. S. P., 1860); but it remained for the following issue (U. S. P., 
1870) to divide its manner of making into two separate and distinct 
changes, which consisted in the introduction of two officinal products. 
The first of these was to be known as ^' Liquor Ferri Chloridi,^' and 
the second, which was to be made from the first with alcohol, as 
Tinctura Ferri Chloridi." The Pharmacopoeia of 1880 retained these 
later features, except that in accordance with the general plan of the 
work, parts by weight were substituted, in the formulae, for the volu- 
metric measurement of the liquids. 

The present pliarmacopoeial directions for the preparation of the 
liquor, consist, first, in the formation of ferrous chloride with diluted 
hydrochloric acid and metallic iron, and then in the oxidation of this 
ferrous chloride, in slightly acid (HCi) solution, into the ferric state 
with nitric acid, and the direction to remove any excess of the latter 
reagent by heat. The tincture is ordered to be made by simple admix- 
ture of the liquor and alcoliol in definite parts by weight and allowing 
the mixed liquids to stand in a closed vessel for ''not less than three 
months prior to use." The intent of the latter action, it is said, is to 
insure the full production of chlorinated ethers. 

Mr. R. Pother, through the '' Journal,"^ presents, in a very able and 
interesting communication, some critical remarks upon ''Ferric Chlo- 
rides" in general and the "Liquor" (U. S. P., 1880) and "Tincture" 
(U. S. p., 1880) in particular. He claims, principally, that the present 
method pursued in preparing the liquor is radically wrong and defec- 
tive in structure, if its object is to obtain extreme purity of the finished 
product, through the impossibility of evaporating off the excess of nitric 

1 U. S. Pharmacoi^oeia. 

2 "American Journal of Pharmacy," August. 1884, p. 407. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 

March, 1885, j 



Tincture of Ferric Chloride. 



115 



acid or even nitrogen oxides formed from its decomposition; and that 
the excess of hydrochloric acid present in the liquor in no way tends 
toward the etherization of the alcohol in making the tincture, and 
lastly, that this result, i. e., the etherizing of the alcohol, depends upon 
the presence of lower oxides of nitrogen arising from decomposed nitric 
acid. 

In regard to the unremoved excess of nitric acid in the liquor, a few 
remarks confirming the statement of its existence there, are in order. 
To further this end, the following plan was adopted : To a definite 
quantity of the officinal liquor, silver nitrate was added to precipitate 
all chlorides; care being used to avoid any excess of the precipitant. 
The filtered liquid, which was strongly acid in its reaction with litmus, 
readily liberated free iodine on the addition of a very small quantity of 
potassium iodide. To ascertain whether this acid was nitrous or nitric 
acid, several volumes of certain diluted acids, equal in quantity to that 
of the liquor originally used, were each taken separately and exposed 
to an action, if possible, upon potassinm iodide in the same amount as 
that used above, and the ensuing reaction or non-reaction used as a 
basis of comparison. When this was done, diluted hydrochloric acid 
(U. S. P., 1880) had no decomposing effect upon the iodide, neither 
had diluted nitric acid, so that when the so-called pure nitrous acid of 
commerce (really a mixture of both nitrous and nitric acids), very 
largely diluted with water, was added in small amounts and iodine 
freely liberated, the evidence given clearly showed the presence in the 
liquor of free nitrous acid alone. The method used is simply a modi- 
fication of the general test for nitrites in the presence of nitrates, and 
depends for its value upon the fact that free nitrous acid in dilute solu- 
tion quickly decomposes potassium iodide with the setting free of its 
iodine, while free nitric acid, under like conditions, exerts a totally 
negative influence. 

For the moment, let us turn our attention towards certain calcula- 
tions based upon the officinal formulte, showing the amounts of the two 
acids ordered and that actually required. Since the solution contains 
37*8 parts of ferric chloride in each 100 parts, and since it is found 
that 324'2 parts of ferric chloride require 684*6 parts of 31 '9 per cent, 
hydrochloric acid, then 37*8 parts of ferric chloride, the amount ofli 
cinally desired, would require a less quantity. It is so expressed, and 
80 parts, in short, is the result indicating the amount actually used 



116 



Tincture of Ferric Chloride, 



/Am. Jour. Pharm. 
t March, 1885. 



during the process, leaving an excess of 6 parts of officinal hydro- 
chloric acid, thus : 

324-2 : 37-8 :: (218-4 -319 =) 684*6 : 79-82. 

Concerning the nitric acid, we say that, if 972*6 parts of ferric chlo- 
ride demand for its oxidation from the ferrous state 181*5 parts of 69*4 
per cent, nitric acid, then 37-8 parts of ferric chloride would require 
less, or when found 7*05 parts. The amount of HNO3 officinally 
ordered is 8 parts, leaving a minimum unused excess of 1 part, thus : 

972-6 : 37-8 :: (126 ^ -694 =) 181-5 : 7-05. 

Now, as the amount of nitric acid used in the iron valeation is theo- 
retically, and in practice, admittedly in excess of the amount actually 
demanded for that purpose alone, it is clearly evident, upon examina- 
tion, that, independently of the facts involved in the valeation, so 
called, there is another totally separate chemical change taking place, 
which, apparently, has failed to receive the notice or excite the atten- 
tion that its high value demands. The real underlying feature of the 
whole case seems to be that immediately after we have oxidized the 
iron compound we also change the chemical character of the excess of 
hydrochloric acid present, in the same manner as we do when making 
nitrohydrochloric acid, through the presence of the unremoved excess 
of nitric acid. The reaction is, first : 

2HNO3 + 6HC1 NACI2 + 2CI2 + 4H2O ; 

or, plainly expressed, the change consists, essentially, in the mutual 
decomposition of both nitric and hydrochloric acids, with the forma- 
tion of chloronitrous anhydride, NgOgCla (a chlorine derivative of 
nitrous anhydride, (N2O3), or the so-called nitrous acid gas, formed 
by the simple replacement in the molecule of one bivalent oxygen 
atom with two univalent chlorine atoms), free chlorine gas and water. 
The free chlorine is volatilized by heat, the solution being a diluted 
one ; and, since chloronitrous anhydride, (N2O2CI2), readily decomposes 
on dilution into nitrons anhydride and free hydrochloric acid, the fol- 
lowing secondary change ensues : 

2N2O2CI2 H- 2H2O = 2N2O3 -j- 4HC1 : 

or, in other words, the chloro-anhydride is decomposed by water, with 
the abstraction of its chlorine atoms to form hydrochloric acid with 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
March, 1885. ) 



Tincture of Feme Chloride. 



117 



the hydrogen of the decomposed water, while the freed oxygen atoms 
of tlie latter unite with those of the altered anhydride to nitrous anhy- 
dride (N2O3), which, through its strong affinity for moisture, quickly 
absorbs one molecule of water to form the more stable nitrous acid 
(HNO2). . 

If, according to the Pharmacopoeia,^ 1 part of nitric acid requires 
3f parts of hydrochloric acid for mutual decomposition in making 
nitrohydrochloric acid, it is evident that the excess of 6 parts of HCl 
present in the liquor is only partially changed by the excess of 1 part 
of HNO3, and the remaining 2J parts of hydrochloric acid must 
remain free and unchanged, because of the insufficiency of free nitric 
acid. 

Now, in the simple decomposition of the two acids previously men- 
tioned we have a ready solution for the main cause of the production 
of ethyl nitrite, since it is well known that nitrous acid, or even 
nitrous anhydride, when brought in contact with alcohol, readily gene- 
rates that ether. 

The claim that the liquor forms nitrohydrochloric acid needs no 
labored argument to prove, since the presence of free nitrous acid in 
the commercial liquid has been determined in a number of samples by 
the author in following the modified test for nitrous acid previously 
mentioned. The occasional presence of traces of free chlorine has 
also been observed through the ready solubility of gold leaf in the 
liquid. In regard to the free chlorine, however, it is fair to assume 
that it is almost entirely dissipated on the application of heat. 

Mr. Rother has constructed a formula for the " Liquor," founded upon 
the oxidizing properties of chloric acid, resulting from the decompo- 
sition of barium chlorate with acid, upon ferrous chloride in acid solu- 
tion, the barium being precipitated with sulphuric acid. 

As a general rule, the reception and permanency of any new phar- 
maceutical process is, in the main, dependent upon its simplicity of 
structure and its freedom or non-liability of contaminating impurities 
arising from defective modes of procedure. There is no doubt that, 
under exact conditions and in careful hands, this process would give 
good results ; but if, in the making of this product, there is danger, 
either from the explosive character of the chloric acid formed, or the 
liability to retain a poisonous impurity in the form of a soluble, unpre- 

^U. 8. P., Acidum Nitrobydrocbloricum, p. 18. 



118 



Tincture of Ferrie Chloride. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ March, 1885. 



cipitated barium salt, in case the precipitant is weaker than the Phar- 
macopoeial strength demanded, its replacement by simpler methods, 
with safe and equally valuable results, will not be long deferred. 

With the submitting of the previously recorded statements, the 
author would also desire to present a formula for the preparation of 
the " Liquor,^^ which in his hands has yielded safe and valuable 
results. The change in working involves no complicated methods, 
but simply consists, first in the formation of ferrous chloride with 
metallic iron and diluted hydrochloric acid, as heretofore, and then in 
the valeation of this ferrous salt, by exposing its heated, acidulated 
(HCl) solution to the oxidizing action of gaseous chlorine in its pas- 
sage through the liquid. Any excess of the gaseous element may after- 
wards be readily removed by the use of heat, or, if so desired, by the 
passage of a current of air through the solution. The use of chlorine 
gas, in this connection, as an oxidizer, is only a new application of the 
old and well-known method of preparing the normal ferric chloride 
solution employed in chemical analysis where an excess of free acid 
(HCl) is not wished. On this occasion^ however, an excess of HCl is 
desirable, as a means of insuring permanency of composition. 

FORMULA. 

Iron, in the form of fine wire, and cut in small pieces, 15 parts (3f 
oz. av.) ; hydrochloric acid, 59 parts (14f oz. av.) ; chlorine gas, dis- 
tilled water, each a sufficient quantity to make 100 parts (25 oz. av.). 
Place the iron wire in a capacious flask, and pour upon it 54 parts 
(13J oz. av.) of hydrochloric acid, previously diluted with 25 parts 
(6J oz. av., or 6 fluidounces) of distilled water. Heat the liquid, 
slowly, until the reaction is ended, and effervescence ceases; then 
rapidly heat to the boiling point, filter through paper, and, having 
rinsed the flask and residue with a little boiling distilled water, pass 
the washings through the filter. To the filtrate add, immediately, 5 
parts (IJ oz. av.) of hydrochloric acid, followed by the addition of 20 
parts (5 oz. av.) of boiling distilled water. Keep the liquid nearly 
boiling, and pass through it a stream of gaseous chlorine (generated in 
the usual way), agitating occasionally, until a small portion, tested 
with freshly prepared test solution of potassium ferricyanide, gives no 
indication of the existence of a ferrous compound by producing a blue 
precipitate. Lastly, add, after any free chlorine present has been 



Am. Jour, Pharm, "( 
March, 1885. j 



Tincture of Fe^^ric Chloride. 



119 



removed by heat, sufficient distilled water to make the whole produc- 
weigh 100 parts (25 oz. av.). 

The ^'Tincture'' may be made, if so desired, by the simple admix- 
ture of this new liquor with alcohol in the proportion of 35 parts to 
65 parts, as of old, and mixing the liquids ; no previous standing 
before medicinal employment being necessary. But concerning the 
tincture, more especially the officinal one, there are quite a number of 
views held regarding its utility and value over a liquor of similar 
strength, as questionable. The National Dispensatory," p. 901, in 
speaking of the liquor (U. S. P., 1880), says of it, that It is not 
altered by exposure to sunlight, except in the presence of various 
organic matters, by which the salt is partially reduced to ferrous chloride " 
and again, the same authority, under the tincture (U. S. P., J 880), p. 
1526, says, that ^' Notwithstanding this gradual reduction (in the tinc- 
ture) is well known, the U. S. P. requires the tincture on the addition 
of freshly prepared solution of potassium ferricyanide, to acquire 
merely a greenish-brown color, without a trace of blue, which is 
simply an impossibility." In further corroboration of the reducing 
action of alcohol and sunlight combined on ferric chloride solution, 
when prepared by the officinal method. Professor Attfield, in the last 
edition of his Chemistry," p. 146, in commenting upon the tincture 
(U. S. P., 1880), remarks, that "The spirit in the tincture is unneces- 
sary, useless and deleterious ; for it acts neither as a special solvent 
nor as a preservative, the offices usually performed by alcohol and 
unless the liquid contains excess of acid, decomposes the ferric chloride 
and causes the formation of an insoluble oxychloride of iron. Even if 
the tincture be acid it slowly loses color ; ferrous chloride and chlori- 
nated etherial bodies being formed. A liquor of similar strength is 
doubtless destined to displace the tincture altogether." Further 
evidence in conformation of these view\s, is given by Mr. R. Pother in 
his paper on " Ferric Chlorides " ^ to which previous reference has 
been made, when he says, that In regard to the officinal proportion 
of alcohol in the tincture, it may be said that it is unnecessarily great. 
Whilst a moderate amount, say 35 per cent., may be beneficial, any 
large excess may be fairly judged as a species of impurity, aside from 
being a positive waste." Now the evidence adduced from these ex- 
tracts and also from the remarks previously made is, that the prepara- 



1 "American Journal of Pharmacy," August, 1884, p. 409. 



120 



Tincture of Ferric Chloride. 



/Am. Jour. Pharm. 
1 March, 1885. 



tion of the officinal tincture, and its employment, was radically wrong 
if a strictly definite standard solution of the chemical was desired, and 
there is only one feature in its use, that could be construed as favor- 
able evidence toward its continuance and that is, that the formation of 
nitrous ether in the old tincture may have had more or less to do 
therapeutically with its peculiar diuretic action on the human system, 
but this fact need not stand in the way, for the simple reason that if 
such belief is a true one, a more definite quantity of spirit of nitrous 
ether (U. S. P., 1880), may be prescribed in its place with a new 
liquor, than was possible to obtain in the old tincture. With a new 
liquor, a formula might be constructed with spirit as of old, and it 
would possibly remain unchanged, but that fact does not nullify the 
pertinency of the statement, that the employment of alcohol is both un- 
necessary and useless, and, serving as it does no special good, its use 
may be justly condemned as a positive waste. 

The better way, it would seem, in order to secure the fittest repre- 
sentative of the article in question, would be to receive the suggestion 
of a diluted liquor and advocate its adoption by the Pharmacopoeial 
Committee of Revision in its next session ; that method of adoption 
consisting in the recognition of one new Liquor Ferri Chloridi,^' 
having the same iron strength as our present tincture, and also adding, 
if wished, 5 per cent, of the officinal spirit of nitrous ether in lieu of 
ethyl nitrite; and the total discarding of the present "liquor'^ and 
" tincture " as both useless and unnecessary. In this way all error and 
possible confusion, incidental to the changes, could be overcome, and 
the general usefulness of the chloride continued in active force. 

Samples of the several liquids previously referred to are presented. 
The first one is the officinal liquor — a 37*8 per cent, solution of ferric 
chloride. It is a deep reddish-brown liquid, having an acid strongly 
styptic taste and an acid reaction. The second is a tincture, U. S. P. 
strength. It is a yellowish -brown liquid, destitute of etherial odor, 
possessing an astringenj: styptic taste and an acid reaction. The third 
is a diluted liquor of tincture strength. It is a bright yellowish liquid, 
acid in reaction and of styptic taste. The fourth is a diluted liquor, 
tincture strength, containing 5 per cent, of spirit of nitrous ether 
(U. S. P., 1880), which has been added to it in the cold. A dark red- 
dish-brown liquid of etherial odor, which on stimding, eventually, be- 
comes of lighter color. Properties, the same in general, as the preced- 
ing liquids. The fifth and last is a diluted liquor, in which the 5 per 



Am. Jour. Pharm. "I 
March, 1885. J 



Citrate of Iron and Quinine. 



121 



cent, of added spirit of nitrous ether, has been slowly poured into a 
boiling solution of ferric chloride and then diluted to the proper 
quantity of liquid. 

In closing it may be well to make some remarks of the peculiar ac- 
tion exercised by nitrous acid, or certain of its derivatives upon solu- 
tions of ferric chloride prepared by the chlorine process. When the 
diluted liquor with 5 per cent, of spirit of nitrous ether was prepared, 
an immediate darkening of the liquid was noticed, which, upon the 
application of heat, assumed a much lighter shade. A possible theory 
of the cause of this darkening in color is that a ferric nitrite may be 
formed from the added nitrous compound, which, upon heating, is 
decomposed by the free hydrochloric acid present, with the formation 
of free nitrous acid and ferric chloride. 



CITRATE OF IRON AND QUININE. 
By R. Rother. 

According to the Pharmacopoeia the official trihydrous quinine 
loses two ms. of water at 100° C, and the remaining third m. 
at |:125° C. If this be so the quinine dried at the former tem- 
perature cannot be the anhydrous alkaloid. Yet in the formula 
for citrate of iron and quinine it is implied that this is the case. 
The writer, however, doubts this, and hence assumes that this com- 
pound contains 12 per cent, of monohydrous quinine, which would 
give the substance, chemically considered, a molecular weight of 2,850. 
This will indicate one m. of quinine monohydrate to about 9*22 ms. 
of ferric citrate. It is then probably an indefinite mixture of ferric 
hydrocitrate, ferric citrate and an undetermined quinio-ferric citrate held 
in some kind of chemical union by the two former salts. A plausible 
analogy for this view is found in what may be termed an acid ferric citrate. 
When one m. of ferric citrate or 2*72 grammes is mixed with one m. of 
citric acid, or 2.10 grammes, then heated with some water until dis- 
solved, finally evaporated and dried at a gentle heat, a product weighing 
4*91 grammes is obtained. This result shows that a definite compound 
is formed having the formula FeCi.II3Ci.3Aq., with a molecular weight 
of 491. The salt is extremely soluble but non-deliquescent. Its color 
is of a lighter tint than ferric citrate. It becomes soft on heating, and 
although friable when cold, it is too tenacious for scaling. By replacing 
all the basic hydrogen with sodium or other bases, very characteristic 



122 



Citrate of Iron and Quinine. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
1 March, 1885. 



green colored double salts are formed (" American Journal Pharmacy/^ 
March, 1883). 

In the paper referred to a triquinic substitution was noted. When 
but two or only one replacement is made the resinous and insoluble 
nature becomes successively less pronounced. The interposition of 
sodium modifies these features still further, so that when two sodic and 
one quinic radicle are present a compound of considerable infusibility 
and solubility results. AVhen at this stage the ferric citrate is doubled 
the solubility is again greatly enhanced. But the tripling of the ferric 
citrate touches the climax in an unlimited capacity for solution. The 
double salt thereby obtained is however perfectly nondeliquescent. It 
has a fine apple green tint, and is readily procured in magnificent and 
permanent scales. Although promptly and profusely soluble in cold 
or hot water, it is but sparingly soluble in alcohol. It is also an invari- 
ably definite compound. For when in preparing it three ms., or 8*16 
grams of ferric citrate, one m., or 2*10 grams of citric acid, two ms., or 
1'68 grams of sodium bicarbonate, and one m., or 3*78 grams of tri- 
hydrous quinine are united in the presence of water, evaported and 
then dried at a gentle heat, a product Aveighing 14*03 grams is obtained. 
This result indicates that the molecular weight of this new salt is 1,403, 
and that its empirical formula is 3(FeCi).Na2(QuH)Ci.6Aq., and its 
structural formula 

Na Ci Na 

I 

Ci Fe Ci . 6Aq. 

II II 
Fe Ci Fe 

I 

(QuH). 

Contrasted in this expression the proportion of quinine seems insig- 
nificant. Compared however by weight, it is as 378 to 1,403, that is 
the salt contains 27 per cent, of trihydrous quinine. 

The corresponding potassium salt is equally elegant and soluble. 
When 8-16 grams of ferric citrate, 2*10 grams of citric acid, 2*00 
grams of potassium bicarbonate, and 3'78 grams of trihydrous quinine 
are united as in case of the sodium salt, the product weighs 13*81 
grams. This result shows that the composition of the salt is 3(FeCi). 
Ko(QuH)Ci.3Aq., and its molecular weight 1,381. i ccordingly the 
percentage of quinine trihydrite is about 27*4, which corresponds to 
nearly 31 "3 per cent, of quinium sulphate. 

An analogous sodium salt is produced when the quinine is replaced 



Am. Jour Pharru. ) 
March, 1885. J 



Citrate of Iron and Quinine, 



123 



by an additional sodic radicle. In appearance it differs only in having a 
deeper shade of apple green. It is equally soluble, nondeliquescent, 
and superbly scaled. Its definite character is shown that when three 
ms., or 8*16 grams of ferric citrate, one m., or 2*10 grams of citric 
acid and three ms., or 2-52 grams of sodium bicarbonate are mixed in 
the presence of water heated until combined, and then evaporated and 
dried at a gentle heat, a product is obtained weighing 11 '01 grams. 
From this it appears that the formula of the salt is 3(FeCi). NagCi.BAq., 
and the molecular weight 1,101. It commends itself as a substitute 
for the now official ammonio-ferric citrate, over which it has various 
advantages. 

Owing to the fact that in the construction of the new citrate of iron 
and quinium a quinium citrate would be in some respects superior to 
the alkaloid it became desirable to ascertain the composition of the 
three citrates, containing, respectively three, two and one quinic 
radicles. 

The first one was therefore determined by uniting 3*78 grams of 
trihydrous quinine and '70 grams of citric acid in contact with water, 
then evaporating and drying it at a gentle heat until the residue ceased 
to lose weight. The product w^eighed 4' 96 grams, showing that the 
molecular weight is 1,488, and the formula (QuH)3Ci. 18Aq. 

The second or diquinic citrate is obtained when 3*78 grams of tri- 
hydrous quinine and 1*05 grams of citric acid are united as in the first 
instance. Tiie product weighs 4*65 grams. This result indicates that 
the formula of the salt is (QuH)2HCi.5Aq, and the molecular weight 
930. In regard to appearance and solubility this salt closely similates 
the triquinic citrate. 

The third was found by a similar method to give from 3*78 grams 
of trihydrous quinine and 2*10 grams of citric acid a residue weighing 
5'70 grams. Its molecular weight is therefore 570 and its formula 
(QuH)H2Ci.3Aq. 

When 3*78 grams of quinine trihydrite and 1*40 grams of citric 
acid are combined as in the three preceding cases the product weighs 
5*12 grams. This result shows that the formula of the salt thus 
obtained is (QuH)3El3Ci2.10Aq, and that its molecular weight is 1536. 
It is more crystalline and sokible than the first two of the preceding 
citrates, and less so than the third. This compound is not a mixture, 
but apparently a combination between a monoquinic citrate and a diqui- 
nic citrate molecule. But it is simpler to regard it as a combination 



124 



Citrate of Iron and Quinine. 



{Am. Jour. Pharm. 
March, 1885. 



between a triquinic citrate and a citric acid molecule. This view would 
consider it a super acid quinium citrate. However, according to either 
construction, the union partakes of that subvalent nature wherein the 
chemical compact cannot be represented by unit bonds. 

The first of these citrates is the least soluble of them and forms as 
a voluminous curdy mass. 

The second has a more crystalline character and is also slightly more 
soluble. 

The third crystallizes in voluminous collections of delicate satiny 
needles. It is by far the most soluble of these salts, imparting a very 
decided bluish fluorescence to the cold aqueous solution, and is much 
more freely soluble in hot water. Although this monoquinic citrate 
appears to be more soluble than the ordinary sulphate, it is remarkably 
less bitter. Besides the process already mentioned, it can also be pre- 
pared by double decomposition between 436 parts of diquinic sulphate 
and monosodic citrate derived from 210 parts of citric acid and 84 
parts of sodium bicarbonate. The resulting magma is heated with 
sufficient water to dissolve it, and the solution set aside to crystallize. 
Til is method is, however, somewhat wasteful, owing to the marked 
solubility of this salt. 

The monoquinic citrate is apparently the most practically applicable 
salt in the preparation of the new sodio-ferric quinium citrate. If not 
procurable as such in the market, it can be readily compounded by 
directly uniting the quinine and citric acid employed in the working 
formula of the double salt. As already intimated, the union is more 
speedily and easily effected by this manner of compounding than by 
the incorporation of the quinine last. The tendency of the alkaloid 
to fuse into resinous ma.sses is, in the case of the new salt, by no means 
as pronounced as in the old official process, yet it can be wholly 
obviated as above suggested. 

If the Pharmacopoeia intends to employ anhydrous quinine in its 
formulas, it should not have adopted a hydrite at all. Had an anhy- 
drite been directed, the operator would either have employed the 
trihydrous quinine in the proportion of 378 to 324 or he would have 
appropriately heated 378 parts of the trihydrite until only 324 parts 
remained. 

The preparation of a pure trihydrous quinine is not so easy as it 
might seem. It is especially difficult when the sulphate is used. On 
pouring the solution of the acid sulphate into the alkaline precipitant 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 1 
March, 1885. / 



Citrate of Iron and Quinine. 



125 



never so carefully, a portion of the sparingly soluble ordinary sulphate 
will always be entangled in the precipitated quinine. A perfect 
decomposition can only be effected by percolating a weak alkaline 
liquor through the collected magma until the filtrate no longer responds 
to ammonia. Contamination with precipitated quinium salts can, how- 
ever, be obviated directly by employing quinium chloride in saturated 
cold solution. Since ordinarily a much larger proportion of alkali is 
needed to precipitate the quinine wholly, than simple equivalents, it 
follows that ammonia is not a desirable precipitant. Fixed caustic 
alkalis and disodic carbonate are preferable, as an excess dissolves no 
quinine, which happens in case of ammonia. 

If heat were admissible the precipitation of quinine could be more 
easily performed. However by taking advantage of the fusibility of 
trihydrous quinine, a process is derived which renders this property for 
the production of anhydrous quinine very practicable. On depriving 
fused trihydrous quinine of its water by means of a properly regulated 
heat, a very friable residue of anhydrous quinine is left. Hence anhy- 
drous quinine, in an appropriate official form, can be produced by 
heating together 8*72 grams or one m. of ordinary quinium sulphate, 
5*72 grams or two ms. of disodic carbonate and about 50*00 cc. of water, 
until perfect decomposition of the sulphate is effected. On cooling, 
the alkaline solution is decanted from the hardened mass. This is well 
rinsed with cold water and then successively digested w^ith small por- 
tions of water until the fused quinine is thoroughly washed. The 
mass is now heated at a properly regulated temperature until a friable 
residue of anhydrous quinine, weighing nearly 6*48 grams, remains. 

From these various considerations, the following formula for the 
new sodio-ferric quinium citrate is derived : 



Ferric citrate 8'16 grams 

Citric acid 2-10 " 

Sodium bicarbonate 1*68 " 

Quinine trihydrite 3-78 " 

or, 

Quinine anhydrite 8 '24 " 

Water, sufficient. 



Place the ferric citrate, sodium bicarbonate and 20'00 cc. of water 
into a porcelain capsule of convenient size, and apply heat, constantly 
stirring the mixture until perfect solution has resulted. Now place 
the quinine, citric acid and 20'00 cc. of water into a similar capsule, 



126 Diastatio Power of Extract of Malt. {^arTh'S'""' 

and apply heat whilst stirriog the mixture^ until the combination is 
completed. Pour the solution into this magma, apply heat, and when 
all has dissolved, evaporate the solution at a moderate temperature, to 
a syrupy consistence, and spread it on glass plates to dry in the warm 
open air, so that the salt may form in scales. 



THE DIASTATIC POWER OF CERTAIN EXTRACTS OF 
MALT. 
By Albert B. Prescott. 

In determining the starch-converting power of certain samples of 
extract of malt of the market, these samples having been obtained 
since December 1, 1884, from different retail drug stores in different 
towns in the interior of ]Michigan, with one sample of each brand 
obtained in Chicago, Illinois, I have obtained the following given 
results : 

"maltine" of the maltine I 
manufacturinCt company. 
No. 1 converts 9 to 10 jiarts starch. 
No. 2 " 8 
No. 3 " 9 to 10 " 
No. 4 " 8 
No. 5 " 14 
No. 6 " 8 
No. 7 " 18 
Average 10 to 11 parts starch. 

The starch -was weighed as dry starch, and rated in parts to one 
part of the malt extract. The concentration, one part of starch to 
twenty parts of water, and one part of malt extract diluted with 
water to four parts. The time of digestion, twenty minutes; the 
temperature, 60° to 64° C. The end-reaction, an extinction of the 
iodine and starch color in three minutes after the intermixture of the 
iodine with the digested starch (previously cooled). 

One year ago, using the same method and conditions, I tested the 
starch-converting power of samples of Maltine and of Trommer's 
Extract of Malt " obtained (in open market) in Ann Arbor only, and 
then found and reported that the " Maltine converted 33 parts of 
starch, and the " Trommer's Extract of Malt " converted 1 6 parts of 
starch. And testing now again my retained samples obtained a year 



" TROMMEU'S EXTRACT OF MALT. 

No. 1 converts 18 parts starch. 
No. 2 " 16 " 
No. 3 " 17 
No. 4 " 16 

Average, 16f 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
March, 1885. J 



Examination of Bwdoch Fruit. 



127 



ago, I find their converting power not changed^ and my test results 
the same reported in January, 1884. 

From the investigation now made, I am convinced that, as now 
furnished in Michigan, Trommer's Extract of Malt holds a nearly 
uniform power of converting 16 to 17 parts of starch, and that 
^'Maltine^' has a more variable power of converting a mean of 10 to 
11 parts of starch. And I am convinced that the samples of 

Maltine I obtained in Ann Arbor, a year ago, were exceptional 
samples, as they had three times the starch-converting power possessed 
by the average " Maltine " of the Maltine Manufacturing Company 
supplied in Michigan for the past three months. 

Ann Arbor, Michigan, January 6, 1885. 



AN EXAMINATION OF BURDOCK FRUIT. 

a contribution from the chemical laboratory of the philadel- 
phia college of pharmacy. 

By Henry Trimble and F. D. Macfarland. 
Read at the Pharmaceutical Meeting^ Fehruary 17, 1885. 

The following analysis of the fruit of Lappa officinalis, while incom- 
plete, gives, we believe, the important constituents of this drug. The 
moisture determined in the usual way was found to be 7*30 per cent., 
and the ash 5*34 per cent. 

Ten grams reduced to No. 60 powder were thoroughly exhausted with 
petroleum spirit. This solution, on evaporation and heating to 110°C., 
was found to consist of a bland light yellow fixed oil, representing 
15*4 per cent, of the fruit. 

The following are some of the important characteristic reactions. 
With fuming nitric acid a brown color and aromatic odor, but not 
becoming solid. With strong sulphuric acid a brown color, becoming 
thick and syrupy. Exjwsed to the air in thin layers the oil solidifies. 
Alcohol and absolute alcohol do not dissolve it, but hot absolute alco- 
hol, ether, chloroform and benzol are good solvents. The specific 
gravity is '930, determined with a larger amount of the oil prepared 
from 75 grams of the drug. That portion of the original ten grams 
remaining after treatment with petroleum spirit was exhausted with 
ether which dissolved 1*15 per cent, of a resin soluble in alcohol. 
Absolute alcohol extracted from the remainder of the drug 12*6 per 



128 



Production of Sulphate of Quinine. 



/Am. Jour, Pharm. 
\ March, 1885. 



cent. 8'3 per cent, being insoluble in water, appeared to be resin sol- 
uble in dilute alcohol ; the remaining 4*3 per cent, were soluble in 
water and were examined for alkaloids. A small quantity of crystals 
separated on evaporating the chloroform solution of this aqueous por- 
tion, first made alkaline with potassium hydrate. The amount, how- 
ever, was so small that the 75 grams of the drug remaining after 
extracting the oil with petroleum spirit were exhausted with dilute 
alcohol, the alcohol evaporated, and the residue, after rendering alka- 
line, was shaken repeatedly with chloroform until that solvent con- 
tained all the bitter principle. On evaporating the chloroform a resi- 
due Avas obtained which all efforts, so far, have failed to get in a crys- 
talline condition. It is intensely bitter, of a faintly alkaline reaction, 
gives precipitates with phosphomolybdic acid, Mayer's test, tannic acid, 
and gives off ammonia on heating with potassium hydrate. It is 
therefore quite certain that this bitter principle is an alkaloid, and we 
suggest for it the name of Lappine. 

The other constituents were not determined, but they with the bitter 
principle will be further investigated. 

We were induced to make this analysis from an account of the 
medicinal value of the so-called burdock seed in Dr. Squibb's Ephe- 
meris,'' vol. i, page 115. 
Philadelphia, Feb. 17, 1885. 



Production of Sulphate of Quinine in Europe. — The note 
under this heading which was published on page 27 of the January 
number has been corrected, some time ago, in the " American Oil and 
Drug Reporter,'^ as far as it relates to the production of the factory of 
Fried. Jobst, Stuttgart ; and I now desire to add that this quinine 
factory, which for many years has been under my special direction, 
does not, as stated in the note referred to, produce 20 kilos daily, but 
considerably more — about three times the quantity reported, as may be 
discerned from the fact that at the European- American Quinine Con- 
vention of the past year the establishment of Fr. Jobst ranged among 
the four largest quinine factories of Europe. Furthermore, the note 
referred to requires a correction, since at present the relations upon 
this field are completely altered, the leader of the figures given on 
page 27, the Fabricca lombarda, having retired from the scene ot 
activity. O. Hesse. 



Am, Jour. Pharm. 1 
March, 1885. J 



Substances Contained in Saffron. 



129 



SUBSTANCES CONTAINED IN SAFFRON. 

By R. Kayser. • 

Bouillon, V ogel, Quadrat, Rochleder and Mayer, and Weiss have at 
various times worked at this subject, but the information at present 
available is unsatisfactory. The author has therefore carefully investi- 
gated a sample of saffron, Crocus electus Gatinais. 

Essential Oil of Saffron. — This was obtained from saifron by steam 
distillation in a current of carbonic anhydride. It is an almost color- 
less mobile liquid, with an intense odor of saffron. When exposed to 
the air, it becomes oxidised and turns brown and syrupy. Analysis 
showed its composition to be C^jHjg, so that it belongs to the class of 
terpenes. 

Crocin. — Saffron w^as first freed from fatty matters, etc., by ether 
and then extracted with water at the ordinary temperature. The aque- 
ous solution was shaken up with bone-charcoal, which absorbed nearly 
all the coloring matter. The charcoal was filtered off, and the crocin 
extracted from it by washing with pure water. This solution was 
evaporated to dryness, and the residue treated with 90 per cent, alcohol. 
On evaporating the alcoholic solution, a yellowish-brown brittle mass 
is left, which yields a yellow powder. Crocin is easily soluble in 
water and dilute alcohol, less so in absolute alcohol, and almost insolu- 
ble in ether. Strong sulphuric acid dissolves it to a deep blue solution, 
which turns first violet, then cherry-red, and lastly brown. Nitric 
acid (sp. gr. 1*4) gives a similarly colored solution, but the color imme- 
diately changes to brown. Hydrochloric acid yields a yellow solution. 
Lead acetate, and lime- and baryta-water give no precipitate, but, on 
heating, they decompose crocin into crocetin and a sugar. Alkalis 
cause the same decomposition in the cold. Crocin is thus a glucoside, 
and analysis shows its composition to be C^JI^qO^s- 

Crocetin is best obtained by the action of hydrochloric acid on 
crocin. It is precipitated in the form of yellow flocks, which when 
dried yield a red powder. It is almost insoluble in pure water, but is 
rendered soluble by the addition of a small quantity of an alkali. 
Acids reprecipitate it from such solutions in orange flocks. It is easily 
soluble in alcohol. An alcoholic solution gives bright red precipitates 
with lead acetate, and with lime- or baryta- water ; the compounds so 
formed, however, are not definite, but vary in composition. Sulphuric 
and hydrochloric acids behave with it as with crocin. Its composition 

9 



130 



So-called Carbonate of Titanium. 



J Am. Jour. Pharm. 
1 March, 1885. 



is Cg^H^gOg. The decomposition a})pears to take place according to the 
equation 2C,,H,A8 + = Cg^H^A + QCgH.A. 

Crocose. — The sugar mentioned above yields rhombic crystals. Its 
solution has a sweet taste and strong dextrorotatory action. Its 
reducing power for Fehling's solution is only half that of dextrose. 
The quantities of crocetin and crocose obtained by the decomposition 
agree very closely with those required by the above equation. 

Picrocrocin. — Saffron- bitter. — This substance crystallizes out in the 
ether-extracting apparatus it the extraction be continued for a long 
time. It forms colorless prismatic needles, very sparingly soluble in 
ether. It dissolves easily in water and alcohol, less so in chloroform. 
It has a characteristic bitter taste, which is very persistent. It melts 
at 75° to a colorless liquid. Its formula is CggHggOjy. Lead acetate, 
lime-water and baryta-water give no precipitate in the cold, but 
decomposition takes place on warming, crocose and the terpene 
described above being formed. Picrocrocin is thus a glucoside like 
crocin, and the decomposition may be expressed by the equation — . 

—Jour. Chem. Soc, 1885, p. 59; Berichte, 1884, pp. 2228-2234. 



So-called Carbonate of Titanium. — In a paper read before the 
Detroit Academy of Medicine, and published in " Jour. Am. Med. 
Assoc.," November 29, 1884, Dr. A. B. Lyons communicates the 
analysis of a sample of this new pretended remedy, which consisted of 



Ferrous sulphate (cryst.) 54*8 

Ferric oxide (anhydrous) 40*5 

Salts of calcium, potassium and sodium 2*2 

Titanic acid and silica 1*0 

Organic matter and loss I'o 



100-0 

The organic matter contained a vegetable alkaloid which proved to 
be sanguinarine. Practically, the powder consisted of a mixture of 
nearly equal parts of sub-carbonate of iron and sulphate of iron, par- 
tially exsiccated, with addition of an insignificant quantity of blood- 
root. (See also ''Am. Jour. Phar.," 1884, p. 648.) 



Am. Jour. Pharm. I 
March, 1885. / 



Essential Oil Industry in Grasse. 



131 



THE ESSENTIAL OIL INDUSTRY IN GRASSE.^ 
By F. a. Fluckiger. 

The world-wide fame of Grasse depends upon the essential oils of 
plants which there grow wild or are cultivated. Among the former 
may be named : — (I) Lavandula Spica, Chaix (L. latifolia, Villars), 
the " aspic of the French, which occurs plentifully in the country all 
around Grasse, and even quite close to the city. (2) Lavandula vera, 
DC. {L. officinalis, Chaix, L. angustifolia, Moench), which not only 
grows together with L. latifolia, but more frequently on high ground 
in the mountain region ; generally L. vera is a much more widely 
spread plant throughout the Mediterranean region, and is also easily 
cultivated throughout Europe. Both these plants have stout woody 
stems, which are very enduring ; those of thyme are still more vigor- 
ous. (3) Thymus vulgaris, L., a real ornament of the Mediterranean 
region, where it is found plentifully both in the Grasse district — not 
making its way so high up the mountains, but growing in the light 
thickets — and on unsheltered coast. (4) Rosmarinus officinalis, L., 
the erect but always bent stems of which, reaching a height of two 
metres, and often several centimetres thick, probably overtop most 
other labiates, or, at any rate, are not equalled in any other European 
spt'cies of this family. At Mentone and Nice it is difficult to say 
whether Thymus vulgaris or Rosmariyius grows most abundantly. At 
Grasse the latter manifestly loses ground, notwithstanding that it is 
by far more conspicuous than the lower lying thyme. Here and there 
Cuscuta [Epithymumf) selects the rosemary stalks for its home. 

The oil of these four labiates constitute an important export industry 
of Grasse. The plants being vigorous, persistent bushes, they require 
no cultivation, as the tops, bearing leaves and flowers, taken for dis- 
tillation, are always replaced, even though the collector does his work 
in a most unskilful manner. The large distilleries in Grasse conclude 
arrangements with the communities in the districts round about, 
by which they become entitled to the produce of large tracts of land. 
The work itself is done for the Grasse firms by the rural population, who 
set up their simple copper stills on the spot and only carry the distil- 
late to the city. Many of these traveling stills (alambics voyageants) 
are indeed the property of the large houses in Grasse. Probably the 
work has long been carried on in this way. The Parisian druggist, 

' Abstract from a paper in the Archiv der P/iarmacie, xxii., 473. 



132 



Essential Oil Industry in Grasse. 



f Am Jour, rharm. 

1 March, 1885. 



Pierre Pomet^ who was well informed in such objects, said in 1694, in 
his Historic Generale des Drogues/' concerning Lavandula Spioay 
" elle est si commune dans le Languedoc et en Provence . . . qu'elle 
ne cotite qu'a prendre/' and he drew from this country the essential 
oils in question. That the oils are obtained in the manner indicated 
very cheaply is very probable, but it is a question whether a systematic 
cultivation and an economical manufacture would not induce greater 
progress. According to estimates for which the author is indebted to 
the kindness of M. Roure, proprietor of one of the largest manufac- 
tories, the following quantities of each oil are delivered in Grasse every 
year : from Lavandula vera, 80,000 to 100,000 kilograms ; from 
Thymus vulgaris, 40,000 : from Lavandula Spica, 20,000 to 25,000 ; 
from rosemary an equal quantity. Tlie quantity sent out from Grasse 
probably covers the requirements of the whole world ; at least the 
author only knows of rosemary that it is cultivated also in Dalmatia, 
which country sends about 20,000 kilos, of the essential oil into the 
market. 

Oil of thyme furnished the lirst materials, in 1847 and 1853, for 
the investigation of thymol, but this substance is no longer prepared 
from it. The amount of thymol in the oil appears to vary consider- 
ably, and more exact information on this point is desirable. 

Of the oils which, unlike those already mentioned, are regularly dis- 
tilled in the laboratories of the Grasse manufactories, those of species 
of Citrus must be named, and especially oil of neroli. The flowers of 
the bigarade tree (Citrus vulgaris, Risso) are not submitted to distilla- 
tion for the oil, of which they yield at most one part from one thous- 
and parts, but for the production of the thousands of hectolitres of "eau 
de fleurs d'oranger," ^' aqua florum aurantii," and " aquanaphae/' upon 
which Grasse prides itself ; the oil of neroli is a bye-product, though 
of course very costly. According to the author's informants, about 
2,000 kilograms of this beautiful oil is prepared in Grasse yearly, but 
nominally much more is exported. When a proper price is paid a 
pure oil of neroli may be obtained ; but the perfumers and druggists 
require it at reduced prices. In order, therefore, to acommodate them 
the producers add some " essence de petit grain," which, however, is 
no longer distilled from petit grain," i. e., the small unripe fruit of 
the bigarade tree, but from its leaves. No other species or form, how- 
ever, of the genus Citrus is endowed with so fine an aroma in the 
leaves, as the bitter-fruited orange tree, the " bigaradier." The bios- 



Am. Jour, Pharm . ) 
March, 1885. / 



Essential Oil Industry in Grasse. 



133 



soQis of the ordinary sweet-fruited orange, which are not used for 
distillation, yield only an oil of inferior value. In competition with 
the products of the bigaradier, the sweet orange which is cultivated 
in Grasse is disappearing. Neither the bergamot nor the lemon occur 
there. 

At the time of the author's visit the enormous metal tanks and 
cemented cisterns for holding rose water in the factory of M. E-oure 
were ready for the reception of the products of the coming season, 
which, like that of the neroli flowers, is at its height in the month of 
May, when thousands of kilograms of rose leaves are passed daily into 
the stills. The rose oil collected in sm-all quantity during the distilla- 
tion of the rose water is probably equally as fine as the oil of roses 
from the Balkans or from India; but notwithstanding it grows in 
nearly the same geographical latitude, the rose in Provence produces 
far more of the worthless solid constituent, dissolved in the liquid 
portion, which alone is odorous. The question arises whether a change 
in the strain of the roses so largely cultivated in Grasse might not 
lead to an improvement in respect to the oil. However, the rose water 
has for a century found a good sale, so that Grasse is not under the 
necessity to seek for further progress. The oil at present obtained in 
the manufacture, amounts to about one kilogram from each 12,000 
kilograms of fresh rose leaves ; to completely satisfy the requirements 
of customers, oil is obtained from the Balkans. The author thinks that 
the manufacture in Grasse affords a favorable opportunity to determine 
the chemical properties, hitherto completely unknown, of the oil to 
which the rose owes its perfume. 

In perfumery ^' beurre d'iris" justly enjoys great popularity. It is 
distinguished above many other perfumes by an agreeable softness and 
great permanence. With the help of the most perfect methods of dis- 
tillation, iris root yields scarcely one part per thousand of the so-called 
" orris-root camphor." The above named house in Grasse prepares 
four to ten kilograms yearly. Probably an equal quantity is distilled 
in London and in Leipzig. A specimen of orris butter presented by 
M. Roure to the author enabled him to make a comparison of it with 
preparations from the two other sources.^ In the case of orris butter 
also we have to do with an oil, entirely uninvestigated as to its com- 
position, occurring in minute quantity together with the odorless prin- 

^ See Fliickiger's " Pharmacognosie," p. 314. 



134 



Essential Oil Industry in Grasse. 



(Am. Jour. Pharm. 
i March, 1885. 



cipal constituent, in this case myristic acid. In Grasse " beurre d'iris'^ 
is valued at 1,500 to 1,800 francs the kilo. It is noteworthy that the 
local manufacturers draw their supplies of raw material from Florence 
and Verona, whilst there cannot be the remotest doubt that Iris ger- 
manica and other species of Iris flourish equally as well on the moun- 
tains and hills of Basse-Provence as in the fields ol Tuscany or at 
Verona. In this case, however, also there is no necessity to give up 
the old custom, which is indeed carried so far that in no case is the 
Iris germanica, abundant in the district, made use of. 

Besides the wholesale distillation of orange flowers and roses, some 
other aromatic plants are occasionally worked up when required, though 
not to any very great extent. But another source of considerable 
revenue is the manufacture of pommades'' and ^' extracts.'' In this 
extensive branch of industry the essential oil is utilized from flowers 
containing it only in very small quantity. Among these are (1) the 
bigarade orange flowers, and (2) roses. In the following the essential 
oil is present in so minute a quantity that it is scarcely practicable to 
obtain it by distillation. 

(3) . Cassie. — This is the name given by the French to the elegant 
yellow flower-heads of the Acacia Farnesiana, Willd., a small tree 
which first reached the Farnese gardens at Rome from the West Indies 
and Central America. The fine odor of the flowers brought about its 
introduction into Provence, which it appears did not take place, at 
least for industrial purposes, until 1825.^ At present "cassie,'' is 
cultivated very carefully and on a large scale throughout the entire 
district between Canne and Grasse. The plantations are usually the 
property of the manufacturers or other landed proprietors and are 
worked by lessees, the terms being the simple and ])rimitive arrange- 
ment of sharing the proceeds with the proprietors. This system extends 
in this country to other perfumery plants, as well as to the olive. 

(4) . Jasmin. —The fields near Grasse are generally planted with 
Jasmimim officinale, L., which was probably first brought to Italy from 

^ " Apport6es en France vers I'annee, 1825" (Guib. Hist. Dr. iii, 1869), 
396. Ricord-Madiana, as well as Bonastre, attempted in 1830 and 1831 the 
chemical investigation of the flowers of the West Indian Acacia Farnesiana^ 
though without any result worth mentioning {Journ. Pharm , xvi, 571 ; 
xvii, 419). In the East Indies a gum exuding from the stem of the plant 
is collected. The root bark is said to have a very strong garlic-like odor ; 
it therefore probably contains an allyl compound. (Fliickiger. Pharm. 
i hemic, 1879, p. 65.) 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
March, 1885. j 



Essential Oil Industry in Grasse. 



135 



Asia Minor or India in the sixteenth century ; but it is found advan- 
tageous to graft upon it the Jasminum grandiflorum, L.^ bearing larger 
flowers, having a more powerful odor; this also is an Indian species, 
which probably came to Europe before the time of Rheede, in whose 
^ Hortus Malabaricus ' (v., tab. 52) it is figured. But the Jasminum, 
grandiflorum, here known as " Jasmin d'Espagne/' even in the beauti- 
ful Paradise of Provence, requires some shelter in winter, and this is 
effected by simply covering the small bushes with earth. Since only 
the flowers are required, the plants are allowed to grow scarcely half a 
metre high, and they are planted close to one another in regular rows. 
In the spring the young shoots are cut back. The flowering takes place 
in August. Professor Fliickiger suggests that an enterprising cultivator 
might make experiments at Grasse with the Jasminum Sambac, Vahl, 
which in India is far more highly prized and appears to possess a per- 
fume far more powerful than that of any other species of jasmine, as 
was pointed out two hundred years ago by Pumphius. A figure of 
Jasminum Sambac is given in the Botanical Magazine, vol. xliii. (1816) 
No. 1785. 

(5) . The jonquille (Narcissus Jonquilia, L.), probably of oriental 
origin, bears two to five extremely odorous yellow flowers, with a short 
funnel-shaped perianth and a corona four times as long. The name 
of the species (Italian, giunchiglia) is derived from the nearly cylin- 
drical leaves, grooved on their upper side, recalling those of species of 
Juncus. When the author was in Grasse, in April, the flowering of 
the jonquil was already over. 

(6) . ResSda (Reseda odorata), cultivated throughout Central Europe 
as a favorite garden and pot plant ; it is alleged to have been derived 
from Egypt. 

(7) . Tuhereuse (Polianthes tuberosa, L.) an Amaryllidaceous plant, 
belonging to the Agave division, and a native of Mexico. Its beauti- 
ful white flowers give its name to the genus (polios, white or grey) ; 
the single species has a sliort tuberculous thickened rhizone. The 
Polianthes was introduced in Europe during last century as an orna- 
mental plant on account of its noble head of odorous flowers, which 
probably are nowhere else cultivated in such quantity as at Grasse. 
Already, between 1571 and 1577 it had attracted the attention of the 
Spanish physician Francisco Hernandez, who undertook the scientific 
exploration of Mexico at the cost of King Philip. In his " Nova 
Plantarum, Animaliuni et Mineralium Mexicanorum Historia" (Rome 



136 



Essential Oil Industry in Grasse. 



J Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ March, 1885. 



1651, p. 27), the indefatigable physician gives a modest but unmis- 
takable figure, with a corresponding description of the beautiful plant, 
under the name " Omizochitl, sen Flos osseus." He also mentions its 
use in making odorous wreaths. Upon this point the scanty notice 
which Clusius gives in 1601 of the hyacinthus indicus tuberosa 
radice'^ in the ' Rariorum Plantarum Historia ' is silent. Clusius' 
figure is not so faithful as the one previously mentioned. Since the 
time of Clusius the name tuberose has clung to the plant. 

(8). Violette. — The Viola odorata is not grown in the open field, 
like the other perfumery plants, but in the olive groves, which here 
extend over hill and valley in special beauty. The Riviera can show 
far larger and wider spreading olive trees, but those in the neighbor- 
hood of Grasse are remarkable for their fresher and greener foliage. 
Besides this, the ground shaded by the trees is there richly overgrown 
with grass, so that the color of the landscape recalls the loveliness of 
the hills near Florence. With such surroundings, the violet planta- 
tions spread out here and there, both in the immediate neighborhood 
of Grasse and on higher slopes, present a charming appearance. 
Occasionally the Sarothamnus is associated with it also. At the time 
of the author's visit he saw at the factory a large sack of the last violets 
of the season, which had been delivered fresh by the collectors only an 
hour before. The flower was the ordinary Viola odorata^ neither 
darker nor brighter in color, nor possessing a stronger perfume. But 
he was told that ^' les dernieres de la saison" had a decidedly weaker 
odor, and he heiird also that the collectors were dissuaded from bring- 
ing any more. 

A great part of the industry and trade of Grasse is dependent upon 
the foregoing eight plants and it does not suffer from fluctuations due 
to change of fashion like many other industries. Year after year the 
manufacturers supply to their. customers the same favorite pommades'^ 
and " extracts/' and it is noteworthy that no perfumer from the large 
centres of fashion should direct his attention to other preparations of 
the kind. The explanation may be that the introduction of novelties 
into this domain requires an acquaintance with the vegetable kingdom 
which is scarcely possessed by the purchasers of the pommades and 
extracts of Grasse. 

The pommades " are prepared by two methods, " infusion " and 
enfleurage." In the former the transfer of the odorous principles to 
fat is brought about by intimate contact and warming. The predilec- 



^""MarXissr"""} Essenticil Oil Industry in Grasse. ' 137 

tion of the human family for unguents may not be easy to explain, 
but probably it goes back to the highest antiquity. Pliny ascribes 
their discovery to the Persians, and Pliny, Dioscorides, and other old 
writers refer in great detail to these preparations. In the present day 
pharmacy seeks not so much to convey to fat the agreeable odor of 
flowers as the healing properties of particular plants. 

Dioscorides gives quite a detailed introduction to the purification of 
the fat for the purpose, and the preparation of this basis of pommades 
in the best condition is still the first endeavor of the manufacturers in 
Grasse. The best pig's lard or beef suet is selected, a considerable 
portion being contributed by the populous towns of the Riviera, as 
well as Lombardy. The melting of the fat, its mechanical purification 
and washing, are conducted with exemplary care and cleanliness. The 
digestion of fat with benzoin has long been carried on in Grasse on the 
largest scale, furnishing an incontestable opportunity of demonstrating 
its effectiveness ; and the fact that the stability of fat is essentially 
increased by the process admits of no doubt. Lard and beef tallow, 
either separate or mixed in the proportion of 2:1, are kept until 
required for use in tinned iron vats, in fine dry ventilated cellars. The 
" infusion is effected in large jacketted boilers, in which the fat is 
warmed by steam heat, and the flowers are added. In the month of 
May over 10,000 kilograms of rose or bigarade flowers pass daily, for 
many days in succession, into the boilers of the factory of Roure-Ber- 
trand fils alone, and this is only a part of the daily consumption in the 
factories in Grasse. The diligent stirring of the flowers in the fat- 
bath is carried on by female workers, the expression by means of 
hydraulic presses is done by men. After the clearing of the fat by 
deposition and straining, the finished pommade is at once weighed off 
in tin boxes or passes into the large subterranean storerooms, in which 
it will remain very good until at least the next season. 

Notwithstanding the exemplary pains which are spent upon this 
^' infusion a chaud,'^ the fat still remains fat, gradually but inevitably 
undergoing change and becoming rancid. The question suggests 
itself whether the fat might not be replaced by the unalterable paraffin 
which has so successfully competed with fat in pharmacy. It might 
be thought that such a preparation as the unguentum paraffini of the 
German Pharmacopoeia would be particularly suited to acquire the 
most delicate perfume and preserve it faithfully. But Professor 
Fliickiger was assured by M. Roure that this is by no means the case. 



138 ' Essential Oil Industry in Grasse. {'^'"Mireh'iS?"'' 

Why this should be, appears iDexplicable, but the inapplicability of 
paraffin is so decided that even the addition of it to fat in the prepara- 
tion of pommades by the foregoing method is said to have proved 
injurious. Professor Fliickiger considers this point worthy of further 
investigation, and remarks that results obtained by himself, some 
experiments upon a small scale were hardly confirmatory of the state- 
ments. 

In the incorporation of the most delicate perfumes with fat the above 
method of that of" infusion a chaud " is replaced by " enfleurage." For 
this purpose, light square wooden frames, about 18 inches each way, 
in which a plate of glass can be placed, are used. All the frames and 
glass plates are of the same size ; when piled up one upon another, 
therefore, they form small, tolerably well-closed compartments. Upon 
each glass is spread a weighed quantity of fat in a thin layer, and this 
is strewn thickly with flowers. Sometimes, however, the one side of 
the glass plate is covered with flowers only, and the layer of fat is con- 
fined to the other glass wall of each compartment, so that contact of 
the flowers with the fat is avoided. When a perfumed oil is desired, 
use may be made of cloths saturated with oil for the enfleurage. The 
fat is kept shut up in these glass compartments for a longer or shorter 
time according to the nature of the flowers and the qualities of the 
article required and the flowers have to be repeatedly removed, even 
as often as every day. Many kinds of pommades require some weeks 
of enfleurage. 

A portion of the pommades obtained by these methods is eventually 
used in the preparation of the odorous " extraits.'' This is the name 
by which the extracts obtained by treatment of thesf; preparations 
(and other odorous substances) with strong alcohol are known in French 
perfumery. For this purpose the pommades are placed in copper 
drums, where by means of powerful stirrers a most intimate mixing of 
the alcohol with the fat is continued for hours. The alcohol takes up 
scarcely any of the fat, but the greater part of the odorous substances. 
By this method the odorous constituents, whether essential oils or other 
compounds is not known, which cannot be satisfactorily obtained by 
distillation, are transferred in a pure and unaltered form to the alcohol. 
The fat takes up little else from the respective flowers, and probably 
retains a small quantity of matter unconnected with the perfume which 
it gives up very pure to the alcohol. After this has been removed^ 
the fat is placed in a still and the alcohol recovered for further use; the 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
March, 1885. j 



Arbutin and Arhutose. 



139 



fat, on the contrary, is not again employed in any part of the manu- 
facture. It would appear that decomposition commences during the 
long kneading with alcohol in contact with air, although the drums 
in which the '^extraits^^ are made are kept closed. But there can be 
no doubt the fat could be rendered serviceable again ; at present it 
passes from the perfume manufacturer |o the soap boiler. 

Similar extraits" may be prepared from plants, when no coloring 
matter interferes, by simple digestion with alcohol. — Pharm. Jour, 
and Trans. Dec. 13, 1884, p. 468. 



CKYSTALLIZED ARBUTIN AND ARBUTOSE.^ 

By J. Dalmon 

The remarkable memoir published by Lewin^ upon the transforma- 
tion of arbutin, the active principle of the bearberry [Ardostaphylos 
Uva-Ursi), into hydroquinon in the animal economy has directed at- 
tention to this compound, which is thought to be destined to take an 
important position in the materia medica among the antiseptic agents. 
The author has therefore been indu3ed to take up the chemical study 
of arbutin, with a view to obtaining it in a pure crystalline condition 
and of devising a rapid and economical process for its preparation. 

Arbutin, in a state of absolute purity, occurs in handsome white 
shining crystals, most frequently arranged in rays round a central 
mamelon. It has a bitter taste which develops upon the palate and 
presents some analogy with that of quassin. 

Arbutin is a glucoside. Kawalier, who appears to have been the 
first to isolate it, attributed to it the formula C^2^ifi\9' Strecker 
afterwards represented it by CigH^gO^. Subsequent analyses by Hlasi- 
wetz and Habermann led, however, to the formula 035113^0,4. It is 
very soluble in water, slightly soluble in cold alcohol, and scarcely 
soluble in ether. Under the influence of weak acids arbutin is decom- 
posed into glucose and hydroquinon ; at the same time, there is pro- 
duced, according to the author, a considerable proportion of the methylic 
ether of hydroquinon. Further investigation, however, is required to 
clear up the exact nature of the decomposition. According to Lewin, 
an aqueous solution of arbutin does not reduce an alkaline cupric solu- 

^ "Bulletin Commercial," (L'Union Pliarmaceutique,) xii, 440. 
' Pharmaceutical Journal," [8]. xiv, 490. 



140 



Arbutin and Arbutose. 



( Am. Jour. Pharni. 
I March, 1885. 



tion, this reaction only occurring when some decomposition has taken 
place ; neither does yeast set up fermentation with pure arbutin. 

Arbutin is colored blue by dilute solution of perchloride of iron. 
In testing for this glucoside, the substance to be examined is moistened 
with strong nitric acid, then boiled with a mixture of eight volumes of 
alcohol to one of sulphuric acid ; finally, water and an excess of pot- 
ash are added, when the liquid takes the violet tint of the potash salt 
and of dinitroquinon. 

The preparation of arbutin, although very simple in theory, presents 
considerable difficulty in practice. The bearberry is especially rich in 
tannin (averaging 35 per cent.), and in addition contains gallic acid, 
urson, a resinous matter, gum, chlorophyll, pectin, besides arbutin, to 
which last it appears to ow^e the greater part of its therapeutic proper- 
ties. All these principles, with the exceptien of urson, are soluble in 
boiling water. 

The process given by the author for the preparation of arbutin is 
to treat by successive decoctions the drug reduced to a coarse powder, 
then to combine the products and precipitate the tannin and extractive 
matters with subacetateof lead. The decolorized liquid is treated with 
sulphydric acid and evaporated rapidly. The arbutin crystallizes upon 
cooling in the concentrated liquor; but in consequence of the decom- 
position of a certain quantity of arbutin during the operation a sticky 
crystalline mass is obtained which dries only imperfectly. This com- 
plex product is called " arbutose " by the author, who says it is 
tolerably uniform in composition, the proportions being about 55 per 
cent, of crystalline arbutin, 35 per cent, of glucose and 10 per cent, of 
water. In order to obtain the crystalline arbutin this arbutose is dried 
in the air as far as possible, treated with charcoal and then with suc- 
cessive quantities of alcohol and distilled water. 

But the author is of opinion that, with the exception of solutions 
intended for hypodermic injection, for which only the crystallized 
arbutin should be used, arbutose may be used in all pharmaceutical 
preparations. In order to determine its strength it is only necessary to 
estimate the glucose by means of cupropotassic Solution, and deduct 
this and the water, the remainder representing pure arbutin. Arbutin 
may also be administered under the form of an elixir or in pills. 

Arbutin is non-poisonous, and may be given in doses of from 50 
centigrams to 2 grams twice daily. Under the influence of this gluco- 
side the urine will after the second day frequently show a o;reen color, 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
March, 1885. j 



Commercial Kamala. 



141 



which is due to the presence of hydroquinon. The author has ob- 
served that on his own person large doses have a tendency to produce 
an eruption of the skin, a fact of which it would be necessary to take 
cognizance when administering arbutin to patients of herjoetic tempera- 
ment. — Phar. Jour, and Trans., Feb. 14, 1885, p. 659. 



NOTE ON THE PURITY OF COMMERCIAL KAMALA. 
By p. W. Squire, F.C.S., and R. A. Cripps. 

Having had occasion, a short time ago, to examine a sample of 
kamala before buying, we were somewhat surprised to find a very large 
proportion of ash, which led us to obtain a number of samples from 
good houses, with a view of determining to what extent this article is 
contaminated with earthy impurities. The results were so surprising 
that we have thought them sufficiently important to embody in this 
short note. 

In the " Pharmaceutical Journal,'^ [3], vol. i, p. 708, it is stated 
that "kamala always contains from 6 to 10 per cent, of sand, and 1 to 
2 per cent, of sesquioxide of iron,'' while in a paper by Mr. T. B. 
Groves, read before the British Pharmaceutical Conference in 1872, 
the amount of ash is said to be less than 4 per cent. Fliickiger and 
Hanbury give only 1-37 per cent., and the United States Pharmacopoeia 
recognizes an article containing not more than 8 per cent. 

As will be seen by the following table, our results vary from 6*02 
to 61*5 per cent. ; only one sample can fairly be supposed to be genuine. 
The ash in most cases consisted of a reddish sand, but its composition 
was not determined, while the best sample left a greyish ash, about 
one-half of which was insoluble in hydrochloric acid. 

Sample, Amount of ash. Color of ash. 

A 25 per cent Reddish. 

B 13-5 " Greyish. 

C 61-5 " Reddish. 

D 24 " 

E 59-6 " 

F 40-3 " 

G 46-2 " 

H 47-3 " 

I 30-3 " 

J 6 02 " Greyish. 

K 26-7 " Reddish. 

L 47-G " 

—Phar. Jour, and Trans., Feb. 14, 1885, p. 654. 



142 



Aloes in Pharmaceutical Preparations. 



J Am Jour. Pharm. 
t March, 1885. 



THE DETECTION OF ALOES IN PHARMACEUTICAL 
PREPARATIONS.^ 
By R. a. Cripps and T. S. Dymond. 

Among the difficult problems occasionally met with by a chemist is 
that of detecting aloes in compound mixtures. This involves, by all 
ordinary methods, a considerable amount of trouble in separating the 
various substances by means of solvents, and entails the use of a large 
quantity of substance, which in the case of pills, etc., cannot always 
be spared ; the results, even then, are often unsatisfactory. Perhaps 
the test proposed by Borntrager {Zeitschrift fur anal. Chem.j xix, 165), 
is the best of those hitherto published. It consists in extracting the 
substance with alcohol, filtering, shaking the filtrate with benzol, 
removing the benzol layer and agitating it with ammonia ; on standing 
the aqueous liquid should assume a pink color in presence of aloes. 
This test was applied to a number of different kinds of aloes, for most 
of which our thanks are due to Mr. Holmes, but the results were not 
very satisfactory, some of the specimens requiring twenty-four hours 
to develop the pink color, only four giving it at all distinctly at once. 
Mr. R. H. Groves has pointed out [Pharm. Journ. [3], xi, 1045) that 
certain precautions are necessary to render the test trustworthy, and 
that the color reaction is not due to the aloin, and it has also been 
shown by Lenz (Zeitschrift fur anal. Chem., xxi, 220) that any sub- 
stance containing chrysophanic acid also gives this coloration, and it is, 
therefore, useless for distinguishing aloes from rhubarb, etc. 

The following test has been proposed by Klunge [Archiv der Pharm., 
1883, 363). To an aqueous solution of the suspected substance, 
diluted with water till nearly colorless, a drop of copper sulphate 
solution is added. An intense yellow coloration, which on warming 
with a little chloride of sodium changes to a deep red or violet, indi- 
cates the presence of aloes. This test is also unsatisfactory, for neither 
do all the varieties of aloes give this deep red color, nor is the yelloAV 
color, though distinctive of aloes, seen in solutions containing already 
a yellow coloring matter such as saffron. 

In view of this unsatisfactory state of the detection of aloes, we 
now propose a test depending, first, on the reaction given by aloes with 
sulphuric acid and nitric acid ; secondly, on the reaction of the result- 
ing acid mixture with water; and thirdly, on the reaction of this diluted 

1 Read at an Evening Meeting of tlie Pharmaceutical Society of Great 
Britain, February 4, 1885. 



Aloes in Pharmaceutical Preparations. 



143 



acid mixture with ammonia. The application of these reactions in the 
manner we prescribe constitutes, we think, a new and useful test for 
aloes. This test can be applied directly to the substance suspected, if 
a solid ; but liquids should first be evaporated so as to leave a thin 
film of extract on the sides of the dish, to which the test is then 
applied. 

The following is the method adopted : Place 1 grain of the substance 
in a glass mortar standing on white paper; add now 16 drops of 
strong sulphuric acid and triturate till the whole is dissolved ; then add 
4 drops of nitric acid, sp. gr. 1*42, and lastly, 1 ounce of distilled 
water. If aloes be present a color varying from deep orange to crim- 
son will be produced, according to the kind of aloes employed. To 
confirm, add ammonia, when the color is deepened, usually to a deep 
claret. This test was first applied to the same series of specimens as 
Borntrager's and Klunge's tests were applied to, and, Avithout excep- 
tion, was found to giv^e good residts ; in fact, not only was the presence 
of aloes detected, but a fair indication of the kind of aloes was given, 
the varieties of Barbadoes, true Socotrine and Natal producing a crim- 
son, while hepatic and Cape only a deep orange-red. We also used for 
comparison the test with sulphuric acid and vapor of nitric acid, 
which produces with certain aloes a play of colors passing through 
green, blue and violet to crimson ; our results are shown in the follow- 
ing table : 



Variety of Aloes, 



Borntrager's 
Test. 



H2S04and va- 
por of HNO3. 



Cripps and 
Dyrnond's 
Test. 



Cripps and 
Dyrnond's 
Test with 
Ammonia. 



Barbadoes 

Natal 

Curagoa 

Hepatic 

Hepatic (Indian). 

Oape 

Socotrine (true)... 

Socotrine (com- 
mercial), three 
samples. 

Socotrine (Moclia 
or Zanzibar).. 

Aloes juice (Na- 
tal) 



Pale rose color. 



Very faint pink. 



Fine rose color. 



Pale rose color. 



Pale rose color. 



Pale brownish 
pink. 



Deep red. 
Faint red. 
Deep red. 
Nil. 
Nil. 
Nil. 

Faint red. 

Nil. 
Red. 



Faint blue 
color. 



Faint blue 
color. 



Crimson. 
Orange-red. 

Orange- red , 

Orange-red , 



Orange-red 
Crim.son. 
Crimson . 



Deep claret. 



Intense 

brownish- 

led. 
Intense 

claret. 
Claret. 



Pale claret. 
Pale claret. 

Deep claret . 
Claret. 

Deep claret. 

Intense 
brownish- 
red. 



144 



Aloes in Pharmaceutical Preparations. 



f^m. Jour. Pharm. 
1 March, 1885, 



Having thus proved tnat the test is applicable to any variety of 
aloeSj it remained to be determined whether the presence of aloes in 
complex mixtures could be proved, and also whether any other sub- 
stance will give the same reaction. With this object we have carefully 
examined a very large number of preparations, first those which were 
known to contain aloes, then other extracts, etc. 

The following table shows the results : 

Cripps and Cripps and Dymond's test 

Name of preparation. Dymond's test. with AmHO. 

Barbaloin. Purplish-red Red. 

Jafferabad aloiii Purplish-red Red. 

Ext. aloes, barb Crimson Red. 

Ext. aloes, socot Crimson Red. 

Dec. aloes comp Orange-red Red. 

Vin. aloes Orange-red Red. 

Tinct. aloes Orange-red Red. 

Pil. aloes, barb Crimson Red. 

Pil. aloes, socot. (1) Pale crimson Red. 

Pil. aloe-i, socot. (2) Orange-red Red. 

Pil. aloes et assaf. (1) Pale crimson Red. 

Pil. aloes et assaf. (2) Orange-red Red. 

Pil. aloes et ferri Crimson Red. 

Pil. aloes et myrrh Orange Red. 

Pil. coloc. coinp Crimson Red. 

Pil. coloc. c. hyos Orange-red Red. 

Pil. cambog. comp Orange-red Red. 

Pil. rhei comp Crimson Red. 

Pil. ipecac, c. scilh\ Pale yellow Yellow. 

Pil. saponis comp Yellow Yellow. 

Pulv. sennje Orange-red Red. 

Ext. aconiti Yellow Yellow. 

Ext. bellad....- Yellow Yellow. 

Ext. colchici Pale yellow Pale orange. 

Ext. coloc. simp Pale yellow Yellow. 

Ext. coloc. comp Orange-red Red. 

Ext. conii Brownish-yellow Yellow. 

Ext. frangul?e Orange-red Red. 

Ext. gentiante Pale yellow Yellow. 

Ext. jalapa? Pale yellow Yellow. 

Ext. iupuli Orange-yellow Yellow. 

Ext. nueis vom Orange Yellow. 

Ext. opii Orange Orange. 

Ext. quassife Deep yellow Yellow. 

Ext. rhei Orange-red Red. 

Ext. taraxaci Pale yellow Yellow. 

Fel bovin. purif. Yellow Yellow. 

Rad. rhei Orange-red Red. 

Salicin Pale yellow Nearly colorless. 

Croci stig Yellowish Yellow. 

Acid, chrysophanic Deep orange Red. 

Resin, scammon Pale yellow Yellow. 

From the above table it will be seen that though the presence of 
aloes never fails to make itself manifest, rhubarb and substances con- 
taining chrysophanic acid behave in a similar way ; but a nearly col- 



Am. Jour. Pbarm.) Gleaninos iu Materia Iledica. 145 

March, 1885. j «^ 

orless aqueous solution of aloes does not become pink when ammonia 
is added, as is the case with solutions of substances containing chryso- 
phanic acid, and in this way aloes may be distinguished. To this rule 
senna is the only exception. 

The probable explanation of the color reaction we have described 
is that chrysammic acid is produced by the oxidation of the aloin, a 
reaction which Tilden has shown takes place when aloes is treated for 
some time with nitric acid alone (" Year-Book of Pharmacy," 1870, 
1872, 1875, 1877). The red solution of chrysammic acid is changed 
by the action of ammonia to deep claret chrysamide. This reaction 
does not explain the color produced with Natal aloes, which, according 
to Tilden, yields no chrysammic acid. — Fhar. Jour, and Trans., Feb. 
7, 1885, p. 633. 

GLEANINGS IN MATERIA MEDICA. 
By the Editor. 

Chemistry of Daphnetin. — H. Stiinkel has shown, in 1879, that this 
compound is most likely a dioxycoumarin. W. Will and O. Jung 
have now further investigated this decomposition product of daphnin. 
About 20 kilos of extract of mezereon are necessary for preparing 
about 30 grams of daphnetin, from which a number of derivatives 
were prepared, showing that daphnetin has the same relation to pyro- 
gallic acid as coumarin has to phenol, umbelliferon to resorcin, and 
most likely sesculetin to phloroglucin. — Berichte D. Chem. Ges., 1884, 
p. 1081-1091. 

Buxus sempervwens, Lin. — G. A. Barbaglia has separated from the 
leaves and twigs of the box a fourth alkaloid, which he names para- 
huxinidine. It crystallizes in thin colorless prisms, is insoluble in 
water, soluble in ether, freely soluble in alcohol, colors turmeric paper 
deep red, and gives with an alcoholic solution of oxalic acid a heavy white 
precipitate consisting of minute colorless rhombic plates. — Ber. d. Chem. 
Ges., 1884, 2655. 

Chaulmoogra Seed. — Dr. Jos. Moeller has examined the seeds of 
three species of Bixacese, with the following results : 

1. Gynocardia odorata, R. Brown. The seeds are about 3 Cm. long 
and 1*5 Cm. in their greatest breadth, elongated ovate, somewhat flat- 
tened and irregularly angular ; the hilum is at the pointed end. The 
surface is dull yellowish gray, and somewhat scurfy to the touch from 
an adhering thin layer of pulp. The seeds weigh about 3 Gm., of 

10 



146 



Gleanings in Materia Medica. 



/Am. Jour, Pharm. 
I March, 1885. 



which the integument is 0*8 Gra. The latter consists of an outer and 
inner layer of stone cells placed parallel to the surface, and between 
these two layers of two or three rows of stone cells, the long axes of 
which are nearly at right angles with the former cells. The inner 
surface of the sclerenchymatous tissue is covered with a delicate and 
partially broken layer of elongated parenchyma cells. The endosperm 
consists of tolerably thick-walled cells filled with solid colorless fat 
and large yellow spherical or irregularly rounded bodies, insoluble in 
alcohol and benzol ; starch and tannin are absent ; calcium oxalate 
crystals were not observed. 

2. Hydnocarpus anthelmintica, Pierre. (See ^^Amer. Jour. Phar./^ 
1884, p. 526.) The seeds are about 18*14 Mm. broad, little longer, 
resemble a small bulb in shape, weigh barely 2 Gm. (the albumen 0*6 
Gm.), are brownish black, rough, hard, and have a large rayed hilum. 
The integument is 1*5 Mm., thick, and has a lighter colored inner 
layer, 0'15 Mm. thick, and consisting of tangentially arranged, and 
relatively little thickened, stone cells ; the cells of the middle layer are 
placed at right angles to the surface ; those of the exterior layer are 
tangentially arranged, and those of the adhering pulp are rather small 
and frequently interspersed with groups of stone cells. The cells of 
the endosperm are smaller than in Gynocardia, and do not contain the 
yellow bodies seen in the latter, but besides oil contain numerous col- 
oless roundish albuminoid granules. 

3. Hydnocarpus inebrians, Vahl. Some of the seeds resemble the 
preceding, but are flatter, whilst others are pointedly elliptical in shape. 
They attain a length of 3 Cm., a breadth of 15 Mm. and a thickness 
of 10 or 12 Mm. The hilum is prominent and warty, the surface 
longitudinally wrinkled. The weight of the smaller seeds is about 1 
Gm. (the integument one-third) , of the larger seeds, about 2 Gm. 
The integument is 0*2 Mm. thick, and consists of three layers of stone 
cells, arranged as in the two preceding seeds, but the middle layer has 
only one, or at most two, rows of cells. The adhering pulp resembles 
that of H. anthelmintica. The endosperm is covered with a layer of 
thin-walled brownish red cells, but is itself colorless, and teems with 
fat and protein globules. — Phar. Jour, and Trans., October 25, 1884, 
p. 321. 

Euphorbia pilulifera, Linne. — This plant, which has long been in 
use in tropical countries for various complaints, and has lately been 
introduced here as a remedy in asthma, was analyzed by Charles G. 
Levison, Ph. G., San Francisco, Cal., with the following results: 



Am. Jour. Pharm . ") 
March, 1885. J 



Gleanings in Materia Medica. 



147 



Per cent. 



Moisture 25 '00 

Amount soluble in ether, •725 IS'OO 

" " alcohol, -820 5*75 

" " water 16-60 

Insoluble residue, consisting of cellulose, lignin and siliceous 

earth, etc 62-65 



100-00 

Ash 20-00 

Amount soluble in water, including potassium, sodium and 
magnesium, phosphates, sulphates, chlorides and carbon- 
ates 7 '50 

Amount soluble in diluted HCl, including calcium phos- 
phates 3-50 

Insoluble residue, consisting principally of silica aud sand... 9-00 



20-00 

Amount extracted by ether, -725. i 15-00 

Resin soluble in chloroform, CS2, glacial acetic acid : gluco- 

side 2-50 

Wax, non-volatile, soluble in CS2, chloroform, benzin and 

boiling 90 per cent, alcohol, and insoluble in cold alcohol. . 6-00 

Chlorophyll -25 

Insoluble residue '75 

Ash of extractive -50 

Volatile matter driven off by heat 5*00 

Tannin Traces 



15-00 

Amount extracted by alcohol 5-75 

Resin, glucoside, soluble in 90 per cent, alcohol, and insoluble 

in chloroform, ether and petroleum benzin 3*00 

Resin, glucoside, soluble in 75 per cent, alcohol; insolubili- 
ties, ditto, as above 2*00 

Resin, glucoside, soluble in 50 per cent, alcohol ; insolubili- 
ties, ditto -50 

Ash of extractive -25 



5-75 

Amount extracted by water 16 60 

Starch colored blue by iodine and reducing Feb ling's solu- 
tion 5-30 

Albumen soluble in acetic and phosphoric acids, and insolu- 
ble in nitric acid and alcohol, and coagulated by heat of 

154°F 2-50 

Pectin coagulated by alcohol 1*30 

Gum insoluble in alcohol and soluble in water 1-70 

Protein substance similar to albumen and not coagulated by 
heat 5-80 



— Therap. Gazette, Dec. 1884, p. 551. 16-60 



148 



Impurity in Ether, 



i Am. Jour, Pharm. 
1 Maach, 1885. 



Betaine in Cotton Seed. — In the mother-liquor, from which melitose 
had been separated, H. Ritthaussen and F. Weger found betaine, but 
have not yet ascertained in what form the alkaloid occurs in cotton 
seed. — Jour. f. prak. Chem., xxx, pp. 32-37. 

Betaine was discovered by Scheibler (1866) in the juice of the sugar 
beet, and was shown by Husemann (1875) to be identical with lycine, 
an alkaloid isolated from Lycium vulgare, Dunal, by Husemann and 
Marme (1863). The same alkaloid is also obtained by the careful oxi- 
dation of neurine, an alkaloid obtainable from bile, brain and yelk of 
egg. 

NOTE ON AN IMPURITY IN ETHER. 

By C. J. H. Warden, M.D., 
Chemical Examiner to the Government of Bengal. 

While in India last year, I accidentally discovered that all the samples 
of ether in my laboratory, when agitated with an aqueous solution ot 
potassic iodide, liberated iodine, and communicated a yellow, or dark 
reddish color to the solution, the ether remaining colorless. 

On agitating the ether first with a strong aqueous solution of potassic 
hydrate, or solid caustic potash, the caustic potash solution was colored 
yellow and the solid hydrate incrusted with a dark reddish-yellow 
deposit, and the ether thus purified no longer possessed the power of 
liberating iodine from iodide of potassium. 

The samples of ether tested had all been received from well-known 
English druggists, and the bottles were labelled "ether pur. B.P." 
Since I have been in Europe I have only had an opportunity of 
examining one specimen and this also liberated iodine. On examina- 
tion, however, it will probably be ascertained that most of the ether 
in the market responds to the test. I have not been able to investigate 
the cause of the reaction ; it is very possibly due to the presence of 
aldehyde in the ether, and this view receives support from the action 
of the ether on caustic potash, already described, the yellow coloration 
being caused by the formation of aldehyde resin. 

As ether is now extensively employed as an anaesthetic, and as alde- 
hyde (assuming its presence) is not inert, its presence, or that of any 
other impurity, in the drug intended for inhalation must be considered 
objectionable. Aldehyde is described^ as possessing a peculiar ethereal, 
^ Roscoe's " Organic Chemistry." 



^°March 1^85™* } Apjmvatus fov CoYitinuous Percolatwn. 149 

suffocating odor, and its vapor when inhaled in large quantity pro- 
duces a cramp, which for a few seconds takes away the power of 
resj)iration (Liebig). The question suggests itself, may not the peculiar 
suffocating sensation often experienced during ether inhalation be 
caused by the presence of this compound ? 

The test I have described may be applied in two ways ; two or three 
drachms of the ether are poured into a test tube, and about a drachm 
of a freshly prepared solution of iodide of potassium in water added, 
the tube corked, and the contents well agitated. If the ether be pure, 
on looking down the tube, while standing on a white surface, no yellow 
coloration of the aqueous stratum will be apparent. The other plan 
of applying the test is to add a few drops of starch mucilage to the 
ether and iodide of potassium solution and then to agitate ; if iodine 
be liberated, it is recognized by the blueing of the starch. — Phar. 
Jour, and Trans., Jan. 3, 1885, p. 521. 



APPARATUS FOR CONTINUOUS PERCOLATION WITH 
BOILING FLUIDS. 
By W. Watson Will. 

In the issue of the "Pharmaceutical Journal'^ of October 11th, 
there is a description of an apparatus for continuous percolation, by 
Dr. Thresh, which is evidently an improvement upon the apparatus 
originally used by Tollens for the same purpose, the difli^erence between 
the two apparatus consisting in the arrangement of the percolating 
tube ; otherwise in principle they are the same. 

In examining Dr. Thresh's apparatus I came to the conclusion that 
unless such an apparatus were employed in the hands of a skillful 
operator there is a considerable liability that the fine tube, with curved 
apex, would be broken in packing the substance for exhaustion ; also 
that to make a punted and perforated tube such as he describes re- 
quires a considerable amount of skill. Otherwise it has the advantage 
over Tollen's apparatus, that through the centre of the substance there 
would pass a constant current of the vapor of the solvent by means of 
the fine tube, by which means the substance under examination is 
quickly heated throughout the mass. 

I have used for some considerable time an apparatus much similar, 
but simpler in its construction, for the estimation of cinchona barks, 
scammony, etc. It consists of the following parts : 



150 Apparatus for Continuous Percolation. {^"M^Jch'isss^"' 

1. An ordinary flask, with a long narrow neck, and fitted with a 
perforated sound cork, or india-rubber stopper. 

2. A half-ounce glass syringe, having its lower end stopped by a 
small plug of cotton wool ; the upper end is closed by a perforated 
cork, through which passes the pointed end of the condensing tube, 
thus fixing the two tubes firmly together. 

3. A long glass tube pointed at one end and having a small hole 
made near the pointed end to admit of the inflow of the vapor to be 
condensed. 

4. Another, but wider glass tube, drawn out at one end, so as to 
admit of a perforated cork, through which passes the upper limb of the 
condensing tube. Near the lower end of this tube a small hole is made, 
into which is fixed a narrow glass tube, to which is attached a piece of 
india-rubber tubing, and if necessary closed by a clamp. 

The working of the apparatus is very simple. Having placed the 
substance to be exhausted in the tube 2, the condensing tube is now 
firmly fixed into position and the liquid used for exhausting is poured 
down the tube. A current of cold water is now allowed to flow into 
tube 4, this being regulated by means of the clamp. Heat is now ap- 
plied to the flask, when the vapor passes up and enters tube 3, where 
it condenses in the upper limb and flows back into the percolator. — 
Phar. Jour, and Trans., Nov. 8, 1884, p. 363. 

At the evening meeting, held November 5, Mr. Waite showed an 
extractor for continuous percolation, on the same principle as Dr. 
Thresh's, but more simple in construction. The apparatus consisted 
essentially of a single tube, of suitable calibre, drawn out at one end to 
a point, and fitted into the neck of a wide-bottomed flask, so that the 
point reached within a short distance of the bottom of the flask. At 
the side of this tube was a hole through which the vapor from the 
boiling liquid in the flask rose to a condenser, so that the condensed 
solvent fell upon the substance to be exhausted placed in the lower 
part of the tube and after percolating through it fell into the flask, 
where it was again vaporized and passed back as a vapor through the 
aperture above the mark. Mr. Waite said he had found the apparatus 
answer very satisfactorily. 



Anaesthesia by Chloral. — M. Bouchut gives chloral in doses of from 
two to three grams, according to the age of the patient, and in a single dose, 
and asserts that it is a perfect ansesthetic, without any disagreeable result ; 
and that he has administered it in this way in a large number of cases. — 
Neiv Eng. Med. Monthly. 



Am. Jour. Pharm.l 
March, 1885. / 



Practical Notes, 



151 



PRACTICAL NOTES. 
By the Editor. 

Linimentum Ammonim. — Mr. F. H. Alcock states that sesame oil 
makes a more satisfactory preparation than olive oil, or a number of 
other oils experimented with; even after standing three months there 
is no sign of separation, and the liniment presents a beautiful creamy 
♦consistence and color, but slightly altered during the time stated. — 
Phar. Jour. and Trans., Oct. 11, 1884, p. 282. 

Uses of Paraffin Oil. — Leon Crismer gives an interesting account of 
the uses to which paraffin oil may be put as a solvent and reagent. 

Test for Water in Ether, etc. — Liquid paraffin dissolves in all pro- 
portions in anhydrous chloroform or ether, yielding clear solutions; 
but in the presence of water or of diluted alcohol the solutions are 
turbid. Liquid paraffin dissolves sparingly in absolute alcohol ; such 
a solution at once becomes turbid on the addition of weaker alcohol. 
Methyl alcohol has a very similar behavior with paraffin oil. The 
presence of water in the liquids named may thus be readily ascertained. 

Solvent Properties. — Liquid paraffin is a good solvent for amyl alco- 
hol, crude fusel oil, chlorine, bromine, iodine and the phosphorus and 
alkyl compounds of the halogens. White phosphorus kept under 
paraffin oil unites readily and without danger of explosion with bro- 
mine dropped into the liquid, the mixture being kept cool; the phos- 
phorus tri-bromide dissolved in the liquid paraffin, is decomposed on 
dropping in water, hydrohromic acid being given off, and may be com- 
pletely dehydrated by passing the gas over phosphoric anhydride. 

Hydr iodic acid may be prepared in a similar manner. The iodine 
is added in small quantities to the phosphorus kept under liquid 
paraffin; water is added, and the mixture is finally heated in a sand 
bath. 

Ethyl iodide is expeditiously prepared using liquid paraffin as a 
solvent for the phosphorus triodide, adding the alcohol gradually, 
returning the ether by means of a reversed cooler to the mixture and 
finally distilling. 13 Gm. phosphorus, 160 iodine and 60 absolute 
alcohol yielded 190 grams colorless ethyl iodide, which after treatment 
with a little iodine, sodium and finally with calcium chloride, furnished 
182 Gm. ethyl iodide, sp. gr. 1-944 at 15°C., and boiling at 72-5°C. 

Methyl iodide was prepared in the same way; the yield was 90 per 
cent— Berlchte D. Chem. Ges., 1884, 649-652. 



152 



Practical Notes. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 

1 March, 1885. 



Excretion of Kairine. — Petri and Lehmann ascertained that kairine 
or hydrochlorate of oxyquinolinethyl hydride is found in the urine as 
an ethersulpho acid which is not destroyed during the ammoniacal fer- 
mentation of the urine, but is slowly decomposed by long-continued 
boiling with hydrochloric acid. Its solution slightly acidulated with 
acetic acid acquires with a solution of chlorinated lime a beautiful 
fuchsin red color, which begins to fade after about 30 minutes. — Cen- 
tralbl. Med. Wiss., 1884, p. 305. 

Specific Gravity of Sulphuric Acid. — D. Mendelejew shows that the 
specific gravity of sulphuric acid (monohydrate) at 15°C. compared 
with water of 4°C. and calculated for the vacuum, is 1*8371, or very 
near this figure ; his own determinations agree with those of Marig- 
nac, F. Kohlrausch and others, while Lunge's result, 1*8384, is too 
high.— ^6r. d. Ch. Ges., 1884, pp. 2536-2541. 

Gallisin (see "Am. Jour. Phar.," 1885, p. 42) has been found by C. 
Schmitt and Jos. Rosenhek in commercial starch-sugars varying in 
quantity between 6*82 and 22*49 per cent., the water present amount- 
ing to from 14*11 to 21*59 per cent. By contact with pancreas galli- 
sin is converted into a fermentable sugar yielding ethyl-alcohol ; but 
the complete conversion has not yet been attained. The action of 
chlorosul phonic acid, of bromine, and of dry distillation with lime, 
has also been studied ; the latter process yielded acetic acid, acetone 
and metacetone. — Ber. d. Chem. Ges., 1884, pp. 2456-2467. 

Action of the Different Alkaloids of Aconite on the Heart.— 
Dr. A. Torselliui has recently made a series of experiments on the heart of 
the frog and the toad with the following results : 

1. Nitrate of aconitine caused, in the exsected heart a slight, in the re- 
moved heart strong diminution of the cardiac beat; and in the latter also 
a very slight and transitory lessening of the systolic elevation. In neither 
was the rhythm irregular. 

2. Nitrate of napelline causes irregularity of the rhythm in each, lessens 
the systolic elevation, and causes no slowing of the heart-beats in the ex- 
sected heart, but an increased contraction of the unremoved heart. 

3. Nitrate of lycoctonine slightly increases the beats of the exsected heart, 
increases the systolic elevation in both, and does not change the regularity 
of the heart's action in the least; on the contrary, it antagonizes the 
irregularity caused by najDelline. 

4. Aconitic acid acts on the heart in a decidedly paralyzing manner. 
From these results it is seen that the different alkaloids of aconite not 

only act differently, but that some antagonize others, as regards the effects 
on the heart. — Centralhl. fiir die gesammte Therap., October, 1884 ; Medical 
News. 



Am, Jour. Pharm.") 
March, 1885. / 



Minutes of the Pharmaceutical Meeting. 



153 



MINUTES OF THE PHARMACEUTICAL MEETING. 

Philadelphia, February 17, 1885. 

The meeting was called to order by the registrar, and upon motion of Mr. 
A. Blair, Mr. Robbins was called to the chair. 

The minutes of the last Pharmaceutical meeting were read and no correc- 
tions being called for they were approved. 

Prof. Maisch presented from the British Pharmaceutical Conference a 
copy of the Year Book of Pharmacy for 1884. 

Mr. Jos. W. England, Ph. G., of the class 1883, read a paper upon tmc- 
ture of ferric chlo7Hde in which he reviewed the formulae of the Pharma" 
copoeia from 1840 to the present one, as well as of some recent propositions 
made in the pharmaceutical journals. 

Prof. Maisch wished to know how long it would require to prepare, say a 
quart of the solution, by the formula proposed. In reply Mr. England 
stated, with inferior opportunities it required about an hour, and that under 
more favorable circumstances he thought it possible to shorten the process 
considerably. The paper was accompanied by samples of the various 
grades of solution and tincture. 

Mr. Gustavus Pile stated that in order to overcome any trouble that might 
arise from accidental spilling or from the use of acid of insufficient strength, 
he had prepared a specific gravity table showing the amount of ferrous 
chloride in the solution and giving the requisite weight of hydrochloric 
acid to be added in the subsequent operation. In this way a carboy of 
acid may be worked up at a time, adding the iron till saturation is effected, 
making no account of the actual weights of the materials used. After the 
action has ceased, the liquid is filtered and the specific gravity taken ; by 
comparing this with the table, the weight of acid to be added to each pint 
is at once ascertained, and the operation proceded with in the usual manner. 

On motion the paper was referred to the publication committee (see page 
113.) 

Prof. Trimble read a paper upon an alkaloid in the fruit of Burdock. 
The experiments were made in the laboratory of the College by himself 
and Mr. Macfarland, of the present junior class. On motion the paper was 
referred to the committee on publication (see page 127.). 

Mr. E. T. Ellis exhibited and presented to the cabinet a sample of Coxe^s 
Hive Syrup^ made over fifty years ago by Dr. Coxe's family, and sold at his 
residence north-east corner of Broad and Pine streets, in this city. The 
syrup was subsequently admitted into the Pharmacopoeia, and is still recog" 
nized as syrupus scillce compositus. 

Prof. Maisch exhibited a specimen of Sumatra Benzoin^ of handsome 
appearance, and yet the sample proved to contain 33 per cent, of bark and 
woody matter, which was left behind on preparing the tincture of benzoin ; 
he said that in many cases it was impossible to form any opinion of the 
quality of resins and gum resins by mere appearance. 

Prof. Trimble stated that one of the students had examined scammony 
resin in connection with matter for his thesis, and had found that nearly 
all the scammony of commerce contained starch, and that the sample in the 
College cabinet was fully up to the standard required by the Pharmacopoeia. 

On motion adjourned. T. S. Wiegand, Registrar. 



154 Sixth lnternatio7ial Pharmaceutical Congress. 



ALUMNI ASSOCIATION, PHILADELPHIA COLLEGE OF 
PHARMACY. 



The last social meeting of the present terra was held in the Museum of 
the College February 10, C. C. Meyer, Ph.G., occupying the chair. 

Rev. R. B. Westbrook, D. D., delivered an interesting lecture on "The 
origin of some familiar things," including a number of matters of special 
interest to the apothecary. 

John E. Cook, Ph.G., read two papers entitled " How to experiment in 
Natural Philosophy," and " Chlorophyll," dwelling in the latter upon the 
conditions under which the green color is produced, and upon various 
researches into its composition. 



SIXTH INTERNATIONAL PHARMACEUTICAL 
CONGRESS. 

Under the High Protection of His Majesty the King of the Belgians, 
And the Honorary Presidency of the Minister of the Interior and of Public 
Instruction, and the Honorary Vice-Presidency of the Burgomaster of 
the City of Brussels. 

General Rules of the Congress. 
Object of the Congress. 

Art. 1. The Sixth International Pharmaceutical Congress will be held in 
Brussels from the 31st of August to the 6th of September, 1885. 

Art. 2. The object of the Congress is to follow up the work commenced in 
1865 at Brunswick, and continued in 1867 at Paris, in 1869 at Vienna, in 
1874 at St. Petersburg, and in 1881 at London. 

The Congress will be able to discuss all questions which are connected 
with the profession of the pharmacist, the progress of the pharmaceutical 
sciences and their application to hygiene. 

It [will exclude from its business all that is foreign to these subjects. 
Governments, academies, universities and schools of pharmacy, chemistry, 
hygiene, etc., are invited to lend their co-operation in this work and to 
cause themselves to be represented in the Congress by delegates. 

Business of the Congress. 

Art. 3. The Congress will group in four sections all the questions which 
shall be submitted to it by pharmaceutical societies or persons who have 
connected themselves with the Congress, 
(a). Professional questions. 

(6). Questions of theoretical or practical pharmacy. 

(c) . Questions of chemistry in its relations with hygiene and the 

public health. 

(d) . Questions relative to applied, biological and legal chemistry. 



^^iif rch ' 188^™' } Sixth International Pha^^maceutical Congress. 155 

Art. 4. Four questions will be submitted by the Committee of Organiza- 
tion for discussion in the full general meetings. These are : 

P. Examination of the scheme of an International Pharmacopoeia elat- 
orated by the Commission nominated at the time of the last Congress in 
London. 

2^ Pharmaceutical Education : The attainments that should be prelimi- 
nary to pharmaceutical studies : -the scientific pharmaceutical studies ; the 
professional applications. 

3°. Sophistications of alimentary substances: legislation, administrative 
service, etc. 

4°. Potable waters : The characters of potable waters. The best practical 
processes, in the actual state of science, to be recommended for the verifica- 
tion of these characters. • 

Art. 5. The Congress will pursue its objects by means of (a) discussions 
in meetings ; (b) the publication of its transactions ; (c) conferences or ex- 
perimental demonstrations which may be organized during the continuance 
of the Congress. 

The Sessions. 

Art. 6. The Congress will last during six days. There wijl be two sittings 
each day. The morning will be devoted to the meetings of the sections ; 
the afternoons to the general meetings. 

Art. 7. Independently of the sittings of the sections and the general meet- 
ings there will be two special reunions : one at the opening and the other at 
the close. In the first the Committee of Organization will proceed to the 
nomination of the definite committee of the Congress and the committees 
of the sections ; in the second it will give an account of all the business 
transacted. 

Art. 8. The sections will discuss the questions set down on their orders of 
the day by the Committee of Organization. During the continuance of the 
Congress, however, other questions may be introduced at the close of the 
orders of the day of the sections upon the initiative of the members and 
with the consent of the committees. 

Art. 9. In the general meetings the discussions will be devoted to reports 
prepared beforehand. In the sections they will turn upon the communica- 
tions presented by the members of the Congress. 

These reports or communications may consist in expositions of facts or of 
points of doctrine. Those who bring them forward will assume the respon- 
sibility for them. 

Except by authorization of the meeting the same speaker will not be able 
to speak more than twice upon the same subject, and the length of speeches, 
readings of communications, memoirs, etc., will not be allowed to exceed 
fifteen minutes. This rule is not applicable to the reporters. 

No memoir already published or communicated to a scientific society will 
be allowed to be read at a sitting. 

Art. 10. Although the sessions will be conducted in the French language, 
the speakers will have liberty of choice as to language for their speeches or 
communications. In this case, the members who do not express themselves 
in French will remit an entire translation or a summary of their speeches 



156 



Editorials. 



(Am. Jour. Pharm, 
I March, 1885. 



to the secretaries of the sittings, and as far as possible the sense of their 
words will be translated immediately and summarily by one of the mem- 
bers of the meeting. 

Publication of the Transactions. 
Art. 11. The Committee of Organization is charged with the publication 
of the account of the labors of the Congress. It will decide as to the total 
or partial insertion or non-insertion of memoirs, communications, etc. 

Com^josition of the Congress. 

Art. 12. The Congress will be composed of all persons, pharmacists and 
others, who shall pay a subscription of ten francs and who have sent a notice 
of their adherence. 

Art. 13. All the lilembers will have the right to take part in all the labors 
and deliberations of the Congress, and they will receive the publications. 

Art. 14. The Committee of Organization will constitute the provisional 
committees of the sections. These will elect their definitive committees. 

General Arrangements. 

Art. 15. The committee will receive with gratitude all publications and 
communications, which will be acknowledged. The compte rendu will 
make mention of these remittances and the Committee will be able to com- 
municate them to the Congress. 

Art. 16. A special regulation, to be agreed to later on, will determine the 
supplementary executive measures to be taken to insure the satisfactory 
progress of the work of the Congress. A special bulletin will publish the 
orders of the day and the p7'oces-verbaux of the session ; it will give besides, 
if there be occasion, notices as to excursions, /e^es, and in general, all infor- 
mation useful to members of the Congress. 

Agreed to at a sitting of the Committee of Organization of the Sixth 
International Pharmaceutical Congress, December 20th, 1884. 
On behalf of the Committee, 

D. Van Bastelaer, President. 

E. Van de Vyvere, General Secretary. 
—Phar. Jour, and Trans., Jan. 31, 1885, p. 618. 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT. 



The School of Pharmacy of the University of Michigan. — The 
following communication from Prof. Prescott explains itself. 

Editor of the American Journal of Pharmacy : 

In the article of Mr. William B. Thompson on " Advantage of Prelimi- 
nary Education," a reference is made, on page 75, to the School of Phar- 
macy of the University of Michigan, beginning as follows : " There has 
been a steady growth of business rivalry in the more prominent pharma- 
ceutical institutions of this country ; some have wisely withdrawn from all 
competitive effort, and such a course has been received with approval. The 
future work and standing of these institutions will give ample evidence of 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
March, 1885. j 



Editorials. 



157 



a wise foresight. TJae University of Michigan was the first institution in 
this country, we believe, to take the long bold stride of graduating pharma- 
cists without any requirement of preliminary educational or shop train- 
ing." As this paragraph may meet the eye of pharmacists not acquainted 
with the requirements of preliminary training in the School of Pharmacy 
at Ann Arbor, I desire to state that its entrance standard is that of a good 
high school education. The examination covers— for those taking the 
college training before experience in the shop— three years' schooling in 
Latin and German, algebra through quadratic equations, botany and ele- 
mentary physics, beside arithmetic through involution and evolution, and 
the correct writing of English. For those taking the college course c//^er 
apprenticeship in the shop— the examination covers one years' schooling in 
Latin or German, with algebra, arithmetic, and correct English writing. 
Under the stringency of these examinations, fully two-thirds of the admis- 
sions to the school are gained by diplomas of graduation in high schools 
giving preparation for academic colleges. This is " the step in the methods 
of rivalry" taken at Ann Arbor. It is, in truth, a " long and bold stride " 
in preliminary examination in pharmacy in the United States. 

Regarding the non-requirement of apprenticeship by this school— the 
cause of action of the American Pharmaceutical Association in 1871, and 
the chief test of the " Convention of Teaching Colleges of Pharmacy," the 
position of the University of Michigan, whether it be right or whether it 
be wrong, is not correctly represented by Mr. ThomjDSon. It is that, in 
this country, it would be quite as useful to require the college course (pre- 
liminary examination and all) before the apprenticeBhip ^ as to require the 
apprenticeship before the college course. The diploma of this school is 
stated to give evidence of college training only, with no disparagement of 
the shop training, the variable value of which is to be expressed by the 
certificates of the shop itself. 

Mr. Thompson adds a reference to " educating scientific experts, drug 
assay ers, toxicologists, etc. ; presuming such to have been a bona fide inten- 
tion," he asks, " would the country find need of so man3^ men to fill posi- 
tions only casually made necessary?" This question, asked in skepticism 
by the writer, is answered in good faith by the "Register of Residences 
and Occupations of the Alumni," published annually by the school in 
question. The larger proportion of the graduates, in accord with the con- 
trolling design of the school, are engaged in dispensing pharmacy, where, 
in spite of "the groundling and mercenary, spirit " lamented by Mr. 
Thompson, they find every year greater demand for the duties of "drug 
assay ers, etc." With our requirements for entrance, and our severe and 
sifting college course, holding every student trom six to eight hours a day 
in college from the last week in September to the last week in June, during 
both years, the numbers of our graduates are not " so many men " as to be 
open to the objection of "augmenting the ranks of pharmacy," but by 
virtue of quality, they are felt as a distinct force in pharmaceutical practice. 

Albert B. Prescott, Dean. 
University of Michigan, School of Pharmacy, 
Ann Arbor, February 23, 1885. 



158 



Ret'ieivs, etc. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I March, 1885. 



The Sixth International Pharmaceutical Congress will be held 
during the coming summer in the city of Brussels, and a series of rules for 
its government have been drafted, which we publisji on another page. A 
Committee on organization has been formed consisting of prominent Bel- 
gian pharmacists, under the presidency of Mr. Van Bastelaer, the president 
of the General Pharmaceutical Association of Belgium, and of the Pharma- 
ceutical Union of Charleroi. Professors N. Gille, J. Stas and other well- 
known scientists are honorary members of this Committee. In a prelimi- 
nary circular dated December 20, 1884, the Committee state that the Con- 
gress is intended to bean arena open to all progressive ideas, and its rostrum 
accessible to all who wish to niake known their discoveries or the result of 
their observations or labors. Besides the questions published elsewhere, 
other subjects, generally interesting to pharmacists, may be added if pro- 
posed by pharmaceutical societies or by adherents to the Congress. Such 
questions should be sent at as early a date as possible to the general Secre- 
tary, E. Van de Vyvere, 14 Montagne aux Herbes-potagferes, Bruxelles, to 
wliom also declarations of adherence (for membership) should be addressed 
(see General Rules, Art. 12). 

At the International Congress held in London in 1881 it had been decided 
that the next Congress should assemble in Brussels in 1884 ; but it was 
deemed advisable to postpone it until the present year, one of the main 
reasons being, that the universal exhibition to be held at Antwerp would 
be a great attraction to strangers, and secure a larger attendance at the 
neighboring city of Brussels, which from Antwerp can be reached by rail 
in about one hour. 

It will be remembered that in London an International Committee was 
organized charged with compiling an international pharmacopoeia with the 
view of equalizing the strength of all potent drugs and their preparations ; 
this Committee has done some work in submitting propositions, the com- 
pilation to be elaborated by the chairman, Mr. A. von Waldheim, Vienna, 
Austria. To what extent this work has progressed, we have not been 
informed. 



REVIEWS AND BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 



Proceedings of the Third Annual Session of the Alabama Pharmaceutical 
Association, held in the city of Montgomery, May 13, 1884. 8vo, pp. 31. 

The next meeting will be held in Anniston, in the northern part of the 
State, on the first Tuesday in May. The Local Secretary is Jas. N. Gun- 
nel, Oxford. The other officers are : President, P. C. Candidus, Mobile. 
Vice-Presidents— J. B. Collier, Opelika ; A. L. Stollenwerck, Birmingham, 
and E. P. Gait, Selma. Secretary, M. M. Stone, Montgomery. 



Proceedings of the Ohio State Pharmaceutical Association, at its Sixth 
Annual Meeting, held in Cincinnati, May, 1884. 8vo, pp. 181. 

A brief account of the transactions at this meeting was published on page 



Am. jour. Pharm. 1 
March, 1885. J 



Reviews, etc. 



159 



396 of our last volume. The next meeting will be held at Sandusky, on 
the third Wednesday of May next, M. M. Melville, of Sandusky, being the 
Assistant Secretary. 



The following Reports of State Boards (Commissioners) of Pharmacy for 
the year 1883-1884 have been received : 

Illinois —Fp. 78. With a list of the Registered Pharmacists and Assist- 
ant Pharmacists; also, a list of cases prosecuted during the year ending 
June 30, 1884. 

Maine. — With the draft of a law amending the Pharmacy Act of 1877. 
West Virginia. — Ten Registered Pharmacists have been stricken from 
the register for unlawfully selling spirituous liquors. 



Universite de Bruxelles. Notice historique faite a la demande da Conseil 
d^ Administration. Par L. Vanderkiudere, Professeur a la Faculte de 
Philosophie et Lettres. Bruxelles : P. Weissenbruch, 1884. 8vo, pp. 440. 
The University of Brussels. Historical Notice. 

On November 20, 1834, the Free University of Belgium, since 1842 known 
as the Free University of Brussels, was inaugurated. The handsome vol- 
ume before us gives a full account of the work done during the fifty years 
of the existence of the University, which was founded by the liberality of 
a number of Belgian citizens. During the time named 394 pharmacists 
completed their education in this institution. 



One Hundred Yeai'S of Publishing. 17S5-1885. Philadelphia: Lea Bros. 
& Co. 

This neat publication gives a succinct history of the publishing house 
of Mathew Carey, who in January, 1785, commenced issuing "The 
Pennsylvania Evening Herald," and in a few years added to this 
two monthly magazines and various books. His successors, in 1829, 
divided the business, Edward L, Carey taking the retail business, form- 
ing the firm of Carey & Hart, the present successors of which are 
Henry Carey, Baird & Co. The publishing business was retained by Carey 
& Lea ; their successors,? Lea & Blanchard, between 1840 and 1850 gradually 
withdrew fiom publishing works of fiction and other books, concentrating 
their attention on works relating to medicine and allied sciences. It is 
stated that the house had never lost a partner by death, all its members 
having successively withdrawn in season to enjoy the fruits of well directed 
industry. Two of the members of the present firm, which was formed at 
the beginning of the second century after the foundation of the house, are 
descendants of its founder, Mathew Carey. 



Flora of Southern and Lower California. By Chas. Russell Orcott. San 
Diego, California : 1885. Pp. 13. 

This pamphlet is issued as a check list of the flowering plants, ferns and 
other cryptogams of San^Diego County and the adjacent borders of Lower 
California. The distribution of the plants and other matters of interest 
are indicated, enhancing the value of this list. 



160 Obituary. 

Journal of Mycology. Edited by W. A. Kellermann, Ph.D., Professor in the 
Kansas State Agricultural College, Manhattan, Kansas ; assisted by J. B. 
Ellis, Newfield, N. J., and B. M. Everhart, West Chester, Pa. Price $1 
per annum. 

This is a new monthly, devoted to fungi and the current literature per- 
taining to the subject. Judging from the initial number it will be a valu- 
able repository of mycological science in general, and of special importance 
to the North American students of mycology. 



Babyhood. Devoted exclusively to the care of infants and young children, 
and the general interests of the nursery. Edited by L. M. Yale, M. D. 
and Marion Harland. New York. Price $1.50 a year. 

A new monthly, well printed and handsomely illustrated. The number 
before us speaks well for the manner in which the objects are to be carried 
out. 



Annual Summary of Engineering and Industrial Progress, 1884. 
A rej^rint of the report of the Secretary of the Franklin Institute. 



International Electrical Exhibition, 1884. Reports of Examiners of Section 
xviii (underground conduits) and of flection xxi., (fire and burglar alarms 
and annunciators). 

These reports covering respectively fifty-five and sixteen pages are reprints 
from the Journal of the Franklin Institute. 



Official Report of the Trustees and Officers of the State Hospital for the 
Insane, at Danville, Pa. from October 1, 1882 to Septembr 30, 1884. 8vo, 
PP- 51. 

Acetate of Lead in Ocular Therapeutics. By David DeBeck, M. D., assist- 
ant to the chair of ophthalmology. 

Contributions from the oi^hthalmic clinic, Medical College of Ohio, Cin- 
cinnati. 



OBITUARY. 



William A. Gellatly died in New York, February 13, at the age of 
fifty-four years. Born in Edinburgh, he came to this country when four 
years old, and at the age of thirteen he entered the house of W. H. SchiefFe- 
lin & Co., as an errand boy, rising through various positions to that of a 
partner in 1860. His entire career was marked by strict integrity and 
honorable generosity. 

John P. Binns, a graduate of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, 
Class 1882, died in this city December 2, 1884, in the 24th year of his age. 

William Braithwaite, M. D., died in Leeds, England, January 31, 
aged seventy-eight years. Since 1840 he edited the " Retrospect of Medi- 
cine," which is published in half-yearly volumes, and which will now be 
continued under the editorial charge of his son, Dr. James Braithwaite. 



THE AMERICAN 

JOURNAL OF PHARMACY. 



APRIL, 1885. 



PINCKNEYA PUBENS, Michaux. 
(Georgia Bark.) 
Natural order ^ Rubiaeece ; sub-order^ Cinehoneoe. 
By Edgar Herman Naudain Ph.G. 
From an Inaugural Essay. 

Michaux discovered tins plant in 1791, along the banks of the St. 
Mary's River, Florida, and described it as follows: It grows in bogs 
along the banks of streams from Florida to South Carolina, near the 
coast, sometimes attains a height of twenty feet, though as it throws 
up many stems from the same root, it retains a shrub-like appearance. 
It has the general botanical characteristics of the Rubiacese, the leaves 
are large, oval, and acute; downy on the under surface as are the 
flower-clusters which are borne at the end of the branches. These 
consist of several five-flowered fascicles of purplish spotted flowers. 
C-alyx short, three-lobed, one of the lobes being expanded into a large 
ovate rose-colored leaf, which is more showy than the flower itself. 

The plant is closely related to the cinchonse, and is one of the many 
that have been proposed as a substitute for Peruvian bark. From re- 
ports of physicians living in States where it grows, it appears to have 
decided anti-periodic properties, though slower in its action than cin- 
chona bark. The genus was named in honor of Gen. Charles Pinck- 
ney, of South Carolina. 

Considerable difliculty was experienced in securing a sample of the 
bark, but through the kindness of Mr. G. J. Luhn, of Charleston, 
South Carolina, a small quantity was obtained, together with several 
leaves and a cluster of fruit. The bark was in quills about two 
inches in length, from ^-^ to ^ inch in thickness ; externally of an ash 
gray color, and somewhat warty ; internally brownish white, of a dis- 
tinctly bitter taste, and breaking with a short corky fracture. 

A portion of the bark was exhausted by repeated digestion, with 

11 



162 



Pincknei/a Pahens. 



Am. Jour, Pliarni. 
April, 1885. 



water acidulated with hydrochloric acid ; but the acid infusion failed 
to give any reaction for alkaloids when tested with Mayer's test, picric 
acid, or phospho-molybdic acid. On concentrating a portion of this 
solution numerous crystals separated ; they were boiled with a solution 
of sodium carbonate and filtered, the filtrate neutralized gave a pre- 
cipitate with calcium chloride indicating oxalic acid. The insoluble 
residue was dissolved in acetic acid and tested with ammonium oxalate 
with which it gave a precipitate indicating that the crystals were 
calcium oxalate. 

Seventy-five grams of the bark in very fine powder were submitted 
to the action of petroleum benzin (which had previously been re- 
distilled) until it was thoroughly exhausted. On distilling off the 
benzin a greenish, wax-like substance remained ; this was treated with 
acidulated water (HCI), to which it yielded nothing, giving no reactions 
when tested for alkaloids. It was next treated with eighty per cent, 
alcohol, which extracted a small quantity of a yellow resinous body, 
soluble in ether. The residue consisted of a waxy substance associated 
with a small amount of chlorophyll. Fixed and volatile oils were 
found to be absent. 

Alcoholic Extract. — The powdered bark from the benzin operation 
was kept at a temperature of 100° C. until all traces of benzin had 
disappeared, was then thoroughly exhausted with eighty per cent, 
alcohol and the tincture distilled; the concentrated liquid was precipi- 
tated by an alcoholic solution of normal lead acetate, and the filtrate 
freed from lead by hydrogen sulphide concentrated and allowed to 
stand, nothing separating out ; on dilution with water a slight precipi- 
tate was formed, which on agitating with ether was dissolved, and on 
evaporation yielded a dark brown resinous body of a slight taste, and 
soluble in chloroform and bisulphide of carbon. 

The aqueous extract failed to give any reaction for alkaloids when 
tested with picric acid, phospho-molybdic acid and Mayer's test. The 
remaining aqueous liquid was precipitated by triplumbic acetate, the 
filtrate was again freed from lead by hydrogen sulphide and concen- 
trated; on allowing it to stand a light brown, distinctly crystalline 
substance was deposited, weighing about 0*15 grm., having a very 
bitter taste similar to that of the bark very much concentrated. It 
failed to reduce Fehling's solution until boiled with dilute sulphuric 
acid, and it was entirely dissipated by heat. The substance is a gluco- 
side, I think, and I propose for it the name Pinckneyin. The precipi- 



Am. Jour Pharm.) 
April, 1885. J 



Plnchieya Pubens, 



163 



tate by the triplambic acetate was suspended in water and freed from 
lead ; on evaporating, a brownish, somewhat bitter extractive was 
obtained. 

The plumbic acetate precipitate was suspended in' eighty per cent, 
alcohol, freed from lead by hydrogen sulphide, concentrated, treated 
with water, allowed to stand some time, and the resulting precipitate 
collected, well washed and dissolved in ether, which left on evapo- 
ration a light yellow mass, capable of being powdered ; its alcoholic 
solution Avas very astringent, and was precipitated, giving a bluish 
green by ferric chloride. The aqueous solution gave, with ferric 
chloride, a beautiful emerald green color, changed to a wine red by 
sodium carbonate, was not precipitated by tartar emetic, not precipi- 
tated or colored by ferrous sulphate, reduced solution of argentic nitrate, 
was precipitated by gelatin, and crystallized ftom dilute alcohol, resem- 
bling cafFeotannic acid. 

Aqueous Extract. — The bark from the alcohol operation was mace- 
rated with water and expressed, the liquid gave a copious precipitate 
with alcohol, which consisted of guui combined with brown coloring 
matter. On boiling a portion of the exhausted bark with water, the 
solution gave a blue coloration after cooling with a solution of iodine. 
One grm. of the bark (air-dry?) on incineration yielded '09 grm. = 9 
per cent, of ash, consisting of potassium, sodium, calcium and mag- 
nesium combined as chlorides, carbonates and phosi)hates. 

In the ^'American Journal Pharmacy," February 1881, p. 981, it 
is stated that Dr. Farr claimed to have detected cinchonine in pinck- 
neya, but from my analysis I am led to think this incorrect, as I 
failed to discover the slightest trace of alkaloid. Owing to the limited 
supply of bark at my disposal I was unable to make as complete an 
analysis as the subject deserves. 



Oil of Gaultheria in Rheumatism. — Dr. H. H. Seelye reports the 
results obtained from oil of gaultheria given in 118 cases of acute articular 
rheumatism. It can be administered in capsules, alone or with salicylate 
of sodium, or in soda-water, but the preferred method was in an emulsion 
in glycerin and water. From 10 to 20 minims were given every two hours 
during the day, and at intervals of three hours during the night. All 
forms of rheumatic pain seemed remarkably intluenced, but its effect was 
most marked in acute inflammatory cases. The tendency to cardiac com- 
plications seemed not to be increased. The success was so gratifying that 
further trial of the remedy was strongly urged. — ZV. Y. Med. Jour.^ Nov. 8 
1884 ; Med. Times. 



164 



Bhododendron Maximum, 



J Am. Jour. Pharm. 
( April, 1885. 



RHODODENDRON MAXIMUM, Linn^. 
(great laurel.) 
Natural Order, Ericacece; sub-order, Ericinece ; tribe, Bhodorece. 
By Gustav Frank Kuehnel, Ph.G. 
From an Inaugural Essay. 

This plant is indigenous to the United States from Maine to Ohio, 
but chiefly in the mountainous parts of Pennsylvania, and southward 
along shaded water courses in damp, deep woods; it is a shrub or tree, 
6 to 20 feet high, with handsome flowers, the corolla being bell-shaped, 
an inch broad, of a pale rose color, or nearly white, greenish in the 
throat on the upper side, and yellow or reddish spotted. The leaves 
are from 4 to 10 inches long, evergreen, coriaceous, alternate, elliptical 
oblong, or lance oblong, acute, narrowed towards the base, very smooth, 
unequal at the base, and with an entire, somewhat revolute, margin, 
near which the anastomosing veins form one or two distinct wavy 
lines. A quantity of the leaves were collected for me about the mid- 
dle of August by Mr. Henry C. C. Maisch, a fellow-student and class- 
mate, in the neighborhood of Cresson Springs, Pa. These were care- 
fully dried, remote from heat and direct rays of the sun, powdered, 
and subjected to an examination which resulted in isolating the three 
constituents, according to Prof. Maisch, apparently characteristic for 
coriaceous leaves of ericaceous plants, viz., arbutin, ericolin and ursone ; 
besides these principles, tannin, gallic acid, resin, wax, albumen, color- 
ing matter and a trace of volatile oil were observed. 

A portion of the powdered drug was subjected successively to the 
treatment of petroleum spirit, ether and alcohol, according to Dragen- 
dorfl. 

The solution in petroleum spirit was evaporated at the ordinary 
temperature ; towards the close of the operation a pungent, peculiar 
odor, slightly irritating, was perceptible, possibly due to a little vola- 
tile oil ; a soft, semi-solid, waxy mass, of a peculiar resinous odor, 
was left as a residue. 

The etherial liquid was allowed to spontaneously evaporate at the 
ordinary temperature, and the resulting residue was treated with water 
and filtered. The filtrate was found to contain gallic acid, by treating 
with acetic ether, separating and evaporating, when crystals were left 
which in solution darkened upon addition of solution of iron salt, but 
on being heated the color vanished ; the liquid gave no precipitate 
with solution of gelatin. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
April, 1885. / 



Rhododendron Maximum. 



165 



The residue on the filter, after treating the etherial extract with 
water, was composed chiefly of resin, associated with chlorophyll and 
other coloring matter. 

The alcoholic tincture obtained by macerating the powdered leaves 
which had been previously exhausted by petroleum spirit and ether 
was evaporated to an extract, which was then treated with water and 
filtered. 

The residue left on the filter was well washed and dissolved in hot 
alcohol, which on cooling deposited an apparently amorphous mass, 
ursone; upon redissolving in alcohol, microscopic needles were 
obtained, which upon addition of sulphuric acid turned black, redden- 
ing the acid, and became yellow with nitric acid, giving off nitrous 
acid fumes. 

The aqueous filtrate was concentrated, treated w^ith acetate of lead, 
filtered, the filtrate freed from lead by sulphuretted hydrogen, concen- 
trated to a syrupy consistence, again diluted somewhat, and treated 
with animal charcoal, then concentrated and set aside, when a deposit 
of acicular crystals was obtained, which proved to be arbutin. An 
alkaline solution of the crystals gave the sky-blue color with phospho- 
molybdic acid. Sulphuric acid dissolved them without change of color, 
but nitric acid turned yellow, with the evolution of nitrous acid fumes. 

The precipitate obtained with lead acetate was suspended in water, 
the lead removed by sulphuretted hydrogen, the filtrate heated to 
expel excess of sulphuretted hydrogen, and treated with solution of 
gelatin, when a bulky precipitate was obtained, which, after washing 
with water, became black on the addition of an iron salt, thus showing 
it to be tannin. 

A second portion of the leaves was treated with water, and the infu- 
sion boiled and strained, leaving a flocculent residue of albumen on 
the strainer. The clear liquid was then concentrated and treated with 
solution of acetate of lead, the precipitate separated by a filter, and 
the filtrate freed from lead by sulphuretted hydrogen ; the filtrate was 
heated to expel excess of sulphuretted hydrogen, treated with animal 
charcoal to remove coloring matter, concentrated, and set aside, when 
crystals of arbutin were deposited, showing the reactions mentioned 
above. 

The lead precipitates contained tannin and gallic acid, and some 
arbutin was extracted from the sulphide of lead, and obtained in crys- 
tals. The mother-liquors of arbutin seem to contain ericolin. 



166 



Hop Extract. 



J Am Jour. Pharm. 
t April, 1885. 



HOP EXTRACT. 
By Wayne B. Bissell, Ph.G. 
From an inaugural essay. 

In discussing this subject the main object of the writer will be to 
bring to notice an extract of Hops made by an entirely new processs 
and to compare that product with one made by myself, according to 
the directions given in the Dispensatory. 

A very fine sample of late hops, which appeared rich in lupulin, was 
exhausted as thoroughly as possible with i)ure alcohol by percolation. 
The drug was then boiled in water for one hour, strained and washed. 
The alcoholic and watery extracts were evaporated at a very low tem- 
perature to a thick syrup and then mixed, and further evaporation 
carried on by means of a water bath until a product of nearly pilular 
consistence was obtained, in which condition the patent extract was. 
The product thus obtained, contained the aroma of the hop which is 
very easily destroyed by a high heat. 

xVs far as could be learned, the process by which the patent extract is 
made on a very large scale is as follows : 

The hops taken from the bale are run through a machine, which 
separates the scales from the axis without breaking them much. They 
are now placed in a large wire cage rather loosely, and three of these 
cages are run into an immense l)oiler or extractor as it is called, 
which holds about six hundred pounds of the drug. A heavy door 
then is shut and barred, making everything secure. About three 
hundred barrels of gasoline are now pumped in by the engine, when,, 
by means of a steam coil, heat is applied until a pressure of one hun- 
dred pounds to the square inch has been attained. The object of this 
high pressure is to break or crush the little glands called lupulin, 
wdiich contain the valuable principle, this being taken up by the hot 
gasoline. As soon as the above pressure has been attained, the steam 
is shut off and as the heat decreases, the hot gasoline holding the extract 
in solution is drawn off gradually into a large boiler or tank, and as it 
gradually cools, the extract settles to the bottom and the gasoline rising 
to the top is removed and used over again on a fresh portion of hops. 
In the meanwhile the extract and gasoline remaining in the extractor, 
have been completely washed out by super-heated steim and both 
separated as in the former case, so there is but very little waste of 



Am. Jonr. Pharm. ) 
April, 1885. J 



Hop Extract, 



167 



menstruum. The extract in the boiler on cooling to a certain tempera- 
ture, is drawn oif and subsequently canned, in which condition it will 
keep for an indefinite period, a great advantage over the hop itself, 
which at the end of two years is nearly useless. One pound of this 
extract represents about twelve pounds of choice hops. About two 
thousand pounds of hops can be exhausted in these works during 
twenty-four hours. Hie only use made of this extract at present is in 
the manufacture of beer, for which purpose it is at present being used 
to a large extent in Philadelphia and New York, fully supplying the 
place of the ordinary hop. ; 

On investigation quite a difference was observed between this extract 
and the one made by myself, the former being of an intense black color, 
appearing to be more oily, and containing practically no tannin or a 
mere trace, while in the extract made by myself between 7 per cent, 
and 8 per cent of tannin was indicated by using a solution of acetate of 
lead. 

The amount of glucose was ascertained ^by Fehling's solution, 
and found to be in my extract 12 per cent., but in the patent extract, 
a little over 16 per cent. During this investigation the writer obtained 
results more easily from the patent extract than from the extract made 
by himself. 

On exposing the extract made by me to a temperature of 100°C. 
until it ceased to lose weight, 13 per cent, of volatile matter was 
expelled, and at 110° C. it lost an additional 9 per cent., becoming 
quite dry, darker in color, losing its aroma and breaking with little 
difficulty into small pieces. The patent extract exposed to 100° C. 
lost only '05 per cent, in weight and at 110° C, this loss was increased 
by only an additional '03 per cent. This high heat seemed to have but 
very little effect on it, either in changing its color, or destroying its 
odor. 

The effect of different solvents on the two extracts showed a very 
marked difference. Water dissolved only a very small portion of the 
extract made by me, leaving a brown residue, which was apparently 
mostly resin and oil. Alcohol had only a slight effect, but dilute 
alcohol took up more. All of the ordinary solvents were tried, and 
none of them completely dissolved this extract. 

The patent extract was found to be practically insoluble in water, 
and also in cold alcohol, but hot alcohol held it in solution as did also 
benzin. It is more soluble in ether and completely soluble in chloro- 



168 



Syriipus Pruni Vwginiance. 



/Am Jour. Pharm. 
\ April, 1885. 



form. It has a very strong and rather unpleasant odor, and its taste is 
exceedingly bitter. A farther point of interest concerning this extract 
is, that when it is being drawn from the storing boiler into large cans, 
quite frequently small white crystals are seen, but it is impossible 
almost to separate them. The extract without purification, so as to 
free it entirely from the gasoline, could not be used internally as it 
creates nausea, but is quite frequently mixed with sugar and formed 
into cakes in which condition it is used to some extent. 

In conclusion, the writer would extend his thanks to W. A. Law- 
rence, Superintendent of the works, through whose kindness he obtained 
the process of manufacture as given above. 



SYRUPUS PRUNI VIKGINIAN.^. 
By J. George Engler, Ph.G. 
From an Inaugural Essay. 

The bark from which this syrup is made is obtained from Prunus 
serotina, and collected in autumn. On the recent shoots it is green or 
olive brown, polished, and has minute orange dots; afterwards it 
becomes darker and on the small trunks and larger branches is of a 
reddish or purplish brown, with scattered, oblong, horizontal dots 
characteristic of the cherry. Old trunks have a scaly bark not unlike 
some of the pines. 

The wild cherry tree rarely attains a height of more than forty or 
fifty feet in Massachusetts. According to Dr. Richardson it grows as 
far north as the Great Slave Lake, in latitude 62°, but only attains 
the height of about five feet. In Maine it rises to about thirty feet, 
being seldom more than a foot in diameter. In western New York it 
grows to a great height and a large size, but along the Ohio river it is 
seen in its perfection, for it is found from twelve to sixteen feet in 
circumference and from eighty to one hundred feet high. The trunk 
is of uniform size and undivided to the height of about twenty-five 
feet. The wood is of a light red color, growing darker with age, and 
its medullary rays are very numerous and more closely arranged than 
those of most other woods. It is especially valuable in cabinet work 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
April, 1885. j" 



Syru'pus Pruni Virginiance. 



169 



and has of late years become very much in demand for fixtures in 
many pharmacies. The most beautiful portion commonly used is that 
where the branches begin. The bark is of a pleasant aromatic bitter, 
leaving, when chewed, an agreeable taste in the mouth. 

The U. S. P. process for preparing syrup of wild cherry is unsatis- 
factory on account of the unstability of the production and its liability 
to undergo fermentation. The remedy which suggested itself to me 
was the use of a quantity of either alcohol or glycerin. The object of 
my experiments has been to obtain a syrup that will remain perma- 
nent, under ordinary circumstances, with the smallest amount of these 
preservatives. To make a just comparison I first made a syrup accord- 
ing to the pharmacopoeial formula. This syrup was made March 1st, 
1884; it had a rich brownish red color, the characteristic odor of 
hydrocyanic acid, aud a slightly bitter, astringent taste. Placed on a 
shelf where it was subjected to the ordinary conditions of light and 
heat of the store, after eight weeks a slight cloudiness was formed, fol- 
lowed by a noticeable amount of precipitate, and fermentation soon 
began. With this change the syrup began to lose its color, and after 
nine months had lost all resemblance to a good syrup in color and 
odor, and it also had a thick fungous growth at the top. 

Three syrups were next made in which the glycerin was replaced by 
alcohol in different proportions, and three in which the quantity of 
glycerin was increased in different amounts. Those made with alcohol 
show the following results : Number one, with four drachms of alcohol 
to the pint, kept almost perfectly for three months, then a slight 
precipitate began to form, which, after nine months' standing, is quite 
noticeable; odor and color remain unchanged. Number two, made 
with one ounce of alcohol, remained unchanged somewhat longer, but 
a precipitate has formed. The color remains unchanged and the odor 
is slightly alcoholic. Number three, made with one and a half ounces 
of alcohol, remained permanent for a still longer time, color unchanged 
and a stronger alcoholic odor. The result of these three experiments 
with alcohol as a preservative show that this menstruum in prac- 
ticable amounts is not satisfactory. The syrups made with increased 
quantities of glycerin showed the following results : Number four, 
with two ounces of glycerin to the pint, a bright syrup of beautiful 
color, and after standing nine months still remains unchanged. Num- 
ber five, with two and a half ounces, and number six with three ounces 



170 Gleanings from Foreign Journals. { ^"Vprii'^'isss''^"'' 

of glycerin to the pint, gave permanent, bright syrups. The syrup 
was made by the following formula : 



Wild Cherry bark ^v, 

Bitter Almond ^v, 

Water Ixvi, 

Glycerin ,^ii, 

Sugar ^xxiv, 



Made according to the pharmacopoeial method a handsome syrup is 
obtained, permanent, and having a strong odor and taste of hydrocy- 
anic acid. These results show that glycerin in somewhat increased 
amounts would make the syrup permanent. 



GLEANINGS FROM FOREIGN JOURNALS. 

By J. KOBERT MOECHEL. 

Thorough Extraction of Vegetables. — A considerable quantity of 
water and sometimes application of heat is necessary for completely 
extracting tannin and coloring matters from plants. Dr. O. Kohl- 
rausch, of Vienna, claims that a small amount of water is needed, and 
that very concentrated solutions are obtained at a low temperature, by 
operating as follows : 

The material to be extracted is covered with water, and macerated 
for some time at a i)ressure of one atmosphere. The water penetrates 
the cellular tissue, dissolves the coloring matter, and, by way of diffu- 
sion, the water becomes saturated to the same degree as the liquid in 
the cells. Separating the liquid, and repeating the operation several 
times, under tlie same conditions, secures the complete extraction of 
coloring matter. — Erfindungen nnd Erfahrungen, Wien, i, J 885. 

Ergot. — Dr. R. Kobert's interesting investigations show the pres- 
ence in ergot of three physiologically active bodies — two acids and one 
base. 

I. Ergotic Add, being the principal constituent of the sclerotic acid 
of Dragendorff and Podwyssotzki. Its isolation depends upon its being 
precipitated by ammoniacal subacetate of lead. 

II. Sphacelic Acid (from the old name of ergot, Sphacelia segetum). 
Its isolation depends upon the insolubility of the free acid in water, 
and its solubility in alcohol. 

III. The alkaloid Cornutine is not identical with the crystallized nor 
with the amorphous ergotinine of Tanret ; it is readily soluble in alco- 



'^"^pn^issV'^'"'} Gleanings from Foreign Journals. 171 

hoi, and is obtained from an alkaline aqneous solution by agitation 
with ether. This alkaloid is reported as being very poisonous. — Pharm.. 
Centralhalle, 1884, p. 607. 

Paraldehyd as a Reagent for Caramel, is recommended by Dr. C. 
Amthor, who finds that an alcoholic liquid containing caramel (rum, 
cognac, brandy, wines) gives, on the addition of sufficient paraldehyd, 
a brown precipitate, and becomes decolorized. Minute quantities of 
caramel may be detected as follows : 

Mix 10 cc. of the liquid in a suitable tall vessel, or white glass 
medicine bottle, with from 30 to 50 cc. paraldehyd (according to inten- 
sity of color) and enough alcohol to obtain a uniform mixture; wine 
requires about 15 or 20 cc. of alcohol. After 24 hours, caramel will 
show its presence by a brownish to dark brown sediment, which 
adheres to the bottom ; after washing it with a little absolute alcohol, 
dissolve the sediment with hot water, filter, and evaporate to 1^ cc. ;, 
this residue will give an indication of the quantity of caramel present. 
— Zeitschrift f. Analyt. Chemie, 1885. 

Sugar in Beet Root. — Girard shows by new assays that the forma- 
tion of sucrose takes place in the margin of the leaves through the 
influence of the sunlight. During the night the sugar passes into the 
root, so that in the morning the leaf margins are free from sucrose, but 
retain a uniform quantity of reducing sugar. — Journ. de Fabr. de Sucre, 
1884, pp. 25, 48 ; Chemiker Ztg., 1885, p. 3. 

Mixtura dentrificia. — 



Oil of pepper mint (English) 10*0 

Oil of anise (French) 4*0 

Oil of star anise 4*0 

Oil of Ceylon cinnamon 1*0 

Oil of rose 0-5 

Oil of cloves 2 

Tincture of ambergris 2 

Tincture of vanilla 10 

Tincture of cochineal 25'0 

Tincture of logwood 2'0 

Tincture of orris root 6*0 

Sugar 10-0 

Alcohol 1 liter. 



Digest for 24 hours, and filter. — Gaz. Hebdom. ; Pharm. Ztg., 1885, 
p. 5. 

Paste of Squill as Rat Poison. — Melt in a suitable dish 4 ounces of 



172 Gleanings from Foreign Journals. {^'^'A^Si'-mt'^' 

lard ; add 8 ounces of squill, and a small onion, cut into minute pieces; 
digest, with continuous stirring, for about 15 minutes, and then mix 
with an equal quantity of mashed potatoes. When cool, add 20 drops 
of oil of anise. This paste is said to be very efficient. — Pharm, Ztg., 
1885, p. 6. 

Ferrous iodide^ dissolved in glycerin, does not undergo any altera- 
tion. The following formula is suggested by Sylvio Plevani : 

Digest 20 Gm. iodine, 10 Gm. card teeth and 30 Gm. water; filter 
into a porcelain capsule, containing 75 Gm. of glycerin, and evaporate 
to 100 Gm. 

This solution contains 23 Gm. of ferrous iodide, and, since it is mis- 
cible in all proportions with water, alcohol and syrups, and may also 
be incorporated with fats and oils, it is a preparation offering great 
convenience in dispensing. — Bollet. FarmaceuL ; Pharm. Ztg., lSS6j 
P-9. 

Carbolic Acid. —The reddish tint which carbolic acid assumes seems 
to be frequently, but not always, caused by the presence of traces of 
iron, as shown by Hager. After purifying a red carbolic acid by dis- 
tillation, he was not able to find any indication of iron, but concludes 
that the coloration may have been caused by compounds resembling 
corallin or trop?eolin. — Pharni. Centralhalle, 1885, p. 1. 

Pomegranate hark, according to Carl Julius Bender, contains but 
one crystallizable alkaloid and two amorphous bases. He discards the 
name Pelletierine in favor of " Punicine," and gives a process for the 
preparation of a stable crystallized sulphate. — Pharm. Centralhalle, 
1885, p. 6. 

Aconitine has a reducing action on salts of silver and mercury, by 
which it may be recognized, according to Hager. 

On dissolving 0'02 or 0*03 Gm. aconitine in 3 to 4 cc. alcohol, and 
adding a few drops of solution of nitrate of silver, instantaneous 
reduction takes place, which action may be accelerated by heat. The 
drops falling into the aconitine solution cause turbidity and a brownish 
color. More than traces of other salts, especially alkalies, prevent 
the reduction until after repeated boiling. The scaly aconitine of 
commerce seems to have been obtained by spreading an alcoholic solu- 
tion on glass plates. — Pharm. Centralhalle, 1885, p. 6. 

Reaction of Chloral Hydrate. — If calcium sulphydrate, Ca(SH)2, is 
added to a solution of chloral hydrate, the liquid assumes a red color. 
The reaction is less delicate, but still distinct, if HgS and then GaHO 



^'"Aj?ii'^'i88?™*' } Gleanings from Foreign Journals. 173 

is added to the chloral hydrate, and after a minute the liquid assumes 
a pink color. — Arch. d. Pharm., vol. 223, p. 26 ; Ph. Gentralh., 1885, 

Antiseptic Vinegar, in place of " Vinaigre de Toilette." — 



R Aetheris acetici • 8*0 

Acid, acetic, cone 120 

Tinct. eucalypti globuli 60*0 

Aqu8e coloniense 960*0 



—Der Fortschritt, No. 2; Ph. Centralhalle, 1885, p. 6. 

Vapor of Glycerin for Cough. — M. Trastour has employed, with 
great advantage, the vapor of glycerin for alleviating distressing or 
frequent cough, irritation of the thoat, etc. 

About 50 or 60 Gm. of glycerin are heated in a porcelain capsule, 
and the vapor, which is copiously disengaged, is breathed by the suf- 
ferer. Carbolic acid dissolved in glycerin may also be employed. — 
Gaz. Med. de Nantes. 

Detection of Copper and Lead in Wine. — Hager recommends mixing 
the suspected wine with ^ or J volume of clear liquor sodse, when the 
mixture should remain clear even if boiled ; a colored turbidity would 
indicate the probable presence of copper. Put 6 cc. of the clear mix- 
ture in a test-tube and introduce a piece of tin foil, which should be 
entirely covered by the liquid ; warm in a water-bath for about J or 1 
hour. If the wine be free from lead and copper, the tin foil will 
remain glossy; slight traces of these metals cause the tin foil to lose 
its lustre, and to become grayish ; in the presence of more than traces 
of these metals the tin foil will become dark gray to dark grayish 
black (lead) ; dark steel colored, brown or brownish black (copper). 
Boiling will accelerate the action. Presence of zinc or arsenic will 
not interfere with the above reaction. — Ph. Cenb^alhalle, No. 8, 1885. 

A delicate test for nitric acid is recommended by Prof. Uffelmann : 
Add to a small piece of diphenylamine, of about the size of half a 
lentil, placed in a porcelain capsule, 1*5 cc. H2SO4, which must be 
absolutely free from NOg and HNO3 ; stir with a glass rod until a 
very pale pink color is produced, and add 3 or 4 drops of the liquid 
to be tested, on the border of the capsule. Much HNO3 will instan- 
taneously cause the appearance of a bluish line, extending like a cloud. 
Slight traces of HNO3 give that line, after a short while, mostly within 
a minute, and this line also extends and becomes more intense. The 



174 Gleanings from Foreign Journals. {^^'k^^x'^^b^^ 

proportions given are essential to success ; the test is more delicate 
than tliat with brucine. — Pharni. Ztg., No. 14. 

Syrup of Pineapple. — Cut 5 kilos of selected pineapples in small 
pieces, transfer into a bottle, add 5 kilos each of white wine and water, 
and macerate at a medium temperature for several days. Boil 30 kilos 
of sugar with 20 kilos of water, add the strained infusion, heat to 
ebullition, and strain through flannel. 

Syrup of Apricot. — Digest, for six days, 5 kilos each of white wine, 
water and ripe apricots, freed from stones and cut into small pieces ; 
strain, press very gently, and add to the hot syrup, prepared as above 
of 40 kilos of sugar and 30 kilos ot water. When cold, add 200 Gm. 
of artificial essence of apricots. — Erfind. unci Erf ah. 

Shoe Blacking. — Mix 100 parts b(jne black, 50 parts glycerin, 5 
parts oil and 10 parts of vinegar. This blacking is said to give excel- 
lent shine, and to keep the leather smooth and soft. 

Tramparent Glue for Porcelain. — Dissolve 75 Gin. caoutchouc, 
in small pieces, in 60 Gm. of chloroform; add 15 Gm. of mastic, 
and dissolve without heat. — Chemikcr Ztg., No. 14, 1885, p. 254; 
Nature, 1884, xii, p. 587. 



REACTIONS WITH CARBON AND SOME OF ITS COM- 
POUNDS. 
Bv G. Gore. 

When white or red phosphorus, or powdered arsenic or antimony 
or sodium, are added to fused potassium cyanide; or when aluminium 
or sodium phosphide, or a mixture of sodium phosphide with zinc, is 
added to fused potassium and sodium carbonates; or when sodium 
carlwnate is decomposed at a low red heat by phosphorus vapor ; or 
when a mixture of red phosphorus and ammonium carbonate is dropped 
into a red-hot porcelain crucible, a black substance separates, which in 
some cases is found to be carbon. Carbon is also obtained when coal- 
gas is passed over red-hot finely powdered ferric oxide, or over just 
fused argentic fluoride or chloride, or over chloride of lead or copper. 
Arsenic and antimony do not visibly decompose fused sodium and 
potassium carbonates; neither is carbon set free when ammonium car- 
bonate is added to fused sodium; nor when coal-gas is passed over 
fused cadmium chloride or silver iodide ; nor in several experiments 
wherein numerous hydrocarbons, in various solvents, were exposed to 
metals and metallic couples. Several unsuccessful attempts at deoxi- 



Am. Jour. Pliarm. ) 
April, 1885. ; 



Reactions with Carbon. 



175 



dising carbonic anhydride are also described along with many experi- 
ments wherein many substances alone and in contact were immerse 1 in 
various solutions of metallic salts containing carbon in combination, 
and in these solutions when exposed to carboniferous vapors, but in 
all cases without any deposition of carbon. The chlorides of carbon 
proved equally useless as sources of carbon, even resisting the influence 
of potassium, which, however, formed an alkaline salt with carbon tetra- 
chloride; potassium or sodium, dissolved in anhydrous liquid ammonia at 
60° F., behaved in a similar manner with carbon bromide and sulphide 
and with anhydrous sodium carbonate or formate, or ammonium oxalate. 
On passing dry ammonia gas into liquid carbon dichloride containing 
potassium, gas was evolved, and a red powder formed ; with naphtha 
instead of the chloride, the potassium only became red. Carbon is 
insoluble in anhydrous liquid cyanogen, sulphuric chloride, phos})horus 
trichloride, antimony pentachloride, anhydrous liquid hydrofluoric and 
hydrochloric acids; chlorides of carbon and bisulphide of carbon were 
also found to be insoluble in the last two acids, but they are soluble in 
liquid cyanogen. Many experiments with carbon bisulphide are 
described ; for example, when silver and platinum in contact are 
immersed in it, after some time the silver blackens; in the same way 
lead and mercury yield a black powder soluble in nitric acid. Thallium 
also blackens, but no action could be observed with tin, or magnesium 
and platinum, or with boron fluoride; tin tetrachloride, thallium 
chloride and cyanogen are dissolved by it, and it precipitates mercuric 
chloride from its solution in ether. The solutions of sulphur and 
phosphrous in carbon bisulphide give no reaction when exposed in an 
atmosphere of carbonic anhydride ; zinc remains bright in the sulphur 
solution and potassium and platinum in contact cause no free carbon 
to separate from it; aluminium and magnesium become dull, but are 
not corroded by prolonged exposure in the phosphorus solution. When 
a solution of silver nitrate with a piece of platinum partly immersed 
in it was exposed to carbon bisulphide vapor continuously for seven 
weeks, all the silver was precipitated ; magnesium, aluminium or silver 
partly immersed in water exposed to the same vapor, were unaltered ; 
when, however, the silver was in contact with platinum, the liquid 
became dark and the silver above it blackened. A liquid which dis- 
solved selenium was obtained by passing the vapor of selenium over 
charcoal powder kept at a full red heat. — Chcm. News, vol. 50, pp. 
124-126 ; Jour. Chem. Soc. 1885, p. 119. 



176 



Neutral Oleate of Mercury. 



J Am. Jour. Pharm. 
( April, 1885. 



NEUTRAL OLEATE OF MERCURY.^ 
By Charles R. C. Tichborne, L.L.D., F.I.C., Etc. 

Attempts have been made to make the mercurial oleates by double 
decomposition, but my experience is that it is not attended with much 
success. This is in great measure owing to the fact that when the 
salts (let us say mercuric chloride and oleate of sodium) in the propor- 
tions to form the neutral oleate are brought together, very little of the 
oleate is formed, and it is next to impossible to work the product 
properly. If we double or halve the equivalent of oleic acid so as to 
get an acid or basic salt the product is much larger. It is the acid 
oleate which has generally been formed in the double decomposition 
process. 

Assuming that oleic acid is what is termed a monobasic acid, the 
neutral mercuric oleate should have the following composition : 

Hg2C„H3,0,. 

We find that mercuric oxide (either the red or yellow oxide) dis- 
solves in the proportions requisite to produce a neutral salt forming a 
colorless and fairly homogeneous mass. If this be placed under the 
microscope, however, indications of the separated water may be per- 
ceived. This water, which is produced by the decomposition, has, I 
think, frequently been lost sight of in considering the oleates. The re- 
action is as follows : 

HgO+2C,3H3A-Hg2C,3H330„H,0. 

If we allow oleate of mercury to stand, however, some considerable 
time, this water seems to be assimilated, and a hydrate is formed. The 
oleate pectises, and the colloid oleate, if diluted with vaseline and 
placed under the microscope, is seen in jelly-like masses disseminated 
through the element. It is mixed with some little difficulty. If the 
oleate is gradually heated upon a water-bath to 100° C, the water is 
very slowly given off, and long before the theoretical quantity is lost, 
the oleate begins to decompose. The acid being oxidized and metallic 
mercury deposited, if this reaction be pushed to its ultimate results, a 
dark-colored liquid oil is produced and metallic mercury. The fusing 
point of mercuric oleate is two or three degrees above the boiling point 
of water. 

1 From the " Medical Press," September 24, 1884. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1885. 



} 



Neutral Oleate of Mercury, 



177 



It begins to slowly decompose at this temperature, therefore the 
mercuric oleate should be formed in the cold. No heat should be used^ 
and an excess of oleic acid is not only unnecessary, but detrimental to 
its keeping properties. Free oleic acid has a tendency to change to 
an irritating oxy-oleic acid, which it does at the expense of the mer- 
curic oxide, as evidenced by the production -of the metallic mercury. 
It may be made either from the red or yellow mercuric oxide, and 
although the yellow w specified in the existing formula, finely levigated 
red oxide will be found preferable, using equal proportions, viz., 2f 
parts of mercuric oxide for every 5 parts of the best commercial oleic 
acid. It does take a little trouble to form the mercuric oleate by the 
direct action of the oxide upon the acid, but if we possess machinery 
the process is rendered comparatively easy. It Avould be almost im- 
possible to make this preparation were it not that, as already explained, 
mercuric oxide forms both basic and acid compounds. This fact 
shortens the process, which consists really towards its conclusion in 
getting a semi-solid substance (the acid oleate first formed) to act 
chemically upon the remaining oxide. 

The keeping and non-irritant properties of the resulting neutral 
oleate will repay the trouble spent in the manipulation. — Fharm. Jour, 
and Trans., January 17, 1885, p. 576. 



PiLOCAKPUs. — Dr. Sidney Thompson has for several years been treating 
erysipelas locally with the fluid extract of jaborandi, and usually in the 
following prescription : 

R Jaborandi fluid extract 24 grams 



M. Sig. Paint with a feather every four hours. 

The glycerin is necessary, as the jaborandi has a tendency to produce a 
desquamation if used alone ; the laudanum is added simj^ly to relieve pain. 
Therapeutic Gazette, Nov., 1884, p. 504. 

Dr. W. W. Claybaugh has used a similar mixture, increasing the lauda- 
num and glycerin each to 12 grams, and reports favorable results in erisype- 
las, in inflammation caused by croton oil, and in severe scalding of the 
hand by a boiling liquid ; in the latter case the inflammatory action was 
totally prevented.— J/ecZ. and Surg. Bep., Feb. 7, 1885, p. 188. 



Glycerin..-. 
Laudanum 



4 
4 



12 



178 Color in Liquor Calcis Saccharratus. { ^""'ApririsS*™' 

THE DEVELOPMENT OF COLOE IN LIQUOR CALCIS 
SACCHARATUS.^ 
By John R. Hill. 

The gradual development of a yellowish -brown color in the official 
liquor calcis saccharatus attracted my attention a few years ago. I did 
not at that time attempt to ascertain the cause of the phenomenon, my 
inquiries being rather directed to the point of ascertaining whether or 
not the coloration was accompanied by any deterioration in alkalinity. 
With this view I made estimation of freshly prepared liquor and of 
the same after being allowed to stand until considerably colored. On 
comparing the two results, they were found to indicate only a very 
slight deficiency in the colored liquor. It was, therefore, concluded 
that, practically the coloration was of very little consequence. 

The subject was again brought under my notice recently by a request 
to furnish au answer to the query, What causes the coloration of liquor 
calcis saccharatus, and how may it be prevented? Being at the time 
engaged in the preparation of our usual stock quantity of the liquor, I 
embraced the op})ortuuity of making a few observations. 

The British Pharmacopoeia directs the clear solution to be decanted 
from the sediment ; but it has been my usual practice to filter off after 
allowing to stimd for twelve hours. Following the latter method, the 
clear liquid which passes rapidly through the filter was kept separate. 
The sedimentary portion, of course, filtered more slowl}^, and on com- 
paring the two liquids I was a little surprised to find that the latter 
was considerably deeper in color — a fact which is explained further on. 
Squire states that the fresh liquor is colorless, but gradually acquires a 
brownisii color. Neligan states that it is transparent, but possesses a 
slight yellowish tint. The latter appears to be the more correct state- 
ment, my experience being that froui the first, the liquor is of a very 
pale straw color. 

In attempting to answer the above query, the first thing done was to 
ascertain if there were any published results on the subject ; but a 
rapid glance through all the availing literature goes to show that the 
point has not been previously investigated. A series of experiments 
were then made to determine the respective effects of the three agencies 
— light, heat and exposure to the atmosphere. 

1 Read at a meeting of the North British Branch of the Pharmaceutical 
Society, January 14, 1885. 



Am. Jour Pharm.i Color in Liquov Calois Saccharratus. 179 

April, iboo. ) 2 

1st. Action of Light. — To ascertain the effect of light, a bottle was 
filled quite full, securely corked, and exposed to direct sunlight for 
three weeks. A second bottle similarly filled and corked was kept 
during the same period in total darkness. On comparing the two 
liquids at the end of this time, hardly any development of color had 
taken place, and the difference between the two was barely perceptible, 
the one exposed to sunlight being, if anything the lighter of the two. 
It would, therefore, appear that light does not cause the coloration. 

2d. Action of Heat. — A , portion of the liquor was then gradually 
heated to the boiling point. This causes the separation of a bulky 
precipitate consisting of a compound having the formula (CaO)3C\2H22 
0,j, which immediately re-dissolves on cooling, the resulting solution 
being almost absolutely colorless. This seems to indicate that heat is 
not the cause of the coloration. I am inclined to think that the boiled 
liquor is chemically different from the original, the union between the 
lime and the sugar being probably more intimate. Wood and Bache 
give a formula for syrup of lime prepared by triturating 400 grs. of 
well-burned lime with 3200 grs. of cane sugar, adding to this 8 oz. of 
boiling water, boiling for five minutes and filtering. It is possible 
that such a preparation would be less liable to colorize than the British 
Pharmacopoeia preparation. It may be worth noting here that in old 
highly colored samples of liq. calcis sacch. the precipitate produced on 
boiling was only very slowly and not completely re-dissolved on cool- 
ing, the quantity of insoluble matter being apparently proportionate to 
the depth of color. 

3d. Action of Air. — Exposure of the liquor to the action of the air 
was next investigated. A 1-ounce bottle was half filled with the liquor 
and allowed to stand in direct sunlight for three weeks, being repeatedly 
shaken and uncorked during the interval. Under these circumstances 
coloration gradually took place, and on comparison with a similar 
bottle kept in the same position, but quite full and well corked, the 
latter was found to be practically unchanged, while the former was of 
a decided yellow color, tending to brown, but still quite free from 
deposit. The same experiment was repeated with bottles kept in total 
darkness, and the results were precisely similar. I observed that some 
of the liquor had exuded by the cork from the full bottle kept in the 
dark and formed a solid crust, which was transparent, of a deep brown- 
ish-yellow color, very glutinous, having a strong styptic taste and an 
alkaline reaction. A 6-ounce bottle was filled two-thirds full and 



180 Color in Liquor Calcis Saceharratus. | ^""kpHrisss 

allowed to stand undisturbed for a fortnight. . On examination at the 
end of that period, it was found that on the surface of the liquid, where 
it was subjected to the influence of the air, there was a highly colored 
stratum about 1 inch deep, while the rest of the liquor remained unal- 
tered. 

These experiments appear to prove that the development of color in 
liq. calcis sacch. is due entirely to exposure to atmospheric air, and that 
light and heat are not concerned in the action. This explains the fact, 
already mentioned, that the second portion of the filtrate, which was 
longer exposed to the air, was more highly colored. I have made an 
extensive series of experiments with a view to determine the nature of 
the chemical changes to which the coloration is due, but owing to the 
very limited time at my disposal, these are very incomplete and incon- 
clusive, and would require consi lerable verification. With that proviso 
I give a few results which may be taken for what they are worth. 

It is well known that a solution of cane sugar when allowed to stand 
becomes partially changed into grape sugar and levulose according to 
the following equation — 

^'12^22011 H-HjO^CgHipg-j-CeHiPg. 

By the action of the alkalies, grape sugar is rapidly decomposed with 
production of a deep brown color, and my first idea was that this 
reaction explained the coloration. A portion of the liquor was pre- 
cipitated by passing a stream of carbonic acid gas which, by the way, 
only slowly separates the lime. The whole of the coloring matter was 
thus precipitated, and on testing the clear solution with Fehling's re- 
agent no reduction took place, indicating absence of grape sugar. On 
this point I have more to say presently. My next idea was that pos- 
sibly the coloration might be due to production of amorphous sugar 
which, as is well known, gives the yellowish-brown tint to the mother 
liquor or golden syrup of the sugar refineries. To test this theory, a 
small proportion of golden syrup was added to a portion of the fresh 
liquor, which was allowed to stand for some time and then precipitated 
by a stream of CO2. Under these circumstances the coloring matter 
was not precipitated, and the amorphous sugar theory was therefore 
abandoned. On reconsidering my first theory it occurred to me that 
the reason w^hy I did not discover grape sugar in the liquor, was that 
it had been decomj)osed by the alkaline solution as rapidly as it had been 
formed. Two grains of impure grape sugar were added to 1 ounce of 



'*''"'Apiii'"i885^'"''} ^"^^ Liquor- Calcis Saccharratus. 181 

freshly made liq. calcis sacch., and after standing for twelve hours, the 
solution was found to be more highly colored than a sample of liquor 
which had been made for eighteen months and kej)t under conditions 
favorable to the development of color. In a similar experiment with 
pure grape sugar, the liquor, also acquired in a short time a distinct 
yellow color, but not nearly to the same extent as with impure grape 
sugar. The next point to be determined was an explanation of the 
relationship between exposure to air and the development of color in 
accordance with the grape sugar theory. It was found that after boil- 
ing and filtration the clear liquid from which the lime had been pre- 
cipitated by CO2 still contained some lime in solution which could not 
be precipitated by CO2, and was apparently combined with an organic 
acid. This acid might be readily isolated by acidifying with II2SO4 
and distilling, but time would not allow of this being done, and con- 
sequently my statements in regard to it are mainly speculative and 
suggestive. 

The fact that contact with the air is necessary fo) the development 
of color, in the liquor points to the conclusion that it is due to some 
process of oxidation. It seems probable that grape sugar and an 
organic acid are produced, and I find that one molecule of cane sugar 
and three atoms of oxygen give one molecule of grape sugar and one 
molecule of saccharic acid, according to the following equation — 

C12IT22O11 -f- O3— CgHi206 + CgHjyOg. 

Then grape sugar, in contact with solution of lime, has been found to 
be gradually changed into glucic acid. By absorption of oxygen from 
the atmosphere glucic acid becomes transformed into aploglucic acid, 
which is an amorphous substance having a deep brown color, and this 
may be the cause of the coloration. 

I have observed that the deposit found in liq. calcis sacch. which has 
stood for some time does not effervesce, or only very slightly on the 
addition of hydrochloric acid. This fact may be explained by the 
theory that the cane sugar is tranformed in the usual way into grape 
sugar and levulose. Levulose is known to form an insoluble lime 
compound, which may constitute the deposit in question, the subse- 
quent decomposition of the grape sugar by the lime producing the 
color. Formic acid is known to be produced in solutions of sugar in 
contact with air and the addition of ferric chloride to the clear liquid 
from which the lime had been precipitated certainly gave the red 



182 Color in Liquor Calcis Saccharratiis. {^'^Aw'ii iSr""'' 

coloration characteristic of the salts of formic acid. I am inclined to 
believe that the first step in the development of color is the formation 
of grape sugar, but beyond that point these speculations are, I feel, 
very problematical, but may assist in the further elucidation of 
the subject. It was found that the lime was entirely precipitated 
from freshly made liquor by CO2, with the exception of a small pro- 
portion due to the presence of chloride in the calcic hydrate, thus sup- 
porting the theory that the lime which is not precipitated from old 
samples is held in solution by an acid produced by the oxidation of the 
sugar. A very small proportion of grape sugar is sufficient to produce 
all the color found in samples kept as long as eighteen months, and 
this accounts for the very slight difference found to exist between the 
alkalinity of colorless and colored samples. From a practical point of 
view, therefore, the coloration is not of any great consequence. 

With regard to the latter part of the query, namely. How may the 
development of color be prevented ? 

This may be the most effectually done by storing the liquor in bottles 
quite full and securely corked. This investigation goes to show that 
to prevent coloration the liquor should not be filtered, but decanted or 
sy})honed off, as directed in the British Pharmacopoeia. I observed 
that no less authorities than Roscoe and Schorlemmer erroneously state 
that the solution should be filtered. Tiie liquor can be very readily 
prepared, and coloration will also be prevented by avoiding the error 
of making too large a quantity at a time. So far as I know, liquor 
which has become colored cannot be decolorized. I have tried diges- 
tion with animal charcoal, but without effect. — Pharm. Jour, and 
Trans., January 24, 1885, p. 595. 



EucHLORiNE AS A DISINFECTANT.— T. Hatfield Walker, L. R. C. P., in 
the "Lancet," saj'S : Each molecule of euchlorine sets free four atoms of 
oxygen in the nascent condition, and is probably the most powerful of its 
class. The free chlorine that it contains doubtless, also, contributes to its 
efficacy. Euchlorine is a mixture of free chlorine, or chlorine very loosely 
combined with chlorous oxide, and is prepared by pouring strong hydro- 
chloric acid on potassium chlorate and apiDlying a gentle heat. He placed a 
small basin containing the chlorate in a large one full of boiling water, and 
on pouring in the hydrochloric acid the euchlorine was freely given off. 
The practical experience of several years' use in all cases of fever fully bore 
out the theoretical experiments, that in euchlorine we have a cheap, sim- 
ple and effective (W^iufeat^int.— Quarterly Therap. Review, Jan., 1885. 



Am Jonr. Pharm. ) 
April, 1885. j 



Determination of Ethyl Nitrite. 



183 



THE DETERMINATION OF ETHYL NITRITE IN THE 
SPIRIT OF NITROUS ETHER AND KINDRED 
PREPARATIONS. 
By Alfred H. Allen. 

During many months past I have been engaged at intervals on a 
series of experiments with a view of estimating the proportion of ethyl 
nitrite and other nitrous compounds contained in sweet spirit of nitre. 
In the course of the investigation I have tried nearly all the published 
methods of assay/ and have obtained results of which the following 
description is an epitome : 

The British Pharmacopoeia test for the presence of nitrous com- 
pounds in the spirit of nitrons ether is a satisfactory one from a quali- 
tative point of view, but it can be applied in a more advantageous 
manner than is directed in the British Pharmacopceia by mixing the 
sample with a strong aqueous solution of ferrous sulphate, and then 
pouring concentrated sulphuric acid down the side of the tube in such 
a manner as not to mix with the lighter liquid. A deep brown zone 
will be produced at the junction of the two strata, which, in the case 
of good samples, becomes intensified by cautious agitation. 

Many samples of spirit of nitrous ether give a brown color with 
ferrous solution before the addition of acid, but the coloration is 

^ The literature of spirit of nitrous ether is somewhat extensive. The 
following is a list of references to it in comparatively recent volumes of the 
" Pharmaceutical Journal :" 

T. Redwood [3], viii, 377, 455. 

J. Attfield [3], viii, 454. 

F. W. Rimmington [3], viii, 341, 362, 377; x, 41, 220. 

J. Williams [3], viii, 441, 453. 

W. Smeeton [3], x, 21. 

A. Dupre [3], x, 93. 

J. Muter [3], x, 94. 

W. Pollard [3], x, 100. 

J. F. Eykman [3], xiii, 63. 

W. H. Symons [3], xiv, 2S1. 

U. S. and German Preparations [3], xiv, 101. 

D. J. Leech [3], xiv, 322. 

A. C. Abraham [3], xiv, 390, 876, 915. 

P. MacEwan [3], xiv, 817, 826, 896, 936. 

D. B. Dott [3], xiv, 819, 826, 895 ; xv, 200, 492, 592. 

T. S. Dymond [3], xv, 101. 



184 



Determination of Ethyl Nitrite. 



( Am. Jour, Pharm, 
\ April, 1885. 



always considerably enhanced by the sulphuric acid, and strong acid is 
far preferable to dilute. 

I have tried the experiment of shaking a sample of spirit of 
nitrous ether with neutral sodium carbonate, filtering, and testing 
the filtrate with a solution of ferrous sulphate without adding acid. 
No reaction was at first produced, but the brown color gradually 
developed, and after a few minutes was very intense. 

The iron test has the great advantage of really indicating the pre- 
sence of nitrous compounds instead of leaving their existence to be 
inferred from some such fallacious reaction as the decoloration of per- 
manganate. No doubt the permanganate processes of assaying spirit 
of nitrous ether are capable of giving useful comparative results in 
the case of samples of good quality, but when applied to inferior 
samples, or to specimens containing much aldehyde (such as the Lon- 
don Pharmacopcjeia preparation), the indications are utterly worthless 
and misleading, and the results should on no account be expressed in 
terms of nitrous ether.^ 

The well known process of Prof. J. F. Eykman for assaying spirit 
of nitrous ether is practically a quantitative application of the iron 
reaction, but, instead of relying on the depth of the brown coloration, 
the nitric oxide gas evolved is collected and measured. Eykman's 
process has given excellent results in the hands of Messrs. P. MacEwan 
and F. S. Dymond, and Mr. D. B. Dott has confirmed the general 
accuracy of the process, and has found the results very constant, even 
when the conditions of the experiment are varied. Their reports have 
been confirmed in the main by an extensive experience of its capa- 
bilities in my own laboratory, where the accuracy of the process has 
been fully verified when a known quantity of pure sodium nitrite 
(made from silver nitrite) is employed. With solutions of ethyl nitrite 
several sources of error exist, which tend to cause the method to give 
results somewhat below the truth. The chief cause of error is pro- 
bably incomplete reaction, but the solubility of nitric oxide in aque- 
ous liquids also affects the results. The loss from the latter cause is 
reduced to a minimum if a nitrometer be employed instead of the gas 
being caused to bubble up through a solution of soda. Probably still 

1 A sample of sweet spirit of nitre, which gave only faint indications of 
nitrous compounds when independently examined by the iron test by four 
different chemists, was reported by another chemist to contain 1'3 per cent, 
of nitrous ether, as the result of an anal^'sis by Muter's modification of the 
permanganate process. 



Am.^Jour.^pharm.| Detevmmation of Ethyl Nitrite. 185 

closer results might be obtaiued by saturating the soda solution with 
common salt. 

Although, up to the present time, Eykman's process has been rightly 
regarded as that furnishing the nearest approach to accuracy in the 
assay of spirit of nitrous ether and kindred preparations for ethyl 
nitrite, I believe the following method will practically replace it in the 
future. It suggested itself to me when attempting to estimate ethyl 
nitrite by the process of Mr. D. B. Dott (" Pharmaceutical Journal,'^ 
[3], XV, 200, 492, 592), which consists in treating the sample with an 
acidulated solution of potassium iodide, and estimating the nitrous 
compounds from the amount of iodine liberated, as ascertained by 
titration with decinormal solution of sodium thiosulphate. It is evi- 
dent that the ethyl nitrite may be estimated either from the amount of 
iodine set free or from the volume of nitric oxide evolved in the 
reaction, the former being Dott's method, and the latter the one to 
which I now desire to call attention. 

The assay might no doubt be made in an apparatus similar to that 
employed by Eykman, but I have found the following method of 
manipulation far more simple and satisfactory in every sense. It is 
the outcome of a large number of experiments made to test the con- 
stancy of the results under different conditions of operating. A nitro- 
meter should be filled with strong brine and 5 cc. of the samj^le to be 
tested should then be placed in the cup of the nitrometer, and allowed 
to enter through the tap, taking care that no air gets in at the same 
time. Five cc. of a strong solution of potassium iodide is next 
allowed to enter, and this is followed by about 5 cc. of dilute sulphuric 
acid. Effervescence immediately ensues, and if the tube be vigorously 
agitated at intervals,^ the reaction is complete in .five minutes, when 
the level of the liquid in the two limbs of the nitrometer is adjusted, 
and the volume of nitric oxide gas read off. If the volume of gas 
evolved be small, another 5 cc. of the sample should be let into the 
nitrometer, and the agitation repeated. The calculation is the same as 
in Eykman's process, the reaction being : 

(C2H,)N02 + KI -f- H^SO, = (C2H,)0H -f KHSO, + I + NO. 

Thus, 75 parts by weight of ethyl nitrite evolve 30 of nitric oxide 

^ This should be efltected by holding the tapped tube vertically and 
agitating the contents by a transverse motion. In this way the reaction is 
readily confined to the upper part of the liquid iu the closed side of the 
nitrometer. 



186 



Determination of Ethyl Nitrite. 



Am. Jour. Pliarm. 
April, 1885. 



gas. When strictly accurate results are not required, the volume of 
gas need not be corrected for variations of pressure, temperature, and 
tension of aqueous vapor, and if these considerations be omitted the 
calculation is much simplified. Thus, if 0*030 gram of nitric oxide 
(representing 0'075 gram of C2H5NO2) under the ordinary conditions 
of pressure and temperature be taken to measure 23*55 cc, then 



If the density of the sample be omitted from the equation, the result j 
will be the number of grams of ethyl nitrite per 100 cc. of the sample. 

The nitrometer method has been proved to give very good results with 

pure sodium nitrite (prepared from silver nitrite) employed in known \ 

amount. The results with spirit of nitrous ether are somewhat higher ; 

than those given by Eykman's method, the differeiice being least when : 

sodium chloride is employed in the latter process and time given for ^ 

the ferrous solution to react thoroughly on the solution of ethyl nitrite. 1 

The results by the iodide method are almost certainly more accurate \ 

than those by Eykman's process. With most specimens of sweet { 

spirit of nitre, a considerable amount of nitric oxide is produced (and j 

iodine liberated) before adding the acid, the reaction probably depend- ' 

ing on the presence of free acid in the sample. The results obtained \ 

in the nitrometer are remarkably constant, and the method furnishes a ' 
very easy means of assaying sweet spirit of nitre with considerable 

accuracy, which is further increased if a correction of 1*5 cc. (= 0.0048 ] 

gram of CoH^NOg) be made for solubility of the gas. The process \ 

has the advantage of great ease and rapidity, and actually measures \ 

the nitrous compounds present in the sample, instead of leaving their <, 

proportions,to be iilferred from a more or less complex reaction, such J 

as the reduction of permanganate, etc. The following results were |i 

obtained by me from six typical samples. No correction was made J, 
for pressure or solubility, the figures representing the actual volumes of 
gas measured at about 15° C. 



volume of gas in cc. x 0-3185 



percentage bj- weight of C2H5NO2. 



measure ol sample in cc. X density of sample 



Volume of 
NO from 
5cc. 



Weight of 



C2H5NO2 
per cent. 



NO from 
5 cc. 



1. 25 per cent. sol. in absolute alcohol (two months 



cc. 

(290-0 _ from 



Milligrams. 
923-6 



22-02 



old 

2. Spt. Nitrous Ether B. P. (two tnonths old) 

3. Spt. Nitrous Ether B. P. (age unknown) 

4. Spt. Nitrous Ether B. P. (age unknown).... 

5. "Spt. .Ether. Nit. 8-50" (new) 

6. Sp. .Ether. Nit. Dulc. -900" (new) 





2-98 
2-63 
2-62 



14 -7 
22-0 



^""Atrir'isS^™'} Determination of Ethyl Nitrite. 187 

No. 1 sample was prepared by Mr. J. Williams by dissolving one 
part by weight of carefully purified ethyl nitrite in three parts by 
weight of absolute alcohol. The density was 'SSST. With corrections 
for solubility, pressure and temperature, the ethyl nitrite shown by the 
process in this specimen came to nearly 24 per cent. As the sample at 
the time of examination had a sensibly acid reaction, indicating slight 
decomposition, I believe the corrected result to express with consider- 
able accuracy the actual composition of the sample. Another solution 
of ethyl nitrite in absolute alcohol which I have had for upwards of 
seven years, still contains a notable quantity of nitrous ether. 

No. 2 sample was the ordinary commercial B. P. article, prepared 
by Messrs. Rimmington and Son, of Bradford. It gave 1 per cent, 
of ethereal layer by the chloride of calcium test. 

Nos. 5 and 6 w^ere analyzed immediately on opening the bottles, as 
freshly sent out by the wholesale house, which is one of the first repu- 
tation. I have analyzed them again, after an interval of a month? 
and find that 5cc. yielded respectively 14*4 and 22'3cc. of nitric oxide, 
measured at the ordinary temperature of the laboratory. Hence they 
were practically unchanged, though kept in a warm room. 

I have also employed tlie process for the assay of a considerable 
number of other commercial samples, and it has given me every satis- 
faction.* 

The nitrometers commonly sold are furnished With three-way-taps, 
but for the purpose in question this is unnecessary, an ordinary tap 
being sufficient. A nitrometer- tube, which I have had made for me, 
holds 50 cc. The cup is narrow and cylindrical, and has marks at 
5 and 10 cc. above the tap. This arrangement renders the use of a 
pipette or other separate measuring arrangement* unnecessary, as the 
cup can be filled to the 5 cc. mark wdth the sample, and thus a definite 
amount taken for the analysis.^ 

With the aid of such a nitrometer, the assay of spirit of nitrous 
ether for ethyl nitrite and other nitrous compounds is reduced to an 
operation of the utmost simplicity, and literally does not require more 
than ten minutes for its completion, including the necessary calculation. 
The results are as constant as can be desired, and the process as near 
an approach to accuracy as is required for ordinary purposes. I believe 

^ Messrs. Ciibley and Preston, of High Street, Sheffield, are now prepared 
to supply these nitrometers to those desirous of employing the process men- 
tioned in the text. 



188 



Determination of Ethyl Nitrite. 



f A.m. Jour. Pharni. 
t April, 1885. 



it will afford the pharmacist or medical man a valuable means of 
assaying his sweet spirit of nitre, requiring as it does no out of the way 
reagents, or even a standard solution.^ 

In the course of the experiments made in testing the foregoing pro- 
cess, in many instances I observed the amount of nitric oxide set free 
simply by agitation with iodide of potassium, without any acid being 
added. It might be supposed that the gas given off at this stage of 
the process was that derived from the free nitrous acid of the sample ; 
but I do not think this is strictly the case, as in experiments in which 
acetic acid was substituted for dilute sulphuric acid, nearly, if not 
quite, the whole procurable gas was evolved. Hence a sample which 
by decomposition contained free acetic acid would evolve nitric oxide, 
though no nitrous compound other than ethyl nitrite were present. 

With regard to Dott's titration process, if the treatment with potas- 
sium iodide be effected in an open basin in presence of air, the amount 
ot nitrite found is liable to be seriously in error; but if air be 
excluded Dott's method gives fair approximate results, somewhat in 
excess of the truth. The process can be advantageously employed on 
the solution wliich has already been decomposed with potassium iodide 
in the nitrometer. The nitric oxide is allowed to escape into the air, 
and the brown liquid is washed into a basin, and at once titrated with 
decinormal thiosulphate. 1 cc. of this solution (containing 24'S grams 
of crystallized Na2S203 per litre) will react with the iodine liberated 
by '0075 gram of ethyl nitrite. 

The results obtained in this manner show a constant difference of 
about O'OOo gram of nitric oxide above that corresponding to the 
volume of gas liberated in the nitrometer, the true amount doubtless 
lying between the two. The difference is most probably due to a 
small amount of nitric oxide remaining dissolved in the aqueous 
liquid, which causes the volume of gas to be slightly low, and becoming 
oxydized to nitrous acid during the subsequent titration liberates a 
small additional amount of iodine. This source of error becomes very 

1 The use of brine, in the nitrometer, instead of mercury, renders tlie 
manipulation more simple, witliout appreciably affecting the accuracy of 
the results. The nitrometer itself may be extemporized from an inverted 
Mohr's burette, to the nose of which a short, wide, glass tube has been 
fitted by means of a perforated cork. The open end of the burette is also 
fitted with a cork, through wliich passes a short length of glass tubing 
which is connected by narrow India rubber tubing with a wide glass tube 
or funnel to serve as a reservoir. 



^""ApdriSr""' } Specimens of Spirit of Nitre. 189 

serious if the bulk of the nitric oxide be not previously removed, as is 
done in the nitrometer. Thus, if an attempt be made to determine 
ethyl nitrite by adding the sample of spirit to an acidulated solution 
ot potassium iodide contained in an open basin, and immediately 
titrating with standard thiosulphate, the first result is too low, owdng 
to the nitrous ether requiring a sensible time for its decomposition. In 
a few minutes this error is more than compensated by the additional 
amount of iodine set free by the nitrous acid produced by the action 
of the air on the nitric oxide formed in the primary reaction, and this 
liberation of iodine goes on so rapidly that the stirring necessary to 
mix the standard solution with the liquid in the basin causes the solu- 
tion again to acquire a yellow tinge, which rapidly deepens. If the 
liquid in the basin be allowed to stand for some time exposed to the 
air before titrating, as is recommended by Dott, the iodine set free 
often amounts to fully twice the quantity primarily liberated by 
reaction with the ethyl nitrite present. 

I have to thank Messrs. Dott, Dymond, Leech, MacEwan, Rim- 
mington, Williams and others for information and samples connected 
with my experiments, and Mr. J. H. Worrall for assistance in the 
manipulations. — Phar. Jour, and Trans., Feb. 21, 1885, p. 673. 



EXAMINATION OF SOME OLD SPECIMENS OF SWEET 
SPIRIT OF NITRE.i 
By Peter MacEwan. 
At an Evening Meeting of the North British Branch of the Phar- 
maceutical Society, held January 14, 1858, Mr. Jacob Bell, then 
President of the Society, in the chair, a paper on '^Methylated Spirit" 
was communicated by Mr. J. F. MacFarlan.^ This paper embodied 
'^a report on the manufacture of sweet spirit of nitre from methylated 
spirit by Mr. Phillips.'' Mr. Phillips was instructed by the Govern- 
ment to draw up this report, because a paper which Mr. MacFarlan 
had communicated to the Pharmaceutical Society seemed to indicate 
that if methylated spirit were converted into sweet spirit of nitre, me- 
thyl alcohol was got rid of. Mr. MacFarlan did not really mean this, 
but such was the construction placed upon what he said. 

^ Read at a meeting of the Edinburgh Chemists' Assistants and Appren- 
tices' Association, January 25. 
" Pharm. Journ.," xvii, 412. 



190 Old Specimens of Spirit of Nitre. {^'"Atrii''i885*'""' 

When Mr. Phillips reported, Mr. MacFarlan heard of the report 
and wrote for a copy of it, which was granted. But he found that he 
would better understand the report if he had the specimens which Mr. 
Phillips had submitted; he ventured to ask them on loan and a muni- 
ficent Government made him a present of them. Mr. MacFarlan 
submitted the specimens to the meeting and now, after the lapse of 
twenty-seven years, I have the good fortune to reproduce them. You 
will agree with me that this case^ of specimens is of peculiar interest, 
for it forms a link with the past of the North British Branch and 
recalls Jacob Bell's memorable visits to Scotland. 

Some time ago I ventured to examine a few of the specimens in 
order to ascertain the changes which had occurred since they were 
made, and I now give the results obtained. I may first, however, give 
you Mr. Piiillips' account of the specimens. 

Sample B. — Sweet spirit of nitre prepared by the direct action of 
hyponitrous acid upon pure spirit of wine" [and distilled]. "Sp. gr. 
879-05." 

Sample C. — Sweet spirit of nitre made from pure spirit of wine by 
the process of the London Pharmacopoeia. Sp. gr. 858*35." (This is 
the portion of the distillate collected after the nitric acid began to act. 
So that it originally was much stronger than spiritiis cetheris nitrici, 
P.L.) 

Sample D. — Obtained by passing hyponitrous acid through wood 
spirit [and distilling]. Sp. gr. 872-10." 

"Sample H. — Sweet spirit of nitre prepared from methylated spirit 
by the process of the London Pharmacopoeia. Sp. gr. 852*49." 

"Sample L. — The same, but consists of the portion of the distillate 
collected after nitric acid began to act. Sj). gr. 874*85." 

"Sample N. — The distillate obtained previous to sample L was mixed 
with its bulk of water and distilled. This is the second portion of 
distillate and is little else than a weak spirit. Sp. gr. 867*75." 

^ The case is made of solid mahogany, is 15 inches long, 8 inches high 
and 7 inches broad, and is divided diagonally from the top to the bottom, 
the upper portion forming a lid, and when secured by the hook catches, 
the whole case is easily portable. The lower portion is divided into twenty- 
one compartments for the two-ounce stoppered squats which contain the 
specimens. The case is not unlike a portable test reagent case. 



Am. Jour. Pharni. ) 
April, 1885. j 



Old Specimems of Spirit of Nitre. 



191 



I first determined the specific gravities at 60°F. 

Sample B 0-8956 Increase 01 655 

Sample C 0-8684 Increase 0-01005 

Sample D 0-8828 Increase 0-01070 

Sample H 0*8616 Increase 0-00911 

Sample L 0*8844 Increase 0-06955 

Sample N 8700 Increase..... 0-00225 

These results are corroborative of a previous statement that increase 
in specific gravity is one of the results of deterioration. 

The next point of interest is the odor and color of the samples. B 
and C are free from color and their odor is similar to that of sweet 
spirit of nitre. D is of a yellow color and strong amylic odor. H is 
slightly straw-colored and has a faint acetic ether odor. L is free from 
color, the odor is that of aldehyde. N is free from color and has a 
faint naphtha odor. The whole of these specimens failed to re ict with 
ferrous sulphate and sulphuric acid, potassium iodide and acetic acid, 
and did not affect the color of a weak solution of rosaniline hydrochlo- 
rate. The nitrous radicle was, therefore, entirely absent. 

On the other hand, the samples B to L reacted, more or less strongly 
with the usual aldehyde reagents. They gave the phenol-sulphonic 
acid reaction, the aldehyde resin coloration with potash and reduced 
ammonio-silver nitrate. Unfortunately, the limited quantity of the 
samples, and their value as a curiosity, precluded accurate quantitative 
estimation; but I give a fair comparison judged from the degree of 
color produced in 15 minutes of each, by 2 drachms of potash solution. 
L contained twice as much as B and C, which were nearly similar, B 
giving greater reduction of silver. D and H gave very little color, 
but reduced the silver salt more than B and C, while L gave very 
intense reduction ; this greater reduction of silver by D, H, L is due 
to the presence of formic acid derived from methyl nitrite thus: 

CH3NO2 -rO, = CHA + HNO2 

It is interesting to know that after the lapse of twenty-seven years 
the specimens still contain aldehyde, and the fact is corroborative of my 
statement that the aldehyde of sw^eet spirit of nitre does not disappear 
as organic acid is produced, and a determination of the acidity of B, 
C and L brings out clearly the fact that a large aldehyde content may 
exist along with a large acid content. 



192 Characters of Extract of Calabar Bean. 

Standardized soda solution (1 cc. = 0*0133 NaHO) used. 

L. 5 cc. required 4-3 cc. for neutralization. 

B. 5 cc. required 1*8 cc. for neutralization. 

C. 5 cc. required 0*8 cc. for neutralization. 

We thus see, in addition to facts already recorded, that in the course 
of time the nitrous constituent of sweet spirit of nitre entirely disap- 
pears; that aldehyde, one of the most readily oxidizable bodies remains ; 
and that in sweet spirit of nitre made from methylated spirit, formic 
acid is one of the products of decomposition. — Phar. Jour, and Trans. ^ 
Feb. 21, 1885, p. 675. 



THE PREPARATION AND CHARACTERS OF EXTRACT 
OF CALABAR BEAN.^ 
By Adam Gibson. 

It having come under my notice that the physical characters of ex- 
tract of Calabar bean varied considerably, I have been lead to under- 
take the preparation of the extract by the official process and several 
modifications thereof, and now liave the pleasure of communicating my 
results. 

The extract is one of the four pharmacopoeial extracts which are 
prepared with rectified spirit. These extracts are of a resinous nature 
and are either partially or wholly insoluble in water. Upon this 
point, so far as the extract under notice is concerned, there seemed to 
be some dubiety ; thus, in Squire's " Companion '' we have the state- 
ment that half a grain of extract in ten nn'nims of water is used for 
subcutaneous injection, thus inferring that the extract is soluble in 
water, while Mr. Marti ndale^ states that if carefully prepared it is not 
miscible with water. This question of solubility was the one which 
really underlay the work upon Avhich I now report, and although 
there seemed to be no doubt Avhatever that from its nature the extract 
should not be soluble in water, still the fact remained that some com- 
mercial samples are soluble, and it is my endeavor now to show why 
they are so. 

For the preparation of the extract the British Pharmacopoeia directs a 

1 Read at a Meeting of the North British Branch of the Pharmaceutical 
Society, January 14, 1885. 
^ "Extra Pharmacopoeia," 2d edition, p. 209. 



^""ASi^'isi^'""'} Characters of Extract of Calabar Bean. 193 

pound of the beans in coarse powder to be macerated for forty-eight 
hours with a pint of rectified spirit, then percolated, four pints of spirit 
on the whole being used in the process ; the percolate is evaporated in 
the usual manner to a soft extract. The yield of extract is exceedingly 
small, consequently the price is high, and possibly unremunerative. 
In the French Pharmacopoeia (the only official statement on this point) 
it is stated that 1,000 grams of the beans yield 25 to 30 grams of ex- 
tract of a pilular consistence ; it must be borne in mind, however, that 
in this case the spirit used is 80 per cent., while that of the British 
Pharmacopoeia is 84 per cent. 

Having found in some preliminary experiments that the yield of 
extract increased as the alcoholic menstruum was diluted, I prepared 
several extracts with alcohol of four strengths, and obtained the follow- 
ing results : 

Menstruum, Rectified Spirit. 

Extract A. — Four ounces of the bean in coarse powder were mace- 
rated and percolated according to the official directions ; the percolate 
measured 21 ounces. 

Half an ounce of the percolate evaporated on the Avater-bath yielded 
0*55 grain of extract, equivalent to 23*1 grains from the four ounces, 
or 1'32 per cent. 

Menstruim, Alcohol, 66 per cent. 

Extract B. — Four ounces of bean treated with this menstruum ; the 
percolate measured 19 ounces. 

Half an ounce of the percolate yielded 2*1 grains of extract, showing 
a total of 79*8 grains, or 4*56 per cent. 

Ilenstruum, Alcohol, 58 per cent. 

Extract C. — Four ounces of bean treated with this menstruum ; the 
])ercolate measured 19 ounces. 

Half an ounce of the percolate yielded 3*05 grains of extract ; total 
yield 115*9 grains, or 6*62 per cent. 

Menstruum, Proof Spirit, 

Extract D. — Four ounces of bean treated with this menstruum ; the 
percolate measured 19 ounces. 

Half an ounce of the percolate yielded 4*35 grains of extract ; total 
yield 165-3 grains, or 9*44 per cent. 

13 



] 94 Characters of Extract of Calabar Bean. { ^^^Atriussr'"' 

We thus see that as the menstruum becomes more aqueous the 
greater is the yield of extract, and this is just what we would expect 
when we consider that water is the best solvent for the extractive 
matter. It would naturally be expected that the extracts so obtained, 
being widely different as to quantity, would present a corresponding 
difference of appearance. This is the case to some extent, but there is 
little distinction between extract A and extract jB, I give, however, a 
short description of each. 

Extract A. — A pale brown, homogeneous and viscid extract, with a 
somewhat fatty feeling when rubbed between the linger and thumb. 

Extract B. — Similar, but when rubbed, a slight stickiness is felt. 

Extract C. — A brown, Iiomogeneous and stringy extract. 

Extract D. — A dark brown extract, with black patches of resinous 
matfer intermixed. The stringiness is more marked than in extract C. 

It is scarcely possible to distinguish between A and B, but these 
are distinguished from Cand D by the total absence of any stringy 
character. This characteristic may be useful as a rough indication of 
quality. 

In their behavior towards water the extracts showed marked differ- 
ences, and as the results make clear why some commercial samples are 
soluble, they are given here. 

I. Extract ^.—0*26 gram taken and triturated with cold distilled 
water (25 ec. used). The extract disintegrated in the mortar with 
difficulty ; but after diligent use of the pestle it was thoroughly 
•divided, forming a milky emulsion, which was then thrown on a wet 
filter. The solution filtered very slowly and was colorless. On 
evaporation the filtrate yielded 0*08 gram of extractive, equivalent to 
30*76 per cent. 

II. Extract B. — 0*21 gram similarly treated, disintegrated more 
readily and gave a straw colored emulsion, which filtered a colored 
solution, and on evaporation yielded 0'J2 gram, or 57-14 per cent, of 
extractive. 

III. Extract C. — 0*26 gram taken. This extract was readily misci- 
ble with the water and gave a colored and somewhat opaque solution. 
The extractive obtained was 0*21 gram, or 80*76 per cent. 

IV. Extract i).— 0*372 gram taken. This extract was also readily 
miscible with the water, and gave a pale brown but clear solution. 
The yield of extractive was 0*33 gram, or 88*7 per cent. 



Am Jour Pharm. ) C liavacters of Extvact of Calabar Bean. 195 

April, 1885. j J 

It is evident, tlierefore, that if we have an extract which is niiscible 
with water, that extract has been improperly prepared. 

Recognizing that the alkaloidal content of the extracts afforded the 
best indication of their value, I have determined the percentage of 
alkaloid in each case. For this purpose a weighed quantity of extract 
was treated with water acidulated with acetic acid and lead acetate 
added in excess to precipitate coloring and resinous matter. After 
filtration, the excess of lead was precipitated with sulphuretted hydro- 
gen, and the liquid boiled and filtered, then evaporated to dryness and 
weighed — (call this Extractive"). The residue was again dissolved 
in distilled water and rendered alkaline with ammonium carbonate. 
This was shaken with chloroform, the latter separated, filtered, and 
evaporated to dryness. The weight being that of alkaloid present, 0*5 
gram of extract was used in each case, and the fi)l lowing results were 
obtained : 



Extract 


A. Extractive 


0-21 


gram 42 per cent. 




Alkaloid 


025 


" - b " 


Extract 


B. Extractive 


0-365 


" ^73 " 




Alkaloid 


0-013 


" = 2-6 


Extract 


C. Extractive 


0-40 


" =80 




Alkaloid 


0-009 


" = 1-8 


Extract 


D. Extractive 


0-432 


" = 86-4 




Alkaloid 


0-006 


= 1-2 



In alkaloidal value the official extract is therefore the highest ; but 
when it comes to the question which is the best menstruum, it will be 
seen that rectified si)irit is not the best. In fact, the official extract 
contains the most alkaloid, because it contains less extractive than the 
others. The following comparison shows the relative power of each 
menstruum : 

Exty^act obtained from 4 ounces of the drug. 

Rectified spirit 23*1 grains showing 5 per cent, alkaloid, content 
1'15'5 grains. 

Alcohol, 66 per cent., 79*8 grains showing 2*6 per cent, alkaloid, 
content 2*074 grains. 

Alcohol, 58 per cent., 115*9 grains showing 1*8 percent, alkaloid, 
content 2*086 grains. 

Proof spirit 165*3 grains showing 1*2 per cent, alkaloid, content 
1*983 grains. 



196 Commercial Extract of Calabar Bean. { ^'^Apri^'iSs*'''"' 

If it were found that extract B, contained sufficient alkaloid for 
therapeutical purposes, the compilers of our Pharmacopceia might con- 
sider whether they should not allow it to take the place of the present 
€!Xtract ; but apart from this, it is worthy of note that 66 per cent* 
alcohol is of all alcoholic menstrua the best suited for the full extrac- 
tion of the alkaloid, while those of a lower percentage appear to be in- 
admissible on account of the large quantity of extractive matter dis- 
solved by them. — Pharm. Jour, and Trans., January 24, 1885, p. 593. 



NOTE OX COMMERCIAL EXTRACT OF CALABAR BEAN.^ 
By Peter Mac Ewen. 
Secretary in Scotland to the Pharmaceutical Society. 

It is evident from Mr. Gibson's communication that a slight varia- 
tion in the alcoholic strength of the menstruum used in the preparation 
of this extract may cause considerable ditference in its character and 
alkaloidal strength, and some diiference may also arise from variation 
in the quality of the drug. Indeed, we may surmise indefinitely 
regarding variation in the strength of this and other purely galenical 
preparations. We do not expect, under our present system, to find 
them uniform, but rather live in the hope of the replacement of them 
by standard '' preparations or by proximate principles when these 
answer therapeutical requirements and can be economically obtained. 

Fortunately, in the case of Calabar bean, the antagonism between its 
two alkaloids, physostigmine (or eserine) and calabarine, has lead to an 
extensive use of the former alkaloid in preference to the alcoholic 
extract, which has repeatedly proved to be untrustworthy, owdng to 
the conflicting action and sometimes preponderance of calabarine, and 
also owing to variations in alkaloidal content. But the extract has 
not fallen into disuse, and although the pharmacist is seldom called 
upon to dispense it, the cases in which it is used are of so serious a 
nature that it is most important that it should be of good quality 
and that diflerent samples should at least approach to uniformity. In 
order to ascertain how far this is the case with the extracts at present 
supplied to the pharmacist, I have obtained eight samples from well- 
known wholesale houses and dispensing establishments, and have sub- 

1 Read at a Meeting of the North British Branch of the Pharmaceutical 
Society, January 14, 1885. 



^°'Aprn'''i885''"'" } Commercial Extract of Calabar Bean. Idt 

jected them to the method of examination adopted by Mr. Gibson, to 
whom I beg to express my obb'gations for a perusal of tlie paper which 
has just been read. 

The extracts differed considerably in consistence, but their color was 
the same, a brown-black and not the pale brown noted by Mr. Gibson. 
I presume that the darker color is an unavoidable consequence of manu- 
facture on the large scale. Extract No. 1 was quite granular, minute 
black granules being imbedded in a brown fatty extract. This extract 
was further peculiar in the naphtha odor which it possessed, the 
residuum evidently of methylated spirit used in its manufacture. 
From Nos. 2, 3 and 5, a film of oil exuded on standing. This separa- 
tion of oil is not inconsistent with careful manufacture, because the 
bean contains oil, which is extracted by the proper menstruum. No. 5 
was semi-liquid when received. Nos. 6, 7 and 8 were easily miscible 
with water ; the others were not. On subjecting the samples to Mr 
Gibson's method, I obtained the following results : 

Extract No. 1. Taken 0-525 gram, which yielded 

Extractive 0*27 " = 51-42 per cent. 

Alkaloid 0-055 " = 10-47 

No. 2. Taken 0-53 " which yielded 

Extractive..... 0-195 " = 36-79 per cent. 

Alkaloid 0-03 " 5-66 

No. 3. Taken 0-55 " which yielded 

Extractive 0*3 " = 54-54 per cent. 

Alkaloid 0*03 " = 5*45 

No. 4. Taken 0-38 " which yielded 

Extractive 0-135 " = 35-52 per cent. 

Alkaloid 0-015 " = 3-94 

*' No. 5. Taken 0-155 " which yielded 

Extractive 0-07 " = 45-15 per cent. 

Alkaloid 0-006 " 3-87 

No. 6. Taken 0-45 " which yielded 

Extractive 0-315 " = 70 per cent. 

Alkaloid 0-08 =- 6*6 " 

" No. 7. Taken 5 " which yielded 

Extractive 0*255 " = 52 per cent. 

Alkaloid 0-008 " = 1-6 " 

" No. 8. Taken 0-54 " which yielded 

Extractive 0-42 " = 77-7 percent. 

Alkaloid 0-006 " = 1-1 

The most noteworthy feature about these figures is the indication 
which they afford of the extensive variety at the disposal of the 
pharmacist. 



198 



Commercial Extract of Calabar Bean. 



J Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I April, 1885. 



When we approach the explanation of the differences we experience 
some difficulty, because we have no authorized statement of what 
extract of Calabar bean should and and should not be. In the present 
case we may drop Nos. 7 and 8 out of the count as being hopelessly 
bad, because they do not nearly approach in alkaloidal content the 
average of the others. But by what standard are we to judge those 
which remain? Dr. Hager, who of all authorities consulted, gives 
most attention to the pharmacy of the bean, states [Pharmaceutische 
Praxis, Suppl., p. 948) that a dry extract generally contains from 9 to 
11 per cent, of physostigmine, and that 2,750 grams of bean contain 
about 11 grams of the same alkaloid. But he previously states (Praxis 
vol. ii, p. 678) that the bean affords about 14 per cent of extract. 
Now a simple calculation will show that these figures are quite conflict- 
ing, and we are justified in setting them aside as valueless for our pur- 
pose. In the circumstances we may take Mr. Gibson's extract A, as 
our standard of comparison ; so doing, and with his communication 
before us, further comment on the want of uniformity is unnecessary 
but I may be allowed a few comments on some special features of three 
of the extracts. 

The alkaloid obtained from No. 2 was contaminated with rubeserin 
the oxidation product of physostigmine. Probably this may have 
arisen from slight overheating of the extract during manufacture. 

The high alkaloidal content of Nos. 1 and 6 gives these extracts 
peculiar prominence, and points either to great difference in the strength 
of the bean or the use of another variety of greater strength. It is 
most unlikely that an occasional extract of true Calabar bean should 
show double the alkaloid that it usually does, but from a remark by 
Mr. Holmes on the seed of Physostigma cyllndrospermum, it is more 
likely that extracts prepared from the cylindrical bean would show 
such a quantity. Mr. Holmes states {Pharm. Journ., [3], ix, 913) 
that " on touching the cotyledons with liquor potassse I was surprised 
to find that while the true beans gave a permanent pale yellow tint, 
the cylindrical ones gave a deep almost orange color ultimately turning 
to a greenish hue with the same reagent." Though not an absolute 
proof, this is undoutedly a strong indication of greater alkaloidal 
strength possessed by the cylindrical beans, a strength which must 
necessarily be conveyed to the extract prepared from them. Now,, 
although extract No. 1 has been prepared with methylated spirit, that 
as a menstruum possesses no greater solvent powers than rectified 



^'"Apri^'isss'^™ } Alkaloids from Remijia PurcUeana. 199 

spirit, so that the higher percentage of alkaloid cannot be due to this 
unwarranted and illegal modification of the official formula. You will 
observe in the case of No. 6 that the percentage of extractive is high, 
and if you compare this with Mr. Gibson's results you will find that 
high extractive indicates lov) alkaloid, but here Ave have both extractive 
and alkaloid high, and the natural inference is that the extract has 
been prepared from the cylindrical bean. If my surmise be correct, 
the use of this bean cannot be too strongly deprecated, because it is as 
dangerous to have preparations of too great potency as it is to have 
them worthless. 

As the introduction of physostigmine and its salts into the new (British) 
Pharmacopoeia has been proposed by its editors, I have no doubt that 
its official recognition will still further extend its use in preference to 
the alcoholic extract. But what shall be said of the latter, which is to 
remain ? Should it be " standardized,'' or in what manner may we 
ensure uniformity ? Granting that a certain percentage of physostig- 
mine were fixed, that does not ensure the absence of an undue amount 
of calabarine, which has quite the opposite action of the other alkaloid. 

There seems to be scope for further work in the direction of ascer- 
taining whether calabarine and physostigmine are present in constant 
relative proportions or otherwise, and until knowledge on this point is 
gained, the extract cannot be said to be one which lends itself to 
standardizing. — Pharm. Jour, and Trans., January 24, 1885, p. 594. 



ALKALOIDS FROM THE BARK OF REMIJIA 
PURDIEANA. 
By O. Hesse. 

A preliminary notice of some of the results contained in this paper 
has already appeared. A description is given of the structure and 
properties of the bark. The alkaloids of this bark have been previ- 
ously examined by Arnaud, who found about 0*2 per cent, of cincho- 
namine, and 0*8 to I'O per cent, of cinchonine. The author confirms 
the presence of these bases, but finds that several other alkaloids are 
present, and that the amount of cinchonine is only O'l to 0'2 per cent. 
The separation of the alkaloids is eifected as follows : the finely 
divided bark is extracted with liot alcohol, the solution evaporated, 
and the residue, after treatment with excess of caustic soda, extracted 
with ether. The etherial solution is treated with excess of dilute 



200 Alkaloids from Remijia Purdieana. {'^"Apriil'iSr'''' 

sulphuric acid, and shaken, when the sulphates of concusconine, chai- 
ramine, conchairamine, chairamidine and conchairamidine are precipi- 
tated, (A) whilst the sulphates of ciuchonine and cinchonamine, with 
small quantities of the other bases, remain in solution (B). By addi- 
tion of very dilute nitric acid to the solution (B) cinchonamine is 
precipitated as nitrate and ciuchonine is left in solution. The preci- 
pitate A is diojested with dilute soda, and the separated alkaloids, after 
washing, are dried in the air, dissolved in hot alcohol, and sulphu- 
ric acid diluted with alcohol, added in the proportion of 1 part H2SO4 
to 8 parts of the alkaloids. Nearly the whole of the concuseonine 
separates as sulphate, a further very small quantity separating on cool- 
ing. On adding concentrated hydrochloric acid to the cold alcoholic 
filtrate, chairamine separates as hydrochloride. The mother-liquor 
from this is heated, and small quantities of ammonium thiocyanate 
added as long as a crystalline precipitate is formed of conchair amine 
thiocyanate. After cooling and filtering, the liquid is again treated 
with ammonium thiocyanate, when a dark-colored pitch-like mass 
separates ; the filtrate from this is treated with ammonia, and the 
resulting precipitate shaken up with benzene. The benzene solution 
is shaken with dilute acetic acid, and the solution of the acetates so 
obtained mixed with a saturated aqueous solution of ammonium sul- 
phate, when a precipitate of chairamidine and conchairamidine sul- 
phates is obtained. These are separated by dissolving them in boiling 
water and cooling, when the whole gelatinizes ; on standing,\crystals 
appear, the crystallization being complete after some days ; on now 
heating to 40°, the chairamidine sulphate dissolves, whilst conchair- 
amidine sulphate is left. The process must be repeated several times 
on the solution to obtain a pure product. 

Cinchonamine and its salts have been to some extent described by 
Arnaud ("Am. Jour. Phar.," 1884, 156), Avhose results the author in 
general confirms, although differing in some details. Cinchonamine, 
Ci9H2^N20, crystallizes in brilliant colorless needles, melts when anhy- 
drous at 184 to 185° (194° Arnaud), is readily soluble in hot alcohol, 
ether, chloroform, carbon bisulphide, and benzene, sparingly soluble in 
light petroleum and water. Its alcoholic solution has a strong bitter taste, 
and an alkaline reaction, and is dextrorotary : [«]d = + ]21*1° at p. 
= 2 and t. = 16°. It dissolves in concentrated sulphuric acid with 
reddish yellow color, which slowly darkens ; in nitric acid with an 
intense yellow. It is soluble in concentrated hydrochloric acid, but it 



^'"Ap?n'i885™"} Alkaloids from Eemijia Purdieana. 201 

is decomposed when heated with it in sealed tubes at 150°. It yields 
two series of salts, normal and monacid. The hydrochhride, 
Q^^2i^fi,liQ\, crystallizes in anhydrous colorless plates, readily sol- 
uble in alcohol, very sparingly soluble in water (according to Arnaud 
it contains 1 mol. H2O). The platinochloiide, (Ci9H24lN20)2,H2PtClg, 
is obtained as a yellow flocculent precipitate, apparently becoming 
crystalline after a time. The hydrohromide, Ci9H24N20,HBr, crystal- 
lizes in long flat needles, sparingly soluble in cold water. The hydri- 
odide, Ci9H24N20,HI, forms long colorless flat needles. The thiocya- 
nate, Cjg H24^2C^?C'NSH, forms colorless plates or short prisms, and is 
very sparingly soluble in cold water. The nitrate, Ci9H24N20,HN03, 
forms short colorless prisms, melts at about 195°, is sparingly soluble 
in cold water, readily in boiling water and hot alcohol. The normal 
sulphate, (C,9H24N20)2H2S04, crystallizes in colorless prisms, is readily 
soluble in hot or cold water, very sparingly soluble in cold alcohol. 
Its aqueous solution is dextrorotary : = + 36*7° at p. = 2 and 

t. =3 15 ; [«]^ = + 39-8° at p. = 6 ; and = + 39*6° at p. == 2 
and 2 mol. H2SO4. The add sulphate, Ci9El24N20,H2S04, crystallizes 
in anhydrous prisms and shows the rotary power = + 34*9° at 
p. = 2-4 and t. = 15° and = + 37-4° at p. = 6. Th^thio- 
sulphate, Ci9H24N20,S203H2, forms anhydrous prisms sparingly soluble 
in water. Acetylcinchonamine, C19II23ACN2O, prepared by heating cin- 
chonamine with acetic anhydride for some hours at 85°, is amorphous, 
sinters together at 65°, and melts at 80 to 90°, is readily soluble in 
ether, alcohol, chloroform and acetic acid. Dinitrocinchonamine, 
€191122(^02)2^20, is best prepared by dissolving cinchonamine in nitric 
acid of sp. gr. 1*06, and pouring the intensely yellow solution into an 
excess of very dilute ammonia. It forms yellow flocks, melts at 118°, 
is readily soluble in ether, chloroform, alcohol and acetic acid. A 
solution in hydrochloric acid gives with platinic chloride a yellow floc- 
culent precipitate of the platinoGhloride, [C\9H22(N02)2N20]2,H2PtCl6 
+ 3H2O. 

Cinchonamine methiodide, Ci9H24N20,MeI -|- H2O, prepared by add- 
ing methyl iodide to a solution of cinchonamine in methyl alcohol, 
crystallizes in hard colorless prisms, readily soluble in alcohol, spar- 
ingly soluble in water. The chloride, Ci9H24N20,MeCl, is amorphous. 
The platinochloride, (Oi9H24N20MeCl)2PtCl4, is obtained as a yellow 
crystalline precipitate. The hydroxide, obtained by the action of silver 
oxide on an aqueous solution of the chloride, forms an amorphous 



202 



Alkaloids from Remijia Piirdieana. 



{ Am. Jour. Pharm. 
( April, 1885. 



mass, readily soluble in water and alcohol, sparingly soluble in chlo- 
roform and ether. It has an intensely bitter taste, and is a powerful 
base, eagerly absorbing carbonic anhydride from the air. 

Methylcinchonamine, Ci9H23MeN20, is prepared by boiling cincho- 
namine methiodide, chloride or hydroxide with caustic soda. It forms 
an amorphous white powder, melts at 139°, is readily soluble in alco- 
hol, ether and chloroform, insoluble in water. The chloride is amor- 
phous, the platinochloride, (Ci9H23MeN20)2,H2PtClg + 4II2O, is 
obtained as a reddish yellow flocculent precipitate. 

Cinchonamine ethiodide, Ci9H24N20,EtI, forms a colorless varnish, 
readily soluble in alcohol, nearly insoluble in water. The chloride 
forms colorless prisms, readily soluble in alcohol and hot water. The 
platinochloride, (C,9H24N.p,EtCl)o,PtCl4 -f 2II2O, forms orange-col- 
ored crystals. The sulphate, (Cj9H24N20Et)2S04, is colorless and amor- 
phous. The hydroxide resembles the corresponding methyl compound. 

Ethylcinchonamine, (C,,,H23EtN20)3 + H2O, forms a white powder^ 
melts at 75 to 78°, or when anhydrous at 140°, and is readily soluble 
in ether and alcohol. The platinochloride, (Cj9H23EtN20)2,Il2PtClg + 
3H2O, forms a reddish yellow flocculent precipitate. 

Concusconine, C23H2gN204 + H2O. — This alkaloid is obtained as the 
normal sulphate as already described, and is obtained in the free state 
by decomposition of the sulphate with dilute soda, and recrystalliza- 
tion from alcohol to which a little ammonia has been added. It forms 
colorless or pale yellow compact prisms. It is readily soluble in ether, 
chloroform, and benzene, sparingly soluble in boiling alcohol, insoluble 
in water. It is optically dextrorotary, giving for C23H26N2O4 -f HgO, 
p. = 2, t. = 15° ; in 97 vol per. cent, alcohol = 40-8°. The 
hydrate melts at 144°, becomes anhydrous, and then melts again at 
206 to 208° ; at 140 to 150° it becomes dark brown colored, being in 
small part converted into amorphous concusconine. (This amorphous 
concusconine is readily separated by conversion of the fused mass into 
the normal sulphates, treatment with alcohol in which the sulphate of 
the amorphous base is readily soluble, and precipitation with ammonia, 
when it separates in dark brown, amorphous, readily fusible flocks.) 
Concusconine dissolves readily in acetic anhydride apparently without 
formation of an acetyl-derivative ; from this it seems that no hydroxyl- 
groups are present. Nitric acid converts it into a dark green mass ; 
•iddition of nitric acid to its solution in acetic or hydrochloric acids 
gives the dark green coloration characteristic of this group of alkaloids. 



^"April'iSr"''} Alkaloids from Remijia Purdieana. 

Concentrated sulphuric acid dissolves concusconine with bluish green 
color, becoming olive-green on heating. With chromic acid and sul- 
phuric acid, it gives a coloration at first dark reddish brown, then intensely 
dark green. Although concusconine is tasteless, its solutions in acids 
have a bitter taste. The salts are as a rule gelatinous. The platino- 
chloride (C23H26N204)2,H2PtClg + ^HgO, is obtained as a voluminous 
yellow flocculent precipitate. The normal sulphate, (C23H26N204)2,H2S04, 
forms small white prisms nearly insoluble in water and alcohol in the 
cold, sparingly soluble on heating. The aM sulphate is a gelatinous 
mass readily soluble in hot Avater. By mixing an alcoholic solution 
with methyl iodide, and allowing it to stand 24 hours, there is obtained 
a mixture of two iodides in about equal quantities ; they can be separated 
by the difference of their solubilities in hot alcohol. The less soluble 
^/-compound forms microscopic hexagonal prisms of the formula 
C23H26N204,MeI, very sparingly soluble in hot alcohol, moderately 
soluble in boiling water. By treatment with silver chloride it is con- 
verted into the chloride, C23H26N204,MeCl, crystallizing in microscopic 
needles, readily soluble in water and alcohol. The platinochloride 
(C23H26MeN204Cl),2PtCl^ -\- mfi, forms a yellowish red flocculent 
precipitate, and is insoluble in water. The aurochloride forms a dirty 
yellow flocculent precipitate, from which gold soon separates. The 
sulphate (C23H2gMeN204)2S04, formed by the action of silver sulphate 
on the iodide, is amorphous and very readily soluble in water and 
alcohol. Its rotary power in aqueous solution at p. — 3*764 and t. 
= 15° is -+ 73°. The hydroxide, C23H26N204Me.OH -[- 5H2O, 

obtained by the action of baryta-water on the sulphate, crystallizes in 
colorless cubes, melts at 202°, is readily soluble in alcohol and boiling 
water, insoluble in ether. The iodide of the f-i-compound, C23H26N2O4 
Mel, is gelatinous and dries in air to a horny mass; is somewhat soluble 
in boiling water, readily soluble in alcohol. The chloride is amorphous. 
The platinochloride (C23H'26N204MeCl)2,PtCl4 + 5H2O, is a reddish 
yellow flocculent precipitate. The sidphate, (023^26^2^4^^)2804, is a 
brown amorphous mass, and has no action on polarized light. The 
hydroxide, 023H2gN2O4Me.OH + 2JH2O, forms a l)rown amorphous 
mass, readily soluble in cold water and alcohol. 

Chairamine, O22H26N2O4 H2O, crystallizes in white needles or 
thick colorless prisms, and melts at 140°, or when anhydrous, at 233. 
It is readily soluble in ether and chloroform, 1 part of the base dis- 
solves in 540 ])arts of 97 per cent, alcohol. The alcoholic solution is 



1504 Alkaloids from Remijia Purdieana. {"^""Apririsss™" 

strongly dextrorotaiy = about 100°). Dissolved in sulphuric 
acid containing raolybdic acid, the solution at first colorless becomes 
after a time an intense dark green. The hydrochloride, CaaHggNgO^, 
HCl + H2O, crystallizes in colorless needles, sparingly soluble in boil- 
ing water and alcohol, insoluble in dilute hydrochloric acid. The 
jplatinochloride (C22H2gN204)2,H2PtClg + 2H2O, forms yellow needles 
insoluble in water and alcohol. The normal sulphate (C22H2gN20j2, 
H2SO4 + 8II2O, forms concentric groups of colorless needles, sparingly 
soluble in cold water or alcohol. The thiocyanate forms white needles 
insoluble in water. 

Conchairamine crystallizes with both water and alcohol of crystal- 
lization in thick colorless prisms of the formula C22H2gIS"204 + H2O 
-j- C2HgO, the compound showing three melting points, namely, 82 to 
86° for the whole compound, 108 to 110° after expulsion of the 
alcohol, and about 120° for the anhydrous compound, the mass resolidi- 
fying between each temperature. A small portion is converted by the 
heating into amorphous conciiairamine. Conchairamine is readily 
soluble in hot alcohol, in ether, and chloroform, sparingly soluble in 
cold alcohol. Its solution in 97 per cent, alcohol has a rotary power 
[a]^ = 4- 68-4° at p. = 2 and t. = 15°. The alcoholate dissolves in 
sulphuric acid containing molybdic acid, giving a brown coloration 
that soon becomes intensely dark green. With potassium chromate 
and sulphuric acid, it gives a coloration at first reddish brown, then 
dark green, and reddisii yellow if boiled with excess. The hydrochlo- 
ride, C22H.gN204,HCl + 2H2O, crystallizes in colorless plates, readily 
soluble in hot water and alcohol, sparingly soluble in cold water, nearly 
insoluble in ether. The lylatinochloride, (C22H2gN204)2,H2PtClg -f 
5H2O, forms a dark yellow flocculent precipitate. The hydriodide, 
C22H2gN204,HI + H2O, crystallizes in colorless needles, sparingly 
soluble in cold water. The thiocyanate crystallizes in colorless needles, 
very sparingly soluble in hot water. The sulphate (C22H2gN20j2- 
H2SO4 + 9 H2O, crystallizes in long lustrous prisms, soluble in boiling 
water. The nitrate forms satiny plates or needles very sparingly soluble 
in water. 

Conchairamine methiodid.e, C22H26N204,MeI, is obtained either in red 
crystals containing ] mol. H2O, or in colorless crystals with SHgO. 
The chloride, C22H2gN204,MeCl -f 2H2O, crystallizes in large color- 
less rhombohedrons, readily soluble in w^ater and alcohol. The pla- 



^'"'Ajr/'isS''™ } Alkaloids from Remijia Purdieana. 205 

tinochloride has the complex formula (C22H26N204MeCl)2,PtCl4 + 
(C22H26N204MeHCl2),PtCl4 + I4H2O ; it ciystalllzes in orange-colored 
needles, and is insoluble in cold water. The nitrate forms colorless 
satiny plates. The hydroxide formed by the action of moist silver 
oxide on the chloride, forms an amorphous brown mass of bitter taste, 
readily soluble in water, insoluble in ether. 

Cliairamidme, C22H26N2O4 -|- H2O, forms an amorphous white pow- 
der, melts at 126 to 128°, and is readily soluble in ether, alcohol, ben- 
zene, and chloroform, insoluble in water. Its alcoholic solution shows 
the rotary power [ajn = -1- 7*8° at p. = 3 and t. — 15°. It dissolves 
in concentrated sulphuric acid with yellowish color, which later turns 
dark green. The platinochloride ( 0201126^204)2, H2PtClg-|-5H20, forms 
yellow amorphous flocks insoluble in water. The normal sulphate and 
hydrochloride are gelatinous, the acetate forms a slimy mass. 

Conchairamidine, O22H26N2O4 -f HgO, crystallizes in white needles, 
melts at 114 to 115°, and is very readily soluble in ether, chloroform, 
alcohol, benzene, and acetone. Its solution in alcohol (97 per cent.) 
is levorotary, [«]j3= — 60° at p. = 3 (anhydrous) and t. = 15°. It 
dissolves in concentrated sulphuric acid w^ith an intense dark green 
color. With chromic and sulphuric acid it gives a solution at first 
brown, then dark green. The hydrochloride, €2^126^ 2^ i)^^^ + SHgO, 
crystallizes in long colorless needles. The platinochlo7-ide, (022ll26N2O4)2, 
HjPtOlg -f 5H2O, forms a yello\v flocculent precipitate. The normal 
sulphate, (022H26N2O4),Il2SO4 -|- I4II2O, crystallizes in long colorless 
needles, sparingly soluble in cold water. The thiocyanate is amor- 
phous, readily soluble in alcohol, and sparingly soluble in cold water. 
The substance described under the name of concusconidine in the 
author's earlier communication has been found to be a mixture of 
alkaloids. — Jour. Chem, Soc, Jan., 1885, p. 64; from Annalen [225], 
211-262. 



Rhammis Purshiana, De Candolle. — Limousin believes this bark, 
cascara sagrada, to contain chrysophanic acid, and derivatives of this 
compound, which cause the red color, on the addition of potassa to the 
resinous principles obtained by Professor Prescott (see Amer. Jour. 
Phar.,'' 1879, p. 166), and induce the change of the yellowish color of 
the powdered bark when kept in an atmosphere containing ammoniacal 
vapors. — Jour. Phar. Chim., Jan., 1885, p. 80. 



206 



Varieties. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I April, 1885. 



VARIETIES. 



Amyl nitrite as an anidote to strychnine is recommended by Dr. 
H. O. Hare. It cannot be used by inhalation, but must be given in such 
quantities and at such times that its full physiological action be present 
constantly ; it is useful only for tiding over the patient until more persist- 
ent antidotes can be administered. — Bost. Med. and Surg. Jour., Nov. 20, 
1884. 



PiCROTOXiN was used by Dr. Cauldwell for the relief of phthisical night 
sweats, and was found to be by fat the best remedy. The dose recom- 
mended by Ringer and Murell, gi'ain, being too small, he gave to j\ 
grain in one dose at bedtime, to be repeated at midnight, if necessary. 
Success was invariable, and there were no disagreeable results.— *S'/'. Louis 
Med. and Surg. Jour., Nov., 1884; N. Y. Med. Jour. 

Rhigolene, a ver\^ volatile hydrocarbon of petroleum boiling at about 
70° F , is noticed in several medical journals as a new local ansesthetic. It 
was introduced and recommended for this purpose by Dr. Henry J. Bigelow 
in a paper read before the Boston Society for Medical Improvement, April 
9, 1866, and somewhat earlier, " kerosolene " was similarly employed by 
Prof. Simpson of Edinburgh. See Anier. Jour. Phar. 1866, p. 363. 

Use of Oii^ of Peppermint and Menthol.— Dr. Brame states that oil 
of peppermint gives immediate relief of the pain in burns if applied after 
immersing the parts burned in water {Lancet). The itching of urticaria 
and mosquito bites is said to be much alleviated by the application of men- 
thol. — Cine. Lane, and Clinic. 

New An.ksthetic Compound. — An experimental and clinical study on 
a new method of producing anjesthesia is the subject of a work, recently 
published, from the pen of M. Colombel. A combination of atropine (two 
centigrams), morphine (twenty centigrams), and chloroform (twenty 
grams), is the mixture recommended. Some of the surgeons at Lyons 
speak very favorably of its use. — Lancet, Oct. 25, 1884; Quarterly Ther. 
Review. 



OiD OF Thyme. — Camperdon {Bull. gen. de therapeut.) arrives at the fol- 
lowing deductions : 1. In therapeutical doses (three to fifteen grains), oil of 
thyme causes mental excitement or stimulation ; hence it is a valuable 
diffusible stimulant in depression following anaemia, in conditions of col- 
lapses, etc. 2. It is an active diaphoretic and diuretic. 3. From its direct 
action upon mucous surfaces it is to be recommended in catarrhal affections 
of the respiratory and genito-urinary tracts. 4. It is a prompt hsemostatic. 
5. Thyme possesses powerful antiseptic proj^erties, and is well adapted for 
use in surgery. 6. It is recommended that the internal administration of 
the drug be supplemented by its employment in the form of baths, fumi- 
gations and inhalations.— A^e?^' York Medical Journal. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
April, 1885. J 



Minutes of the College. 



207 



MINUTES OF THE COLLEGE. 



Philadelphia, March 30, 1885. 

The Annual Meeting of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy was held 
this day at the College Hall, No. 145 North Tenth Street. Robert Shoe- 
maker, Vice President, in the chair, and twenty-five members in attendance. 

The minutes of the last stated meeting were read and adopted. 

The minutes of the Board of Trustees for January, February and Mareli 
were read by Mr. Wiegand and, on motion, approved. 

The report of the Librarian for the year, being called for, was read by 
Mr. Wiegand and accepted. 

Philadelphia, March 30, 1885. 
The Librarian resj^ectfully reports that the volumes of the exchanges 
received for the Journals have been bound, and the theses for lh84 have 
been arranged for the binder with a few exceptions. He reports that the 
library has been much more used the last year than formerly, and that the 
new cases erected since last report have been filled, leaving more available 
space for new works, and the arrangement is more perftctly carried out. 

The report of the Curator was then read. It was accompanied with a 
bound catalogue of all the specimens in the museum, arranged and marked 
in such a manner that any article in the cases can be found at once. 
The work performed evidenced much labor and perseverance, and reflects 
great credit on the Curator, Mr. Zeller. The thanks of the College were 
unanimously tendered to Mr. Zeller for the zeal and diligence displayed by 
him in the work. 

Philadelphia, March 30, 1885. 
To the Ojjticei's and Members of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy : 

During the past year the Curator has prepared a catalogue of the speci- 
mens exhibited in the cabinet, which is herewith presented. The drugs 
have been arranged in alphabetical order and classified. The part of the 
plant represented by the drug determined the separation — roots, rhizomes, 
haves, flowers, fruits, etc., each forming a separate class. In order to make 
the work more convenient for reference an index has been added. The 
pharmaceutical and chemical specimens have also been arranged according 
to the class to which each one belongs. A number of new and valuable 
specimens have been presented during the year at the pharmaceutical 
meetings. These meetings have for many years been the source of adding 
many specimens to the collection, and it is hoped that with the completion 
of the catalogue and index an additional stimulus will be given to the 
members and friends of the College to make the cabinet one of the most 
important features of the equipment. Trusting that the interest in this 
direction will be maintained with renewed vigor, the above re^Dort is 
respectfully submitted. 

Chas. Fred"k Zeller, Curator. 

Mr. Bullock read a report of the Publishing Committee as shown by the 
Business Editor, accompanied by the Treasurer's report of the Committee 
which was, on motion, accepted and directed to be placed on the minutes. 
This report shows a satisfactory condition of affairs in this department of 
the College. 

The report of the Editor, giving a synopsis of the year's work, shows a 
little falling off on the part of members and others who have heretofore 
contributed to the pages of the Journal, and it is to be hoped that the 
request of the Editor in his report will l)e favorably considered by them. 



208 



llinutes of the College. 



f Am. Jour. Phaim. 
1 April, 1885. 



To the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy : 

The Editor respectfully reports that, during the year ending with the 
publication of the March number, 63 original papers were published in the 
" Journal," which shows a decrease of five as compared with the preceding 
year, but an increase of six over the year ending March, 1883. Of this 
number, 20 papers were abstracts of 34* theses, 27 were contributed by 19 
non-members, and 16 papers by 9 members of the College. With the 
exception of one year, the present report shows the smallest number of 
papers contributed by the smallest number of College members during the 
past ten years, and only live of the papers were read at four pharmaceuti- 
cal meetings. This statement does not include the editorials, reviews, 
reports, gleanings and varieties prepared by the Editor for the pages of the 
Journal. The Editor takes this opportunity of urging again upon the 
members and friends of the College to note tlieir observations and commu- 
nicate them to the pharmaceutical meetings for discussion and to the Jour- 
nal for publication. Respectfully submitted, 

John M. Maisch, Editor. 

Professor Remington, on behalf of the Committee on Deceased Members, 
made the following report : 

Ambrose Smith, whose death was announced at the last meeting of the 
College, was born in Philadelphia, Eighth month 8th, 1815. He received 
his early education in the Friends' School and was subsequently appren- 
ticed, to learn the drug business, to his cousin Daniel B. Smith, one of the 
former Presidents of this College. After completing his apprenticeship, 
he graduated at the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy in 1834, and was 
admitted as a partner in the firm of Smith & Hodgson. He retired from the 
above firm and formed a partnership with Henry W. Worthington for the 
manufacture ol prussiate of potash. He afterwards engaged in business at 
the northeast corner of Seventh and Chestnut streets, where he remained 
twenty years. He subsequently removed his business to the northeast cor- 
ner of Broad and Chestnut, where he remained a few years, retiring alto- 
gether from business upon the death of his wife. Ambrose Smith became 
a member of the College, Ninth month 16th, 1839, and he was elected Trea- 
surer in 1850, a position which he held for over twenty years. Faithful to 
all trusts confided to him, quiet and unassuming in his manner, he endeared 
himself to all of his friends by his strict integrity and sterling worth. 

Resignations of A. D. Grithth and John T. Walker, as members of the 
College, were read and, on motion, accepted. 

Mr. Procter presented the library of the College with a pamphlet, in four 
parts, entitled " What may be Learned from a Tree," by Harland Coultas, 
1858, and Prof. Maisch, on behalf of Henry Cramer, a member of the Col- 
lege, also presented three old German works, bound in one volume, dated 
1718 to 1728, and entitled " Medical-chemical handbook ; the wise and jolly 
Medicus, by Hiatrophilo, and the sensible Medicus, by Forbigern." The 
books were, on motion, accepted with the thanks of the College. 

The following gentlemen were appointed delegates to the Pennsylvania 
State Pharmaceutical Association, which meets at Erie, Pa., in June next, 
with power to fill all vacancies which may occur in the delegation, viz. : 
Messrs. Alonzo Robbins, Wallace Procter, Gustavus Pile, William B. 
Thompson, David W. Ross. 

A letter from Dillwyn Parrish, President of the College, declining to be 
a candidate for re-election, was read and accepted, and ordered to be placed 
on the minutes. The Secretary was directed to convey the thanks of the 
College to him for the very satisfactory manner in which he has always 



^""'Apr^riS?^""'} Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations, 209 

discharged the duties of the office, and to express to him the great regret 
the members all feel at the step he has felt called upon to take. 

This being the annual meeting, the Chairman ordered an election of offi- 
cers, trustees and the standing committees, and appointed Messrs. Henry 
Trimble and Edward C. Jones, tellers, who, upon taking a ballot, reported 
the following gentlemen elected : 

President. — Charles Bullock. 

\st Vice President. — Robert Shoemaker. 

2d Vice President. — J. Jenks. 

Treasurer. — Samuel S. Bunting 

Recording Secretary. — William B. Thompson. 

Corresponding Secretary. — Alfred B. Taylor. 

Board of Trustees {for three ?/e«ns).— William B. Webb, Wallace Proc- 
ter, Gustavus Pile. Term ending March, 1888. 

Trustee for the unexpired term of Wm. B. Thompson [elected Se&y). — 
Daniel S. Jones. 

Publication Committee.— John M. Maisch, Henry N. Rittenhouse, 
Thomas S. Wiegand, James T. Shinn, Charles Bullock. 
Editor. — John M. Maisch. 
Librarian. — Thomas S. Wiegand. 
Curator. — Charles Frederick Zeller. 

Mr. Bullock, in a few well-timed remarks, expressed his thanks for the 
honor conferred upon him by the members of the College, and the meet- 
ing, on motion, adjourned. 

William J. Jenks, Secretary. 



PHARMACEUTICAL COLLEGES AND ASSOCIATIONS. 



Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. — During the past session, two 
examinations were held for the purpose of determining the fitness of the 
junior students to proceed with their studies, in accordance with the plan 
which has been elaborately explained by Professor Remington in a paper 
published in our January number. In the following list we have placed 
together the questions in each department, the first two of the professors' 
questions being those of the November examination, and Nos. 3 and 4 
those of the December examination. The final junior examination of the 
course was held on Saturday. February 14th. The number of students 
who availed themselves of the opportunity of extending their studies in 
the junior class over two years, by selecting the modified or partial exami- 
nation, is somewhat greater than in previous years ; but a still larger num- 
ber might very properly and profitably have adopted the same course in 
view of the limited time left for study to those whose service in stores 
affords only sparse and irregular opportunities for systematic study. 

BOTANY AND MATERIA MEDICA. 

1. What compounds are necessary for the formation of cells? Explain 
the beginning, formation and growth of a cell. 

2. What is the difference between a closed and an open fibrovascular 
bundle? Which of these fibrovascular bundles are found in the stem of a 
monocotyledonous, and of a dicotyledonous plant? 

3. Give a description of the fertilization of the ovule of a phanerogamous 
plant. 

14 



210 Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations. {^'^'Ap^i'ilsr'^' 

4. Explain briefly the principles upon which the artificial system of clas- 
sification by Linn6 is based. 

5. Lobelia. Give the botanical name and habitat of the plant. Describe 
it (stem, branches, leaves, calyx, corolla, stamens, ovary and fruit). Give 
its medical properties and dose. 

6. Give the botanical characters of the natural order of Urticacese. What 
difference is observed between American and Indian Cannabis? Give the 
medical properties and the dose of the Extract of Cannabis. 



PHARMACY. 



1. If the specific gravity of alcohol is 0-820 at 15-6°C. (60°F.), how much 
will the water weigh at the same temperature, which will exactly fill a 
bottle holding 205 grains of such alcohol? 

2. Define the process of trituration, and write out a description of the 
mortars and pestles in use for all purposes of comminution, naming the 
substances that these implements are usually made of ; the special uses of 
mortar and pestle made from each substance ; the best shape for each kind; 
the reason for selecting the shape, and the prominent defects in the manu- 
facture of many found in commerce. 

3 Define the processes of evaporation, distillation and sublimation, and 
state how sublimates may be obtained in hard masses, in long crystals, in 
small particles. 

4. Name the systems in which crystals are classed. Describe three 
methods of obtaining crystals, and give examples of chemical substances 
obtained by each method. 

5. Describe four methods of preparing Syrups ; give the advantages and 
disadvantages of each method with illustrations of four officinal Syrups, 
indicating in each case the reason for the preference given to the adopted 
method. 

6. How is Li(juor Potassje ))rep{;red by the first process given in the U. S. 
Pharmacopoeia? Explain the various steps in the process, and give the 
reason for selecting the Salt of Potassium which is directed. What is the 
ciiemical composition of the residue. 



CHEMISTRY. 

1 — a. Describe the thermometer, and state its uses. 

6. In what respects do the two thermometer scales recognized by the 
Pharmacojxeia differ from each other? 

c. Give tlie formulas for converting the readings of one scale into 
those of another. 

2— a. What is magnetism? 

b. Give the distinction between a native magnet, an artificial magnet 
and an electro magnet 

3— a. Write two reactions, using the symbols, for the preparation of Chlo- 
rine Gas. 

b. Describe the experiments illustrating the affinity of Chlorine for 
Hydrogen. 

4. Define an acid, a base and a salt, and give an example of each. 

5. What is a Sulphate, a Sulphite, a Thio-sulphate? Give the chemical 
formulas of the free Acids in each case, and of two salts of each. 

6. Enumerate the natural varieties of Carbon, and the artificial prepared 
varieties, stating with each of the latter how it is prepared. 

The examination in Operative Pharmacy embraced percolation, solution, 
filtration and evaporation. The specimens for recognition were as follows : 



Anthemis, 
Mentha piperita, 
Sambucus, 



Aqua Carui, 
Syrupus Zingiberis, 
Extract. Ergota? fluidum, 



Sulphur prsecipitatum, 
Potassii bromidum, 
Ferri sulphas, 
Alcohol. 



^'"'Ap'^risss*'^"'' } Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations. 211 

The re-examination of those students who failed in the February exami- 
nation in one or more branches, will be held on Tuesday afternoon, Sep- 
tember 29th, at 3 o'clock. 

The examination of the Senior students was commenced on Thursday, 
February 26., and closed on Tuesday, March 3, with the practical branches 
of operative pharmacy" and analytical chemistry. The following questions 
were asked : 



MATERIA MEDIC A AND BOTANY. 



A. JRhatany Root. Give the botanical names, natural order and habitat 
of the plants yielding Rhatan3\ Describe the drug and point out the dis- 
tinguishing characters of the officinal varieties. Give the constituents, the 
medical properties and the dose. 

B. Ty^fiwQ Aconite of the Pharmacopoeia; name the plant, its natural 
order and habitat. Describe the physical characters and the structure of 
the drug. Give the approximate per centage of the alkaloids, and name 
the constituents. What are the medicinal properties and the dose of the 
drug? 

C. Wild Cherry. Give the officinal name of the drug, and the botanical 
name, natural order and liabitat of the plant. Describe the drug, give its 
constituents, the reaction and approximate percentage of poisonous princi- 
ple resulting in the presence of water, and explain the difference of the 
drug collected in spring and in autumn. What are the medicinal proper- 
ties and dose? 

D. [Jva urtil. Give the name, natural order and habitat of the plant ; 
describe the drug, name the constituents and state which of these po?sess a 
bitter taste, and to which the diuretic and the astringent properties are due. 
Name some leaves containing the same principles. 

E. Define Conium of the Pharmacopoeia, and give the name, natural 
order and habitat of the plant. Describe the physical characters and struct- 
ure of the drug ; give the approximate percentage of alkaloids, and char- 
acterize these briefly as to their physical and poisonous properties. What 
is the dose of Conium and how is it distinguished from Anise? 

F. Capsicum. Give the name, natural order and habitat of the plant, 
describe the drug and point out the difference in size and shape of the fruits 
of other species ; give the acrid and other constituents, the medicinal prop- 
erties and dose of the drug. 

G. Stramonium Seed. Give the name, natural order and habitat of the 
plant, describe the drug and its internal structure, give its medicinal prop- 
erties, dose and the approximate percentage of alkaloids, also a distinguish- 
ing test for the two alkaloids. 

IT. Define Kamala of the Pharniacapoeia, and give tlie name, natural 
order and habitat of the plant. Describe the drug, including the structure 
of its different portions, name its solvents, constituents and the amount of 
ash yielded, and give its medicinal properties and dose. 

/. Name the officinal Ovmresins of the UmbellifercE ; give for each the 
botanical name, and habitat of the plant, and briefly describe the drug. 
Give the approximate proportion of the chief constituents and state which 
of the volatile constituents contain sulphur, and which are free from it. 

K. Spanish Flies. Give the name, order, habitat and mode of collection 
of the insect, and the approximate percentage of the vesicating principle, 
with a process for preparing it. In what respects do Chinese blistering flies 
differ from the officinal drug? 



THEORY AND PRACTICE OF PHARMACY. 



A. Name the officinal liquid, of which 25 grammes measures 20 cc. at 
4°C. How many grains of mercury will a bottle hold which contains 



212 



PharmaceutiGal Colleges and Associations. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
1 April, 1885. 



exactly a pint of water at 60°F ? Name, and give the specific gravity of 
the heaviest liquid for which the Pharmacopoeia details a process for manu- 
facture. Write out the process for this preparation. 

B. Give the unabbreviated oflficinal names, ingredients, outlines of pro- 
cess, and describe the appearance of Black Draught, Simple Elixir, LugoPs 
Solution, Cold Cream, Spermaceti Cerate, Hoffman's Anodyne, Compound 
Spirit of Juniper, Compound Syrup of Sarsaparilla. 

C. Give the English names, ingredients, outlines of process, and describe 
the appearance of Infusum Digitalis, Liquor Ferri Subsulphatis, Emplas- 
trum Ammoniaci cum Hydrargyro, Syrupus Scillpe Compositus, Tinctura 
Cinchonpe Composita, Uuguentum Gall?e, Spiritus yEtheris Nitrosi, Pulvis 
Antimonialis. 

D. Give the officinal names, quantities and ingredients for one pound 
avoirdupois of Aromatic Po\vder, Cerate, and Tincture of Opium. 

B. What is Pectose? Name several substances which contain it. What 
is the effect of tlie action of heat and acids upon it? What expedient is 
resorted to, in officinal processes, to overcome the effects produced by its 
presence in drugs? 

F. Give the process, specific gravity, tests of purity and identity of the 
following : Stronger Ether, Alcohol, Carbolic Acid. 

G. Give the tests for recognizing Veratrine, Polygalic Acid, Colchicine, 
Strychnine, Meconic Acid. 

IT. Of the following six liquids which are the best solvents for Tannin, 
namely : water, absolute alcohol, chloroform, glycerin, absolute ether, boil- 
ing water. Place the solvents in the order of their solvent power, beginning 
with the best. 

/. How is Diluted Hydrocyanic Acid prepared? What is the standard 
of strength adopted by the U. S. Pharmacopoeia? In what important 
respect does the present formula differ fnmithatof tlieU. S. Pharmacopoeia, 
1870? In what officinal Syrup is this Acid found? Why is it present in 
this Syrup? Name the active substance produced when ground Black 
Mustard Seed is treated with water, and state how it is produced. Describe 
the process for an officinal preparation whose virtues depend upon the 
presence of this active substance. 

A". Describe the theory of emulsificatiou. Name a natural emulsion and 
describe its structure. Give three ]jractical formulas illustrating three diff- 
erent methods of preparing emulsions. State the circumstances under 
which it would be best to use each method. 



CHEMISTRY. 

A. Define a neutral salt — an acid salt — a basic salt— a double salt. Give 
examples of each of these classes. 

B. What is the chemical formula of Alumen ? In what respect does the 
Alumen of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia, 1880, differ from the Alumen^ U. S. 
Pharmacopoeia, 1870? Ylo\w in Alumen Exsiccatum n].2ii\(i'> What are the 
properties of the metal contained in each of these compounds? 

C. Give the chemical formula of Ai-genti Nitras SLud describe the officinal 
preparation. What is the composition of Argenti Nitras Bilutus—of Ar- 
gent i Xitras JFusus 

D. What is ''Chili Saltpetre f What differences in properties do we find 
between this compound and common Saltpetre? Which is the moreadvan- 
tageous for use in the manufacture of Nitric Acid? Give reasons for this 
preference. State the important technical uses of each of these two com- 
pounds. 

E. What is the composition of " Salt of Tartar?" By what process is it 
made and from what material? From what source do we obtain "Cream 
of Tartar?" Give its chemical formula and that of " Tartar Emetic." 

F. Give the distinction between /errows and ferric salts. Give examples 
of each class, using officinal compounds only. How can ferrous be con- 



^'"a?)Xi88?'°' } Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations. 213 

verted into ferric compounds? What officinal processes mal^e use of sucli 
metliods? 

G. Give the formulas of ^cidw^i Oxalieum^ Acidum Oleieum, Acidum 
Valerianicum, Aeidum Tartaricum, Acidum Citriaum. Give the formula 
of a salt of each of these acids. 

H. What is fermentation ? Mention the several kinds of fermentation 
and state the products of each. Explain how starch-containing cereals are 
capable of fermenting. Mention some industries based uj^on fermentation 
processes. 

/. What is the cliemical difference between an essential oil and a fatty 
oil? What differences are there in their physical properties? From what 
natural sources are the two classes respectively obtained? What are the 
pharmaceutical and technical uses to which each class is applicable? 

K. What is a Glucoside ? By what reactions are they to be distinguished ? 
Mention some ofticinal drugs of which the active principle is a Glucoside. 
Mention some Glucosides which yield officinal compounds as their decom- 
position products. 



EXAMINING COMMITTEE. 

A. Give the process for making Yellow. Oxide of Mercury. State what 
precautions are necessary, and the reasons why. Give its officinal title. 
What officinal preparation does it enter into? How does it differ from the 
Bed Oxide of Mercury'] Give the process for the manufacture of White 
Precijntate. What precautions must be observed in making it? What is 
its cheniic^al composition ? Into what officinal preparation does it enter? 
Describe the process for the manufacture of Citrine Ointment, and explain 
the chemical ciianges which take place. 

Give the Offici7ial Name. Natural Order and Habitat of five dicotyle- 
donous plants which yield officinal rhizomes. Name the important con- 
stituents, and medicinal properties of each. 

C. Give the formula of the compound which is formed when Ammonium 
Sulphide is added to a Salt of Aluminiutn. How is Aluminium separated 
from iron ? How is iron separated from zinc? Give the color and formula 
of each of the precipitates produced by Sulphuretted Hydrogen on Salts of 
the following metals in acid solution : Mercury, Arsenic, Antimony. 
State how Calcium Salts may l)e detected in Sulphate of Magnesium. 

B. Give the botanical name and natural order of the plant from which 
Almonds are obtained. Briefly describe the physical properties and 
structure of the seed. What are the chief constituents of Almonds? In 
what important constituent do the two varieties differ ? Explain, in words 
or symbols, the chemical reaction which occurs when powdered bitter 
Almonds are macerated with water. What two officinal i^roducts are ob- 
tained from Almonds? Into what officinal preparations do these ^J>rod^^c^s 
enter? Into what officinal preparations do Almonds enter. 

E. Name three officinal Fluid Extracts each made with a different men- 
struum. Give the proportions of the liquids composing the menstruum in 
each case. State why such variations are necessary. Why is maceration 
for a specific period directed in making Fluid Extracts? How much 
finished Fluid Extract is obtained from a kilogramme of drug? 

F. Give the officinal name, natural order and habitat of the i)lant which 
yields Hops. Describe the physical properties and structure of Hops, and 
name an officinal preparation into which they enter, W^ hat other officinal 
substance does the plant yield, and from what part is it obtained ? Give 
its physical and medicinai properties, and important constituents. What 
officinal preparation does it enter into? 

G. Name the ingredients which enter into the composition of the follow- 
ing preparations ; state briefly the mode of preparation and give the officinal 
title and dose of each : Dover's Powder, Spirit of Miudererus, Donovan's 
Solution, Brown Mixture, Compound Cathartic Pills. 



214 Pharmaceutical CcUeges and Associations. | 



Am. Jour, Pharm, 
April, 1885. 



H. Name the article of commerce from which Cream of Tartar is purified. 
State from what source this article is derived, and in what manner it is 
formed. What impurity is always found in it? Describe briefly a process 
of purification. What takes place when a boiling solution of Cream of 
Tartar is allowed to cool, and why? What are the chemical constituents 
of Cream of Tartar ? What is its officinal title? 



I. How should this prescription 
be compounded? 

R Amnion. Carb ^iss 

Syrup. Scillse fliss 

Pulv. Acaciae ^iii 

Aquae f .^iiss 

M. ft. mist. 
Signa. Take a teaspoon ful every 
four hours. 

Criticise the following prescrip- 
tion : 

R Quiniiue Sulph gr. xxxii 

Acid.Sulph. Aromat.... gtt. Ixiv 

Aquae f 5ii 

Spt. Amnion. Aromat.. f ^ii 
M. ft. un>t. 
Signa. Take a teasj^oonful every 
four hours. 

How should this ointment be pre- 
pared ? 

R lodi 9i 

Extract. Opii gr x 

Camphorje gr. xv 

Extract. Bellnd. Ale "^i 

Adipis Benzoinat 5i 

ft. ung. 
Signn. Apply as directed. 
K. How would you prepare this 
prescription? What quantity of 
each active ingredient is contained 



in a dose? Would you dispense it? 

Give your reasons why. 

R Strychuinse Hydro'chlorat. gr. i 
Hydrarg.Chlorid.Corrosiv. gr. ii 

Liq. Acid. Arseniosi f^ii 

Tiiict. Ferri Chlorid f ^iv 

Syrupi f ^ii 

Elixir Aurant ad f^viii 

ft. mist. 

Signa. A tablespoonful three 

times a day. 
How should this prescription be 

prepared? What reactions occur? 

What will the solution contain when 

finished ? Is the dose a proper one ? 

R Argenti Cyan id gr. xxx 

Acid. Hydrochloric... gr. xxv 

Aquae Destillatae gr. cclxxv 

Misce. 

Signa. Take sixty drops three 
times a day in a tablespoonful of 
water. 

Write out the full name of each 
ingredient, and the direction for use. 
R Hyd. Chlor. 

Mur. Hyd 1 aa ^i 

Acaciae Pulv ^iv 

Aq. Camph f^viii 

Misce. 

Signa. Injection. Use t. d. 



The specimens selected for recognition were as follows : 



Matehia Medic. 

TaraxKcuni, 

h^pigelia, 

Quassia, 

Fraugula, 

Rhus Toxicod, 

Senna (Ale~.j 

Scopaiius, 

Anisurn, 

riiysostignia, 

Lycopu'liuni. 



Pharmacy. 

Pulv. Cretae com p., 
Pulv, Uhei conip., 
Info sum Digitalis, 
I>iquor Pep>ini, 
Yinuni aromaticum, 
Tiiict. Saponis viridis, 
Tinct. Aloesft Myrrhae, 
Syrupus Ilosae, 
Extract. Ergotat* flnidum, 
Unguent. Hydrargyri. 



Chemistry. 

Potassii uicarbonas, 
Potassii chloras, 
Potassii permanganas, 
Sodii bicarbonas, 
Ammonii chloridum, 
Magnesii caibonas, 
Zinci acetas, 
Plumbi acetas, 
Aciduni aceticum, 
Benzinum. 



Com MITT KE. 

Quassia, 
Pimenta, 
Nux vomica, 
Terebiutliina,' 
C'-ratum resinae, 
Tinctura Mynhae, 
Aqua Camphorae, 
Potassii ferrocyanid 
Alumen, 
Pluniui oxidum. 



In Operative Pharmacy the candidates were required to prepare — 

1. Granulated sodium salicylate. 

2. Lozenges, each containing 5 grains of potassium chloride. 

3. Emulsion of codliver oil, containing 50 per cent of the oil. 

4. Unguentum hydrargyri nitratis. 

5. Soap plaster, 4x6 inches. 

In Analytical Chemistry the acids and bases had to be determined 
qualitatively in solutions containing three or four salts. 

1 The two articles are hydrate of chloral and muriate of hydrastiue ; the abbrevia- 
tions were copied from prescriptions.— Editoe. 



''^"'AtrSriSs''™' } Pharmacentiml Colleges and Associations. 215 

The competitive examination of drugs Mith the microscoi^e for the John 
M. Maisch prize by those candidates who had passed a " very satisfactory" 
examination in Materia Medica, inchiding specimens, was conducted by 
John E. Cook, Ph.G., twelve candidates being entitled. The microscopic 
specimens selected were Senega, Zingiber, Calamus, Cinchona (micrantha), 
Anisum, Carum, Linum, Hyoscyami semen, Lycopodium and Marantte 
amylum. One of the candidates recognized all 10, one 9, one 6, and the 
remaining 5 or 4 of the specimens. 

The following 147 students successfully passed in all branches, and were 
recommended to the Board of Trustees for the degree of Graduate in 
Pharmacy (Ph. G.) : 

George Sidney Amsden, Iowa, Materia Medica for Students. 
Philip Anthes, Pennsylvania, Lard and Adulterations. 
James Henry Barker, Louisiana, Fluid Extracts. 
Max Bartel, Wisconsin, Caryophyllus. 

Henry Bechberger, Ohio, Our Own vs. Patent Preparations. 

William Bichy, New York, Stillingia. 

Wayne Barker Bissell, New York, i/op Extract. 

Luther Pascal Bowel s, Maryland, Jblther Aceticus. 

Wm. Theodore Bozenhard, Ohio, Hypophosphorous Acid. 

Henry Brand ner, Jr., Kansas, Assay of Cinchona. 

Albert Edward Brown, Alabama, Analysis of Sulp>hate of Morphia. 

Robert Clark Cadmus, Pennsylvania, Liquor Ferri Chloridi. 

Edward Daily Cahoon, Delaware, ^ar/^ Chemistry. 

George Lewis Carnan, New Jersey, Concentrated Nitrous Ether. 

Carleton Cole Ciiampion, Pennsylvania, Future of Retail Pharmacists. 

Thomas Clements Coltman, Pennsylvania, Fra.rinus Ainericana. 

James Sherman Cooley, New Jersey, Pharmacy Laws. 

Charles John Craytiiorn, New Jersey, Alcohol. 

Samuel Ross Crothers, Maryland, Pharmacy. 

Fred. Horace Davis, Delaware, Ailanthus Glandulosus. 

Blythe James Davison, Pennsylvania, Mentha Pi peril a. 

Oscar Boone Deakyne, Delaware, Citric Acid. 

David Ferguson Deem, Indiana, Cod Liver Oil. 

William Edward DeLong, Pennsylvania, Chemistry and Pharmacy. 
George Eicholtz Dennisson, Pennsylvania, Sanguinaria Canadensis. 
Ulysses Grant Dennison, Delaware, Cod Liver Oil. 
William Milliken Denniston, Pennsylvania, Arsenious Acid. 
William D. Deuschle, Ohio, Elixirs. 
Morton Phelps Dickeson, Pennsylvania, Emulsions. 
Henry Diefenbeck, Pennsylvania, Hydrangea. 
Lewis Henry Dielman, Maryland, Erythroxylon. 
Hernjann Edward Frederick Dreiss, Texas, Pepsin. 
Thomas Dunbar, Jr., Pennsylvania, Liriodendron Tulipifera. 
George Henry Ebeling, West Virginia, Hydrargyri lodidum Viride. 
Jacob Addison Eberly, Pennsylvania, Suppositories. 
George Washington Edmonds, Pennsylvania, Pepsi?i and Pepjtones. 
Joseph Johnson Eldredge, New Jersey, Pills and Excipients. 
Samuel S. Ely, Pennsylvania, Crystallization. 
John George Engler, Connecticut, Syrupus Pruni Virginiance. 
Theodore Feairheller, Pennsylvania, Emulsions. 
Edward Henry Fienhold, Pennsylvania, The Pharmacist. 
Ralph Benton Gable, Pennsylvania, Old and New Pharmacopceia For- 
mulas. 

Adolf Emil Gebhard, Michigan, Mounling of Botanical Specimens. 
Peter Spang Gehris, Pennsylvania, Erythrina Piscidia. 



216 Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations. 



Benjamin Wallace Green, Maryland, PharmaceutiGal Extracts. 

George Adam HafFa, Pennsylvania, Green Iodide of Mercury. 

James Hervey Hagenbuch, Pennsylvania, Chocolate. 

Jesse Barclay Hall, Pennsylvania, Medicinal Herbs of Montgomery Co. 

William Swearingen Ham'ilton, West Virginia, Oaultheria. 

Artliur Browne Hammond, Maryland, Liquor Magnesii Cltratis. 

Silas Marion Harrington, Texas, Estimation of Alkaloids in Ignatia. 

William Franklin Harper, Indiana, Physostigma Venenosa. 

Clinton Kelty Harris, New Jersey, Simple Elixir. 

Norton O. Harris, Delaware, Oleum Morrhure. 

Daniel Herr Hassler, Pennsylvania, Lime Fruit Juice. 

Julins Dargan Haynsworth, South Carolina, Oil of Turpentine and its 

Manufacture. 
Henry George Heider, Wisconsin, Syrupus Rhei. 
Harry Ernest Heinitsli, Pennsylvania, Tinctura. Avence Sativce. 
Edwin Hutter Hess, Pennsylv^ania, Dover's Solution 
James Owen Howells, Ohio, Ohio Wines and Derivatives. 
James Hunter, Jr., Pennsylvania, Carbo Animalis. 
James Stanton Hunter, Pennsylvania, Pulvis Ipecacuanhoe, et Opii. 
George Edward Hurd, Wisconsin, Oleum AnAhemidis Cotulce. 
Harry Ellsworth Jones, New Jersey, Nitrate of Silver. 
George Alexander Keller, Pennsylvania, Oleic Acid and Oleates. 
Stenlien Rush Ketcham, Pennsylvania, ^»mAsio?is. 
Grant Elmer Kirk, Pennsylvania, Eriodictyon Calif ornicum. 
Gustav Frank Kuehnel, Wisconsin, Rhododendron Maximum. 
William Evans Kunkel, Pennsylvania, Petroleum Ointments. 
Elmer Bryan Kyle, Pennsylvania, Menthol. 
James A liner Kyner, Pennsylvania, Butter. 
Frank Theodore Landis, Pennsylvania, J((panese Menthol. 
Irvin Lincoln Lautenbacher, Pennsylvania, Milk and Derivatives. 
William John Laval. Indiana, Menthol. 

William M. Lewis, Pennsylvania, Pills and their Excipients. 

Llewellyn Hughes Lewis, Pennsylvania, Erythroxylon Coca. 

Frederick Jacob Lichtenberger, Illinois, Thesis Writing. 

Charles Napier Locliman, Pennsylvania, ColUnsonia Canadensis. 

Henry Charles Christian Maisch' Pennsylvania, Illicium Florida.num. 

Joseph Mark Malatesta. Pennsylvania, Opium. 

Robert Borton Matter, Pennsylvania, Hydrargyrum cum Creta. 

Charles Milton Maucli, Jr., Pennsylvania, Compound Tincture of Cinchona. 

RoUin R. May, Delaware. Amyl Nitrite. 

Charles Eugene Mayer, Pennsylvania, A Pharmacy. 

Paul Ernest Meissuer, Wisconsin, An Lidispensable. 

Robert Stockton Johnson Mitcheson, Pennsylvania, Olea Volatilia. 

Frank Morse, Indiana, Advantages of Pharmaceutical Manufacturing. 

Matt. U. S. Grant ]Moses, New Jersey, Formation of Honey. 

Elmer Marshall Mount, Delaware, Pepsin. 

Edward Oliver Mover, Pennsylvania, Olcfdes. 

Edgar Harman Naudain, Delaware, Pinckneya Pubens. 

Jacob Lewis Nebinger, Penn.sylvania, Soine Officinal Syrups. 

John W. Newton, Ohio, Coloring Matter of Hydrastis Canadensis. 

Harry Louis Odenwelder, Pennsylvania, Chloral Hydrate. 

George Widdifield Pancoast, New Jersey, Solubility of Quinine Pills. 

Albert Raymond Patterson, Ohio. Pharmacy. 

Leopold Peters, Illinois, Vinum Ijjecacuanhce . 

Charles Clifton Raniey, Pennsylvania, Gossypium Herbaceum. 

Dennis Reagan, Pennsylvania, Mentha Piperita. 

Charles Morris Rebner, Kans'as. Scammony. 

Charles Frederick Rebsamen, Kansas, Practical Remarks. 

Henry Otto Reinnoldt, Wisconsin, Magnesii Sulphas. 

Walter Reynolds, Pennsylvania, Oleum Gossypii Serninis. 

William Stevens Rhoads, Pennsylvania, Oleum M'^rUhce Piperitce. 



Am. jour. Pharm. ) 
April, 1885. i 



Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations. 



217 



Elias Ellsworth Riggs, New Jersey, Emulsimis. 

Joseph Cuttell Roberts, Delaware, Fraxinus Amerieayia. 

Benjamin Rosenzvveig, Pennsylvania, Extr. Rhei Fluidum. 

George Frederick Rossler, Germany, PracAical Hmts. 

Andrew Curtin Santee, Pennsylvania, Rubus. 

Henry Scholey Saunders, Canada, Cross Sections. 

Emil Schaible, Indiana, Carbonate of Ammonia. 

Carl Ed.ward Schlegel Iowa, IlUcium. 

Allen Curtis Schofield, Ohio, Ilamamelis 

Herman Julius Schuchard, Texas, Gum Mezquite. 

Frederick Schwartz, Pennsj^lvania, Grains of Paradise. 

Wm. Frederick Seiler, Pennsylvania, Ammonia. 

Abraham Lincoln Serfass. Pennsylvania, Pills and Fxcij^ients. 

Henry Clay Shaw, West Virginia, Orange Trees. 

Frederick Paul Sher, Pennsylvania, Simaruba. 

Hans Heinrjch ►^inne, Germany, Salicylic Acid. 

Christopher Columbus Smith, Pennsylvania, Bismuth and Preparations. 

George Mark Smith, Pennsylvania Assay of Opium. 

Harry Barr Suavely, Pennsylvania. Thymus Vulgaris. 

Samuel Davis Swann, Florida, Erythroxylon Coca. 

Harry Swain, Delaware, Pulverization of Drugs. 

George Augustus Steinicken, Delaware, Petroleum. 

John Henry Stermer, Pennsylvania, Hydrocyanic Acid. 

Henry Deischer Stichter, Pennsylvania, Opiates. 

Henry Lippincott Stiles, New Jersey, Abstracta. 

Samuel Franklin Stoll, Ohio, Excipientfor Pills. 

Hugh McCallum Thiebaud, Indiana, Erigeron. 

William Cochran Thompson, Pennsylvania, Ustilago. 

Frederick Alden Tifl't, New Jersey /Cellulose. 

Thomas Crowell Trefry, Nova Scotia, Oils of Pose and Wintergreen. 

Samuel Levick Van Buskirk, Pennsylvania, Maydis Stigmata. 

William Augustus Vannort, Maryland, Acid Hydrocyanic Dilute. 

Frank Herman Von Achen, Illinois, Assay of Qui?iine Pills. 

Samuel C. Webster, Pennsylvania, Gossypium. 

Henry Wegener, Jr., Wisconsin. Aspidosperma Quebracho. 

Benjamin Franklin Weisel, North Carolina, Nitrate of Silver. 

Neri Barndt Williams, Pennsylvania, Nabalus Albus. 

Charles Bennett Whilden, South Carolina, Iodoform. 

J. Frederick Windolph, Delaware, Sprups by Cold Percolation. 

Robert Wellesley Woodill, Nova Scotia, Alcohol. 

Alfred Conard Wood, Pennsylvania, Chloride of Gold and Sodium. 

James Edward Wright, Pennsylvania, Cane Sugar. 

William Oscar Yost, Pennsylvania, Verbascum Thaj^sus. 

The final reunion of the Graduating class preceding the Commencement 
took place on Monday evening, March 23, in the Museum, at the professors' 
supper, when most of the officers of the College and of the members of the 
Board of Trustees were present, also several gentlemen from other Colleges 
of Pharmacy. The graduating class presented to the College two well- 
executed portraits of Prof. Trimble and of C. F. Zeller, Ph.G., assistant to 
the chair of pharmacy ; and one of Rogers' groups of statuary was presented 
to Piof. Remington. 

The commencement exercises were held at the Academy of Music, on the 
evening of March 24, when the degree of Graduate in Pharmacy was con- 
ferred upon the above successful candidates by Charles Bullock, first vice- 
president of the College. Mr. W. J. Jenks presented the Procter i^rize, a 
gold medal, to Henry C. C. Maisch and W. D. Deuschle, they having 



218 



Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations. 



(Am. Jour. Pharm, 
t Apiil,1885. 



attained the grade "very satisfactory" in each of the seven branches of 
examination. 

The following students were awarded honorable mention, the general 
result of their examination having attained the grade "distinguished:" 
H. Bechberger, H. Brandner, Jr., W. D. Deuschle, J. O. Howells, G. E. 
Kirk, VV. J. Laval, H. C. C. Maisch, R. B. Matter, P. E. Meissner, E. H. 
Naudain ; and the following with the grade "meritorious:" Wm. Bichy, 
W. B. Bissell, O. B. Deakyne, J. G. Engler, S. M. Harrington, H. E. 
Heinitsh, C. N. Lochman, E. O. Moyer, J. W. Newton, E. Schaible, C. E. 
Schlegeland H. J. Schuchard, Mr. Wm. B. Thompson presented the Henry 
C. Ijea prize, one hundred dollars, for the best Thesis to Henry C. C. 
Maisch, honorable mention being accorded to D. H. Hassler, C. E. Schlegel, 
G. E. Hurd and J. O. Howells. The Materia Medica prize, a Zentmayer 
histological microscope for the histological and chemical examination of an 
American drug, was presented by Prof. Maisch, to G. E. Hurd, with hon- 
orable mention of H. S. Saundei s and G. E. Dennisson. Prof. Sadtler pre- 
sented the chemistry prize, a Troemner analytical balance, for analytical 
work, to H. C. C. Maisch, with honorable mention of W. Bichy, C. E. 
Bchlegel, D. H. Hassler, J. O. Howells and A. E. Brown. The John M. 
Maisch prize, twenty dollars in gold, offered by Mr. J. H. Bedsecker, of 
Lebanon, Pa., for the best microscopical examination of drugs, was pre- 
sented by Prof. Maisch to J. G. Engler, with honorable mention of H. 
Bechberger, W. Bichy, W. B. Bissell, H. Brandner, Jr., O. B. Deakyne, 
W. D. Deuschle,. W. J. Laval, H. C. C. Maisch, P. E. Meissner, E.G. 
Moyer and E. Schaible. 

The valedictory address was delivered by Professor Sadtler, and the exer- 
cises terminated with the distribution to the graduates of many presents, 
including flowers, a commendable feature being that the latter were com- 
paratively less numerous than in former years, while the useful presents and 
permanent souvenirs sent by the friends of the graduates, were evidently 
<-onsidered to be far more appropriate to such an occasion. 

Alumni Association ok the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 
—The twenty-flrst annual meeting was held in the Alumni room of the 
College building, on Friday afternoon, March 20, 1885, the President, Dr. 
C. A. Weidemann, in the chair. The President's annual address and the 
Secretary's report gave a condensed account of the work done during the 
past year. The twentieth anniversary of the organization of the Associa- 
tion had been commemorated by an excursion to Woodland Beach, the 
success of which led to the proposition of a similar celebration at each 
anniversary. The faithful services of the Treasurer, Edward C. Jones, 
during a period of many years, received well-deserved recognition. The 
average attendance at the five social meetings during the past winter was 
115. The class in microscopy, under the efficient instruction of A. P. 
Brown, Ph.G., numbered .11 students; the importance of this work is 
evidently not recognized by the large majority of students, but it is to be 
hoped that a larger number will avail themselves of this opportunity during 
this spring and hereafter. The Alumni quiz classes were in successful 



^'"■ApT'issr'^"'"} Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations. 219 

operation during the past session. Since the last annual meeting, 112 
graduates became members of the Association, and 14 members died, the 
total membership being 1,016. 

The following ofHcers were elected to serve for the ensuing year : Presi- 
dent, Howard B. French, class 1871 ; Vice Presidents, Wallace Procter, 
class 1872 and D. W. Koss, class 1877; Treasurer, E. C. Jones, class 1864; 
Recording Secretary, Wm. E. Krewson, class 1869; Corresponding Secre- 
tary, Clement B. Lowe, class 1884 ; Trustee of Sinking Fund Thomas S. 
Wiegand, class 1844. 

The annual reception was held on the evening of the same day in the 
Pharmacy lecture room. The annual oration was delivered by Dr. F. E. 
Stewart, class 1876, the valedictory on behalf of the class by C. C. Ramey, 
and the class history by A. G. Hammond. The class prophet being 
unavoidably absent, the oration having " The Future of the Class" for its 
theme was not given. The Alumni prizes were awarded as follows : gold 
medal to H. C. C. Maisch, of Philadelphia; and certificates in materia 
medica to W. J. Laval, of Evansville, Ind. ; in pharmacy to J. F. Win- 
dolph, of Dover, Del. ; in chemistry to J. O. Howells, of Bridgeport, O. ; 
in general pharmacy to W. D. Deuschle,^of Chillicothe, O ; in operative 
pharmacy to H. Brandner, Jr., of Atchison, Kan. ; in analytical chemistry 
to G. E, Kirk, of Philadelphia, and for the best collection of herbarium 
specimens of indigenous plants to F. P. Sher, of Philadelphia. The 
junior testimonial was awarded to W. B. Cheney, of South Manchester, 
Conn. 



The Zeta Phi Alpha Society of the Philadelphia College of 
Phakmacv held its triennial reunion, March 19th, at the museum of the 
College, about 140 ladies and gentlemen being present. Mr. Howard B. 
French presided and Mr. Thomas H. Potts officiated as toastmaster. At 
the meeting held in the afternoon, Mr. G. W. Kennedy was elected 
President for the ensuing term. 

The New York College of Pharmacy held its fifty-fifth annual 
commencement at Steinway Hall, March 17th, addresses being made by 
the President of the College, Ewen Mclntyre. by Rev. R. C. Collyer and 
by B. E. Miot, Ph.G. The degree of Graduate in Pharmacy was con- 
ferred upon 71 candidates; in addition to these, three candidates had passed 
in pharmacy and tive candidates in all branches except pharmacy. 

The Louisville College of Pharmacy, at its recent commencement, 
had 7 graduates. The following officers were elected for the ensuing year : 
President, E. Scheffer, Sr. ; Vice Presidents, J. W. Fowler and W. Rogers ; 
Recording Secretary, Fred. C. Miller; Corresponding Secretary, O. A. 
Beckmann ; Treasurer, C. Tafel ; Curator, O. E. Mueller. 



The Alumni Assoc iation of the IjOuisville College of Pharmacy 
elected tlie following officers : President, O. E. Mueller ; Vice Presidents, 
B. Buckle, M.D. and P. Schlosser; Recording Secretary, O. C. Dilly ; Cor- 



220 



Editorials. 



Am. Jour. Pharni. 
April, 18!-5. 



responding Secretary, A. Schachner ; Treasurer, P. Fischer ; Executive 
Board, W. Tafel, E. Goebel, E. Scheffer, Jr., A. J. Schoettlin and S. Flex- 
ner. The Association contributed |2o towards purchasing instruments for 
the use of the College. 

The Pittsburg College of Pharmacy conferred the degree of Grad- 
uate in Pharmacy upon six candidates at the commencement, March 17th. 



The St. Louis College of Pharmacy held its nineteenth commence- 
ment at Memorial Hall, March ISth. 



The Albany College of Pharmacy held its fourth commencement 
at Agricultural Hall, March 2d, eight candidates graduating. 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT. 



The Qualifications of a Graduate in Pharmacy, as far as they 
relate to practical expeiience in the drug business and to the age of the 
candidate, have been discussed in an open letter addressed "to the Con- 
ference of Teaching Colleges of Pharmacy " by the Board of Pharmacy of 
the State of Illinois, in which the following statement is made : 

This Board has received Mpplications of late for registration from per- 
sons claiming to be Graduates in Pharmacy, and who present as creden- 
tials to support their claims what are termed " Certificates of Graduation " 
or " Minor Certificates," issued by Colleges of Pharmacy holding member- 
ship in your organization ; inquiry developing the fact that the holder at 
the time of final examination was lacking in age or experience and that 
these certificates were to be held until the age or experience is had, when 
a diploma will issue. 

The Board is perfectly correct in refusing to recognize such certificates ; 
in fact, Section 3 of the Pharmacy La\v of Illinois, passed in 1881, compels 
the Board to take this course, because such certificates are not a " satisfac- 
tory diploma," nor are they "credentials of attainments," as explained in 
that Section. We have no knowledge of these certificates, except what is 
stated above, nor are we in favor of issuing such credentials ; but it seems 
to us that they must indicate on their face the fact of 7iot being, diplomas. 
Are the holders of such certificates really graduates? or is not rather their 
becoming graduates depending upon some conditions still to be complied 
with? Does the fact of being announced as such at the annual commence- 
ment, really make the candidate a graduate, although he is fully aware 
that he cannot obtain the diploma, which is the evidence of graduation, 
until after he has complied with some additional requirements ? 

We believe that nearl3- all the Colleges of Pharmacy demand proof of a 
practical experience of 3j years before a candidate can be admitted to the 
final examination ; the case cited by the Board, of an applicant who had 
only fifteen months' experience and still was in possession of such a certi- 
ficate, must be regarded as exceptional and as not countenanced by the 



Am. .Four. Pharm. ) 
April, 1885. j 



Editor i( lis. 



221 



Colleges. The letter states " that whatever experience or age is held to be 
necessary to make the applicant eUgible to graduation, should be had prior 
to the final examination," In principle this is correct ; yet the Ihinois 
law permits graduates in medicine to become registered pharmacists with- 
out experience in the drug business and without examination; and licen- 
tiates in pharmacy may become registered pharmacists with a practical 
experience of two years and without qualification as to age. It seems to 
us, therefore, that the Board calls attention to the above mainly because of 
the apparent difference between the practice and the professed require- 
ments of one or more Colleges, and consequently of the probable unrelia- 
bility of documents issued by them. The letter concludes as follows : 

The Illinois Board of Pharmacy, in the exercise of sound judgment, 
and having at heart the best interest of Pharmacy, will decline to grant 
registration to holders of such certificates without examination; and if, 
after a reasonable time, the practice of issuing such certificates is not 
abandoned, this Board wiU decline to accept as " satisfactory " the diploma 
of any College following the practice. 



Prevention of Epidemic Choleka in America.— The following 
report was adopted by the American Public Health Association and the 
Conference of State Boards of Health, at their meetings held in the city of 
St. Louis in October, 1884. We have purposely deferred its publication 
until the present time, when the approaching warm weather is likely to 
secure for it more careful attention than would be accorded to the recom- 
mendations during the winter months. 

To the Conference of State Boards of Health: 

Mr. President and Members : Your Committee, to whom was referred 
papers relating to the practical work required for the prevention of epi- 
demic cholera in this country, respectfully report as follows : 

Origin and Dissemination. — There are three essential factors to the preva- 
lence of cholera in this country as an epidemic, (1) the importation of the 
disease by means of ships more or less directly from its only place of origin 
in India ; (2) local unsanitary conditions favorable to the reception and 
development of the disease ; (3) persons sick with the disease in some of its 
stages, or things infected by such sick persons, to carry it from place to 
place. These three factors naturally suggest the methods of combating the 
disease, for which there is needed practical work — international, national, 
and inter-state, State and local. So far as relates to State and local boards 
of health, their organization and activities are greater than ever before ; 
but it must be admitted, that after cholera has been introduced into a coun- 
try, inland quarantines are not easily and successfully maintained, although 
efforts in this direction are then advisable. 

In view of the threatened introduction of cholera into this country 
during the coming year, and the consequent inmiense waste of life and 
property values through derangements of commerce, trade and productive 
industries, it is the sense of this conference that the general government 
should maintain such a national health service as shall, by rigid inspection 
at the port of embarkation, question the freedom from disease and infection 
of all persons and things from infected districts, and shall secure the sur- 
veillance of such persons and things while on shipboard, and when neces- 
sary, detention at quarantine stations on this side for treatment and dis- 
infection. 

Official Inspection.— In view of the present threatening aspect of Asiatic 



222 



Editorials. 



( Am. Jour Pharm. 
1 April, 1885. 



cholera, and the constant danger from other communicable diseases occur- 
ring at foreign ports having commercial relations with the United States, 
we'urge upon Congress to provide for the appointment and maintenance at 
all such foreign ports where cholera, yellow fever, plague, small pox, or 
scarlet fever exists, or are liable to exist, of medical officers of health, the 
same being either accredited consuls, or attached to the consulates. The 
duties of these officers shall be to give notice, by telegraph when practica- 
ble, of the existence or appearance of any of the above-named diseases to 
some constituted authority in this country ; to give notice of the departure 
of any vessel known or suspected to be infected for any port in the United 
States ; and, whenever requested by the master of any vessel about to load 
or leave for this country, to iuspect thoroughly such vessel in all her parts, 
and also her cargo, her crew and passengers, to use such cleansing and dis- 
infection as he may deem necessary, and to satisfy himself that all jDcrsons 
about to sail are free from dangerous communicable diseases, are not 
recently from infected places, and are properly protected from small-pox, 
giving to her commander a certificate of the inspection and of all pre- 
cautionary measures taken. And it shall be the duty of the central autho- 
rity in this country promptly to transmit intelligence of the existence of 
the above-mentioned diseases at foreign ports and places, and of the depart- 
ure of dangerous vessels for the United States and Canada, to all State and 
local health authorities in the country which may be interested in the 
same. 

We further recommend, in case of those foreign ports which have no 
consular agents of this country, or no telegraphic communication with this 
country, and which are liable to transmit pestilence through commercial 
intercourse, that one or more medical officers be chosen to visit such ports 
as often as may be deemed necessary by the central health authority in this 
country, so as to give trustworthy information of the health and sanitary 
condition or" tliose places. 

Canadian Health ^^^/(7»ce.— Iiuismuch as the Dominion of Canada is 
e(iually interested with the United States in protecting itself and the 
United States from the importation of dangerous diseases, we suggest that 
Congress take such measures as will bring about concerted action with the 
Dominion and the British government, by which the consuls of this coun- 
try or of England at foreign ports shall exatnine and take such action as 
they may deem effective, and notify the authorities of such government as 
has authority over any port to which any ship may sail in the United 
States or Canada, in order that such government may be in a position to 
take eflfective measures against the importation of these diseases. 

We are gratified that the authorities of the Dominion of Canada and of 
the Province of Ontario have taken active steps toward protecting the 
people of Canada, and indirectly those of the United States, by the adop- 
tion of extensive quarantine regulations. We feel, however* that with 
respect to those regulations regarding the landing of passengers from the 
mail steamers along the St. Lawrence, etc., further special regulations for 
the thorough disinfection of the baggage and effects of all passengers, 
cabin or steerage, as come from infected ports or places, should be carried 
out in a manner similar to that recommended by the National Board of 
Health. Believing that the importation of cholera into this country has 
usually attended the presence of immigrants from infected countries, we 
therefore recommend that all such immigiants be prevented from landing 
at our ports until such time as the danger of the introduction of cholera by 
them shall have passed. 

The inspection and quarantine service inaugurated by the National Board 
of Health, and set forth in the paper by Dr. Smart before this Conference, 
but which system is now inoperative for want of an appropriation by Con- 
gress, meets with our cordial approval. To enable these protective measures 
to be carried out, we recommend that C'ongress be urged in the strongest 
terms to legislate on this subject at an early date in its coming session, 
and to appropriate such funds as may be needful The expenses incident 



Am. Jour. Pliarni. ] 
April, 1885. j" 



Editorials. 



223 



to the work which has to be performed at foreign ports, and the establish- 
ment of refuge stations at points on our own coast for the detention and 
treatment of infected vessels arriving from foreign ports, should undoubtedly 
be borne by the National Government, and not by individual States or 
municipalities ; for the benefits accruing therefrom are general, and not 
restricted to localities, although some ports and cities on the coast may have 
a more immediate interest in the matter than others in the interior. It is 
probable, however, that this national protective work ma}^ not be sufficient. 

Local Safeguards. — It will undoubtedly delay and lessen the chances of 
invasion, but it may not prevent invasion. The poison of the disease is 
subtle, and may effect an entrance into the country at some unguarded 
point. The funds necessary to the stamping out of the disease in a particu- 
lar locality, and to the prevention of its spread to other localities, might in 
some instances be borne by the municipality or State affected ; but should 
the disease occur in a locality which has failed or is unable to make pro- 
vision for the occurrence, its spread to other cities and States would be 
imminent. The want of means at the infected point would be disastrous 
to many others. Congress has recognized the necessity for aid to State and 
local boards of health under similar conditions in the case of yellow fever. 
In 1879 the sum of $500,000 was appropriated, and placed at the disposal of 
the National Board of Health; and the records show that of this sum 
$160,000 was employed in combating the epidemic of that year. We there- 
fore recommend that the influence of this Conference be used with the view 
of having appropriated by the National legislature the sum of $500,000, to 
be used, or as nuich thereof as may be needful, in case of a cholera inva- 
sion, in stamping out the disease from the infected localities, and in pre- 
venting its spread from State to State. 

The removal of local unsanitary conditions favorable to the development 
of cholera is the special work of State and local boards of health. Much 
has been done already in sonje States, but much remains which should 
receive inmiediate attention. Where it can be done, State sanitary inspec- 
tors should be appointed to visit all towns and cities specially liable to the 
disease, to counsel with the local authorities as to the best methods of pre- 
vention. This work should be vigorously prosecuted before the disease 
reaches our shores. 

Advice to Citizens. — The cause of cholera is contained in the discharges 
from persons afltected by the disease, or in things infected by such dis- 
charges. Should the disease reach our shores, the first case, and after this 
the first case which reaches any given community, should be strictly 
isolated. All infective material from these and from any subsequent cases 
should be destroyed in such manner as to stamp out the disease. Intelli- 
gent sanitary precautions beforehand, and scientific disinfection and treat- 
ment in the presence of the disease, should take the place of the necessary 
cruelties of a panic. In case any city or town is infected, the same princi- 
ples of isolation should in general be applied to the city as to the infected 
individual. Intercourse with other cities and places should be under sani- 
tary supervision, substantially as set forth in the rules and regulations of 
the National Board of Health respecting the inspection of travelers, dis- 
infection of effects, vehicles, etc. 

Health officers and inspectors appointed by State or provincial boards of 
health should, in addition to other sanitary work, see that the localities 
have set apart, erected, or planned to be so set apart or erected, structures 
which shall possess the sanitary requirements of an isolation hospital. But 
as regards all necessary work by local boards of health, most State and pro- 
vincial boards of health have printed and issued documents which give 
ample instruction. 

Your Committee recommend that when this Conference adjourns it be to 
meet in Washington, D. C, the second Wednesday in December, 1884, and 
that the Secretary of this conference be directed to invite the attendance at 
that time of the ({uarantine officers and the health ofticers of the principal 
cities in the United States and Canada ; and that all delegates to that meet- 



224 



Obituary. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ April, 1885. 



ing be prepared to report the sanitary status of their State or locality, and 
what steps have been taken to improve the same, and to prevent the intro- 
duction of disease. 
All of which is respectfully submitted. 

Henry B. Baker, 
Secretary State Board of Health of Michigan. 

H. P. Waecott, 
Chairma7i Health DeiJartment of Massachusetts. 

S. S. Herrick, 
Secretary State Board of Health of Louisiana. 

Peter H. Bryce, 
Secretary Provincial Board of Health, Ontario, Canada. 

John H. Rauch, 
Secretary State Board of Hecdth of Illinois. . 

Committee. 



OBITUARY. 



Samuel Simes, a graduate of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, 
class 1838, died in this city, March Oth, of apoplexy. He was for many 
years in business at the corner of Twelfth and Chestnut streets, and iden- 
tified himself with the Pennsylvania Salt Manufacturing Company, whose 
treasurer he was. He reached the ripe age of 71 years. His thesis on 
Daturia was published in Vol. V of this Journal (1833) ; he originated tine- 
tura cinchonte ferrata in 1853, and in 1855 contributed to the Journal a 
paper on chocolate and iron lozenges. 



Edward Zeitler, Ph.G., class 1858, died in Philadelphia, March 3d, of 
consumption. He was the son of the first manufacturer of matches in 
this city, and was- for a long time established as a pharmacist in the north- 
eastern section of Philadel])hia. 



Robert W. Dickson, Ph.G., class 1862, died March 18th, of cirrhosis 
of the liver. He was for some time engaged in the drug business, and 
more recently he was in the employ of Powers & Weightman. 



William H. Crawford died suddenly at St. Louis, March 17th, of fatty 
degeneration of the heart, about an hour after he had left his place of busi- 
ness, in apparently good health. He was born in Donegal, Ireland, and 
when quite young emigrated with his parents to the United States, the 
familj'' living in Wheeling before they came to St. Louis, where the 
deceased entered tlie drug store of S. D. Hendall, and in 1861 started in 
business for himself. He took an active part in the organization of the St. 
Louis College of Pharmacy, his interest in the institution remaining una- 
bated to the close of his life. In 1864 he became a member of the Ameri- 
can Pharmaceutical Association, served as local secretary to the meeting 
held in 1871, and as one of the vice-presidents in 1878-1879, and for 24 years 
has faithfully acted as authorized agent of the Association. 



lUicium Floridanum.—E llis. 




Fig. 14.— Capsule : transverse Fig. 15, — Capsule : lon^tRdiiial 

section through dorsal seciion. 
suture. 




Fig. 17.— Seed : transverse section. 




Illicium Floridanum. — Ellis, 




Illicium Floridanum. — Ellis. 




Fig. 6.— Stem : transverse section. 



THE AMERICAN 

JOURNAL OF PHARMACY. 



3IAY, 1885. 



ILLICIUM FLORIDA NUM, Ellis. 

Natural order ^ MagnoUacece, IlliciecB. 
By Hp:nry C. C. Maisch, Ph.G. 
From an Inaugural Essay. 

This species is a shrub or small tree growing in swamps iu Florida, 
Alabama and westward to Mississippi, and is popularly known as 
Southern star anise, Florida stink bush, or poison bay. 

The leaves are about 4 inches long and 1| inch wide, short petiolate, 
acuminate, alternate, oblong-lanceolate, entire, smooth, indistinctly pel- 
lucid punctate. The midrib is very prominent on the lower side. 
Flowers are about one inch in diameter; sepals six, green gradually 
changing to color of petals, deciduous ; petals purplish crimson or 
dark purple, linear, obtuse, in three whorls, the outer having often the 
color of the sepals ; stamens 30 or more, about J inch long and ^ as 
wide ; the anthers consist of two cells adnate, introrse, half the length 
of the stamen, dehiscence longitudinal; ovaries 13, separate; styles 
short, erect. In the flowers the carpels are erect, but after fructifica- 
tion they spread horizontally, forming a right angle with the axis. 
The carpels are capsular, dry, not woody, dehiscent at the ventral 
suture, and contain each one smooth shining seed about the size of an 
apple seed. 

Griffith {Med. Botany, p. 101) said that the bark may be used as a 
substitute for cascarilla. The leaves are poisonous. The material for 
this investigation was kindly furnished by Hiland Flowers, Ph.G., oi 
Amite City, La. (now of New Orleans). 

HLSTOLOGIC A L INVESTIGATION. 

Root. — The root, on cross-section, shows the bark and the wood to 
be of about the sauie thickness and also the entire absence of pith. 
The cork cells (Figs. 1 and 2) are flattened and tangentially elongated. 
The bark is composed of large and small thin-walled parenchymatous 
cells, the small ones being near the cambium and constituting the 

15 



226 



Illicium Floridanum. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
1 May, 1885. 



inner bark, inrough which the medullary rays pass. The cells of the 
rays are larger than the surrounding bast parenchyma, and in the outer 
liber layer gradually increase in size to that of the cells in the primary 
or outer bark. The secondary bark contains no bast fibres and is 
made up of about 12 layers of cells. The primary bark is composed 
of about 24 layers, the cells increasing in size as they approach the 
middle. The cambium layer consists of about three rows of minute 
cells. The wood contains numerous medullary rays, one or two cells 
wide and from five to twenty cells high in an axial direction. It fur- 
thermore contains wood parenchyma, ducts and prosenchyma. The 
cells of the first are somewhat thickened, are axially elongated and 
found between the groups of medullary rays. The ducts are thinner- 
walled and larger than the prosenchyma, and have spiral and scalari- 
form markings, while the prosenchyma cells are quadrangular and are 
marked by dots and disks. 

Stem. — The bark is made up of two distinct layers (Figs. 3 and 4) be- 
sides the cork. The cork cells are flattened, closely packed, and elon- 
gated in a tangential direction. The primary bark is composed of large, 
thin-walled cells, which on cross-section are hexagonal and tangentially 
elongated. The inner layer of the primary bark has two or three inter- 
rupted circles of oil cells, the rest being smaller and hexagonal. The 
outer layer of the primary bark is composed of hexagonal, tangentially 
elongated and large cells. The secondary bark is composed of a layer 
of about twenty bast parenchyma cells and twelve cells of the medul- 
lary rays, these latter being larger and the secondary deposit relatively 
thinner than in the former cells, these being axially elongated. The 
cambium layer is about three cells in thickness. (Figs. Sand 6.) The 
wood consists of medullary rays, wood parenchyma, ducts and pros- 
enchyma. The medullary rays, on a cross-section, are seen to be made 
up of small radially elongated cells, the walls of which are materially 
thickened by secondary deposit, and which are placed in one or two 
radial rows, each row containing, in an axial direction, from three to 
seventeen cells. The wood parenchyma is only found between the 
perpendicular ends of the medullary rays, consequently in axial lines. 
(Figs. 7 and 8.) The cells are axially elongated, the cell walls are 
considerably thickened. The ducts have netted, spiral and scalariform 
markings (Fig. 9), while the lateral sides of the prosenchyma cells are 
marked with dots and disks. The pith is composed of hexagonal cells 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 

May, 1885. 



Illicium F loridanum. 



227 



on a cross-section. The cells are smallest near the wood, and gradu- 
ally enlarge toward the centre. 

Leaf. — The epidermis is composed of a single layer of flattened, 
thick-walled empty cells. The stomata are very numerous on the 
lower surface (Fig. 10), while only one was found in a space f inch 
square of the upper surface. They are made up of four cells, two 
inner and two outer guard cells. (Fig. 11.) On a cross-section, the 
inner guard cells are seen to bulge into the opening at about half the 
height of the cells. The outer guard cells are slightly larger and 
overlap the inner cells at the edges. The rest of the epidermal cells 
have wavy cell walls. The portion of the leaf between the epidermal 
layers is made up of loose parenchyma with large air passages and 
a single palisade layer occupying (Fig. 12) about one-fourth the thick- 
ness of the leaf. The midrib is composed of wood fibres, which, on 
cross-section, appear quadrangular with their cell walls slightly thick- 
ened (Fig. 13). This prosenchymatous tissue is arranged in radiat- 
ing lines and terminates above and below by curves. The concav- 
ity, which is toward the upper side of the leaf, is filled by the 
large-celled spiral ducts, and above this is a single row of bast fibres. 
On the lower side, the wood is surrounded by a cambium layer and 
outside of this there are two or three layers of bast fibres. Surround- 
ing this bundle is the loose parenchyma tissue of the leaf, there being 
three layers of small cells above, and about six to eight layers below, 
the cells as they approach the epidermis becoming thick-walled. The 
upper and lower surface of the leaf at this point is covered by a 
rather thick cuticle. 

Capsule — The capsules are composed mainly of parenchymatous 
tissue, there being only one unbranched fibrovascular bundle in each 
carpel running through the fleshy portion at the dorsal suture (Figs. 
14 and 15). The receptacle for the seed is lined Avith closely packed 
elongated thick-walled cells having one end directed toward the seed. 
The cells near the ventral suture are in three layers (Fig. 16), the outer 
layer being composed of large parenchyma cells which are elongated in 
the direction of the style. The other tw^o layers contain axially elon- 
gated cells with thickened cell walls, those of the middle layer having 
the smaller deposit. The outer layer is made up of about four rows 
of cells and the other two consist of about ten row\s together. 

Seed. — The seeds are albuminous. The albumen consists of hex- 
agonal cells, seen in the section (Fig. 17), and contain oil. The endo- 



228 



CoUinsonia Canadensis. 



J Am. Jbur. Pharm. 
t May, 1885. 



pleura consists of one layer of cells, the walls of which are somewhat 
thickened. The testa consists of two layers, the inner is composed of 
about three rows of cells with thickened walls (Figs. 17 and 18), and 
the outer layer is made up of a single row of cells. The cell walls of 
the outer layer of the testa are very much thickened and extend in a 
radial direction. The exterior view of the testa shows the cell walls as 
wavy lines. The external layer of the testa is yellowish, while the 
interior one is brown. 



COLLINSONIA CANADENSIS, Linne. 
Natural order, Labiatoe. 
By Charles Napier Lochman, Ph.G. 
From an Inaugural Essay. 

The thick, hard, knotty rhizome, from which the plant undoubtedly 
received the names stone-root and knot-root, grows horizontally but a 
few inches beneath the surface of the soil and attains a length of about 
six or eight inches. The plant seems to delight in stony soil, as it is 
always found in mountainous or very rocky and shady situations. At, 
and after the time of flowering, the leaves have an agreeable lemon-like 
odor, due to volatile oil contained in glands on the under-surface. 
About the time that the fruit is mature, especially if the plant is so 
situated as to be in the direct sunlight for part of the day, the calices 
have an odor similar to that of caraway; whether this is due to a 
volatile oil or a resin I haye not been able to ascertain. 

Description. — Flowers in racemes, arranged in a terminal panicle. 
The calices and pedicels covered with stalked glands. Calyx some- 
what bilabiate, becoming four-sided and much enlarged in fruit ; upper 
lip with three sharp-pointed teeth, lower with two lanceolate lobes ; 
hairy in the throat. Corolla light yellow, generally purple-veined and 
hairy on the inside, elongated, widening from the throat outwards; 
four upper lobes small and obtuse ; lower lobe much larger, ligulate 
and beautifully laciniate fringed. Fertile stamens two (with rudi- 
ments of a second pair), exserted, much exceeding the corolla. Style, 
purple, two cleft at the apex, about the length of the fertile stamens. 
Ovary deeply four parted, usually ripening only two of the four nut- 
lets. Stem simple, erect, smooth, glaucous, obtusely four angled ; from 
two to five feet high. Leav^es thin, smooth, light green above (some- 
what darker in the dried state), whitish underneath, ovate, coarsely 



Am Jour. Pliarm. ) 

May, 1885. J 



Collinsoida Canadensis. 



229 



serrate, abrupt, or somewhat lieart-shaped at the base, taper-pointed ; 
the under surface dotted with small, depressed glands containing vola- 
tile oil. 

The rhizotne is from one to one and a half inches in thickness, four 
to eight inches long, irregulary branched, the upper surface marked 
with cup-shaped scars left by the stems of former years; on the lower 
surface it is covered with long, thin, brown rootlets; it has a thin, 
brown bark, and a very hard white wood more or less mottled with 
brown. 

Analysis. — The drug was treated with menstrua in the order given 
in Dragendorff\s Plant Analysis. One gram of the powdered rhizome 
and rootlets yielded -029 gram of ash, after being thoroughly ignited 
in a porcelain crucible. Fifty grams of the powdered rhizome and 
rootlets were macerated with 250 cc. of petroleum spirit for one week 
and the filtered liquid was allowed to evaporate spontaneously, when 
there was remaining 1*2 gram, or 2*4 per cent, of the weight of the 
drug employed. On heating this to 110°C. for some time, there was 
no loss in weight, showing the absence of an appreciable quantity of 
volatile oil. - The residue was of a semi-solid waxy consistence, melt- 
ing at 40°C., soluble in boiling alcohol, from which it was partly 
precipitated on cooling, and wholly on the addition of water. This 
apj)ears to be vegetable wax. 

After allowing the petroleum spirit to evaporate from the powder, 
it was treated wath 250 cc. of stronger ether and this liquid allowed to 
evaporate at the ordinary temperature, when '3 gram of a somewhat 
bitter, yellowish, resinous substance was left. On treating this with 
slightly acidulated water a light yellow liquid was obtained, showing 
negative results with potassio-mercuric iodide and other tests for alka- 
loids. Ferric chloride produced a greenish black precipitate which 
afterwards became inky. A precipitate was also formed on the addi- 
tion of gelatin. The part remaining after treatment with acidulated 
water had all the characters of a resin and was almost completely 
soluble in 95 per cent, alcohol, partly soluble in a solution of potassa, 
and of a slight bitter taste. 

After the ether had evaporated from the powder, it was macerated 
for eight days with alcohol, and the filtrate made up to 250 cc. Fifty 
cubic centimeters of this filtrate evaporated left '59 gram of extract, 
equal to 5*9 per cent, vegetable matter, neither soluble in petroleum 
spirit nor ether, but soluble in alcohol. On incinerating this extract 



230 



CoUinsonia Canadensis. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm^ 
1 May, 1885. 



an almost unweighable ash remained, which proved to be principally 
carbonate of potassium. From the remaining filtrate the alcohol was 
distilled off and the residue carefully dried over sulphuric acid. The 
yield was a slightly bitter extract, in which tannin, which turned ferric 
salts greenish black and precipitated gelatin, was present, but no alka- 
loid could be found. 

The powder remaining from the last operation was then macerated 
for twenty-four hours with 500 cc. of water, the infusion filtered off, 
and the dregs washed with sufficient water to bring it up to 500 cc. 
On evaporating a portion of this liquid it yielded an extract equal in 
weight to 10 per cent, of the original quantity of the drug employed;, 
20 cc. of this infusion was mixed with tAvice its volume of alcohol, 
when a precipitate was formed weighing '02 gram. This precipitate 
dissolved in water did not reduce Feh ling's solution until it had been 
boiled with dilute hydrochloric acid. Its concentrated solution pre- 
cipitated basic acetate of lead (vegetable mucilage). 

A portion of the root on being boiled with water gave, on the addi- 
tion of a solution of iodine, an intensely blue color (starch). 

Leaves. — Ten grams of the powdered leaves were treated in the 
same manner as the rhizome, excepting a larger proportion of men- 
struum was used in each case. The petroleum spirit yielded '3 gram, 
or 3 per cent, of extract consisting of waxy matter soluble in boiling 
alcohol, a caoutchouc-like substance soluble in ether, and a trace of 
volatile oil. The etherial tincture yielded '44 gram, equal to 4*4 per 
cent, of extract, which had little taste and odor, and on being triturated 
with sand and cold water gave a slightly yellowish brown solution, 
colored greenish black on the addition of ferric chloride. A few drops 
of acetic acid Avere then added to the liquid, which, together with the 
resin, was triturated for a few minutes, allowed to stand for two hours,, 
and filtered. This liquid did not show any indication of an alkaloid 
upon the application of the various tests. The alcoholic tincture 
yielded '47 gram of a dark green extract containing tannin and chloro- 
phyll, but no trace of an alkaloid. 

About 16 lbs. of fresh leaves, collected when the plant was in full 
blossom, were distilled, yielding one drachm of a very light yellow 
volatile oil of a pleasant lemon- like odor. 

From the foregoing meagre experiments the rhizome is shown to 
contain a resin soluble in ether and partly soluble in alcohol, vegetable 
wax, tannin, mucilage and starch; and the leaves resin, chlorophyll^ 



"^"'Mar 18^85''™'} Materia Medica of the Mexican Pharmacopoeia. 281 

tannin^ wax and volatile oil. The volatile oil is nearly all dissipated 
on drying, at least after several months. It seems almost impossible 
that this nearly tasteless rhizome shonld have the wonderful properties 
ascribed to it by certain eclectic physicians. If any part of the plant 
is of any use medicinally, I would judge it to be the fresh leaves. 



MA.TERIA MEDICA OF THE NEW MEXICAN PHARMA- 
COPCEIA. 
By the Editor. 

The Sociedad Farmaceutica de Mexico/^ published a national phar- 
macopoeia in 1874, and a second revised edition of this work appeared 
last year in the Spanish language under the title of "Nueva Farma- 
copea Mexicana de la Sociedad Farmaceutica de Mexico/' the revision 
having been entrusted to a permanent commission consisting of Pro- 
fessors Alfonso Herrera, Francisco Gonzalez, Jose M. Laso de la Vega, 
Severiano Perez and Dr. Manuel S. Soriano. 

It is a handsome octavo volume, the first 32 pages of which are 
oceupied with a historical introduction and an explanation of the 
arrangement of the work. Then follow 16 pages of preliminary mat- 
ter, containing various tables, the most important of which for our 
purpose are the tables of weights and measures. All pharmaceutical 
preparations being made by weight, a comparison of the medicinal 
weights will serve to show the great difference between the values 
attached to the same signs used in prescriptions in Mexico and in the 
United States. 



Mexican weights, 
lb i = xvi ^ gr. 9216 = gm. 460*24 
^ i = 3 viii = gr. 576 = gm. 28*76 
3i = 9iii =gr. 72=gm. 3-60 
9i =gr. 24 = gm. 1-20 
gr. i = gDi. O'Oo 



United States weights, 
ft) i — ^ xii = gr. 5760 = gm. 373-24 
5 i = viii = gr. 480 = gm. 3M0 
^i^J^iii =gr. 60 = gm. 3-89 
9i =gr. 20 = gm. 1-30 
gr. i = gm. 0-065 



The Mexican measure of capacity, the cuartillo, is nearly 4 per cent, 
smaller than the American pint, the former being 456*00 cc, the latter 
473*18 cc. The cuartillo, like the American pint, is subdivided into 
16 fluidounces (onzas medidas), the American fluidounce (29*57 cc.) 
being about 1 cc. larger than the Mexican onza medida (28*50 cc); 
the latter is further subdivided into 8 fluidrachms, and these into 3 
fluid scruples. 



232 Materia Medica of the Mexican Pharmacopoeia. {^'^■^ly\^£^^'^' 

The second part treats, upon 94 pages, upon the crude drugs derived 
from the vegetable, animal and mineral kingdoms; and this is followed 
by the pharmacopoeia proper (Farmacopea propriamente dicha), which 
is divided into two parts, the chemical products (112 pages) and the 
pharmaceutical preparations (96 pages), with 3 pages of supplement 
and appendix. The index alone covers 72 pages, and is divided into 
six separate parts, the Spanish, French, English, Mexican (and several 
other idioms) and Latin references, and an index of authors mentioned 
in the work. A lengthy list of typographical corrections, covering 
more than four pages, comj)letes the book. 

The text is printed in rather small but clear types, set closely, and is 
arranged in double columns in alphabetical order of the Spanish names 
of the subjects. The natural ]^roducts (crude drugs) are treated of 
more or less extensively under tiie following sub-headings, following 
the names with the vernacular synonyms, botanical origin and natural 
order: habitat, part used or mode of preparation, physical characters, 
varieties, chemical composition, adulterations, common and special uses 
in medicine, therapeutics, the arts or for economic purposes, as well as 
incompatibles and antidotes. The chemical products and pharmaceu- 
tical preparations are treated of in a somewhat similar manner, the 
process ol manufacture being given somewhat in detail. 

It will be observed that the Mexican Pharmacopoeia partakes in 
reality more of the character of a dispensatory than of a medical and 
pharmaceutical law-book. Tiiis becomes also evident from the very 
large number of drugs admitted, souie of which are stated to be little 
used, like brusco (Ruscus aculeatus), opopanax, and others which have 
become obsolete in most civilized countries. While obviously the 
materia medica list enumerates a large number of drugs, which are 
well known here and elsewhere, it is of particular interest for the large 
number of vegetable products of Mexican origin which have been ad- 
mitted, and to these we propose to pay special attention in the follow- 
ing brief review. 

Abanico, Celosia cristata, Lin., nat. ord. Amarantacese, the cockscomb 
cultivated in our gardens, grows in the Sierra de Huauchinango, and is 
popularly used in decoction of the leaves as as an antiblennorrhagic. 

Abelmosco, Hibiscus Abelmoschus, Lin., nat. ord. Malvaceae, fur- 
nishes the musk seeds of commerce, which are used as a perfume, and 
in the form of decoction as an emmenagogue and as an antidote to snake 
bites. The root is used medicinally as an emollient. 



^'"■£^18^5''™"} Materia Medica of the Mexican Pharmacopma. 233 

Abrojo cle tierra caliente, Tribuliis terrestris, Lin., nat. ord. Zygo- 
phyllacese; indigenous to Yucatan. The root and seeds are commonly 
used for their tonic, stimulant and aperient properties, and a decoction 
of the leaves and stem, in the form of baths, against articular rheum- 
atism. Taken internally the decoction of the leaves and root has a 
diuretic action. 

Acedera, Rumex Acetosa, Lin., nat. ord. Polygonaceee, is somewhat 
employed as a diuretic. 

Aceite de Abeto is the turpentine obtained from Pinus religiosa, 
Humb. et BonpL, nat. oi'd. Coniferae. The tree grows in the moun- 
tains surrounding the valley of Mexico and in other parts of the 
republic. The turpentine is viscous, nearly colorless, ultimately green- 
ish yellow, has a lemon-like odor and a bitter, acrid and aromatic taste, 
dissolves incompletely in alcohol and mixed with one-tenth of calcined 
magnesia, acquires in about two days a pi hilar consistence. It contains 
volatile oil, extractive and resiuoid matter, and abietic and succinic 
acids. It is procured by puncturing by means of a little tube the 
vesicles in which it is secreted in the bark. Ocote turpentine from 
Pinus Teocote, Schlechtendal, is frequently substituted for it, but differs 
materially in its physical properties. 

Acibar, aloes. Socotrine, hepatic (also called opaque socotrine), Cape 
and Barbadoes or Jamaica aloes are recognized. Socotrine aloes is 
stated to be superior to the other varieties, but Cape aloes is mostly 
employed in Mexico. Several species of aloe growing in Mexico might 
probably be used for obtaining this drug. 

Aconito, Aconitum Napellus, Lvn., nat. ord. Ranunculacese. Accord- 
ing to Oliva this plant grows in the sierra between Mazatlan and 
Durango; the variety delphinoides has been described by De Candolle 
as being peculiar to Central America. The leaves are the only part 
employed in Mexico. 

Acxoyatic, Ipomoea muricata, Kmith, nat. ord. Convolvulacese, 
grows on the hills of Tacubaya and other places of the valley of 
Mexico. The root is rich in resin and is employed as a purgative. 

Achicoria dulce, Sonchus oleraceus and S. ciliatus, Lin., nat. ord. 
Compositse ; abundant near the City of Mexico. The root is commonly 
used as a tonic, and the leaves for their emollient and galactagogue 
properties. 

Achiotillo, Bixa Orellana, Lin., nat, ord. Bixacea?, grows in hot 
localities. The leaves are popularly used as a purgative, and the seeds 



234 Materia Medica of the Mexican Pharmacopoeia. May ""igs 

as an antidote to Manihot sesculifolia, Pohl. From the seeds the dye 
stuff annato, achiote, is prepared, which is regarded as an antidysen- 
teric. But the plant and its products are rarely used by physicians. 

Adormideras, Papaver soniniferum, Lin., nat. ord. Papaveracese ; 
the capsules are used. 

Agallas de Lavante, nutgalls. Under the name of horregos de encina 
the lanuginous galls of the evergreen Mexican oaks are popularly used 
as haemostatics; they are produced by the sting of Cynips Quercus 
baccarum. 

Agarico bianco, white agaric; used as a drastic and against profuse 
sweating of consumptives. 

Agarico yesca, spunk ; used surgically. Boletus igniarius is stated 
to be more commonly used in Mexico than B. fomentarius. 

Agrimonia Eupatoria, Lin., nat. ord. Rosace?e; oui' agrimony, grows 
also in Mexico. It is used as a mild astringent in the form of infusion 
or decoction in the proportion of 20 : 1000. 

Aguacate, Persea gratissima, Gcertner, nat. ord. Lauracese, grows in 
the temperate and warm regions of Mexico, producing the varieties 
vulgaris, oblongo, microphyllaand Schiedeana. The pulp of the fruit 
was found by Betancourt to contain various fats, chlorophyll, malic and 
acetic acids, various salts, glucose, gum and starch. The seeds contain 
yellow volatile oil, mannit, green bitter resin, starch, little tannin, fat, 
gum, etc. Betancourt found also amygdalin and synaptase, yielding 
hydrocyanic acid, and in the epicarpsoft acid resin, aromatic principle, 
tamiin, etc. The leaves and fruit have the reputation of being emmen- 
agogue, and according to Hernandez, are believed by the vulgar to 
increase the spermatic secretion and to be useful in suppurating wounds 
and sores. A decoction of the leaves like the powdered bark is em- 
ployed as an antiperiodic. The pericarp enjoys considerable reputation 
as a vermifuge in the dose of Gm. 8 to 10, taken fresh, or Gm. 4 to 6 
in the dry state; this property probably resides in the resin. The 
mesocarp is edible and the juice of the seed is used as an indelible ink 
for clothes. The fruit is known in the West Indies as alligator pear. 

Other species indigenous to Mexico are Persea drymifolia, Schiede, 
known as aguacate olorosa, P. amplexicaulis, Sch., P. pachipoda, 
Ehrenb., known as aguacate cimarron, P. Ligue, Sch., and P. buty- 
racea, Sch., known as pagua. 

Aguamiel, the juice of different species and varieties of Agave is 
yellowish or whitish, mucilaginous, frothy, acidulous and sweet, of an 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
May, 1885. j 



Dover'' s Solutiom, 



235 



herbaceous odor and a density varying behveen 1*025 and 1'046. Rio 
de la Loza found in it sugar 9*55, gum and albumen 0*54, salts 0-73 
per cent., the remainder being water, some resinous and albuminous 
matters, etc. Boussingault found 2-65 levulose, 6*17 sugir, 0*35 malic 
acid, etc. The juice is used for the manufacture of sugar and of a 
tolerably good vinegar; its reputed medicinal properties are antiscor- 
butic and antiblennorrhagic. 



LIQUOR IPECACUANHA ET MORPHINE.— DOVER'S 
SOLUTION. 
By Edwin H. Hess, Ph.G. 
From an Inaugural Essay. 

Preparation. — Take of acetate of morphine, one dram, diluted acetic 
acid, one fluidounce, diluted alcohol seven fluidounces, wine of ipecac, 
two fluidounces. Dissolve the acetate of morphine in the acid, add the 
diluted alcohol and wine of ipecac, and mix the whole thoroughly. 
Set aside for twenty-four hours, then filter through paper. 

This preparation is not generally known, although used quite ex- 
tensively where it has been introduced. It originated with Dr. J. D. 
Coleman of Juliustown, near Mount Holly, Burlington county, N. J., 
and afterward of Trenton, N. J., now deceased. The preparation is 
used in only a few other places, as far as I can ascertain, but judging 
from its popularity -in those places, it certainly deserves a much wider 
scope for usefulness. In Trenton, where I became acquainted with it, 
it may be gotten from any pharmacist (and is always kept in stock), 
is prescribed by almost all the physicians, and has a local reputation 
among the people as a remedy for all ills common to mankind, pro- 
bably as great as paregoric. 

It is transparent, of a yellowish or amber color, due to the coloring 
matter of the ipecac and the wine. At first the odor is decidedly 
vinous, but at the same time acetous. It changes rapidly, however, 
becoming more agreeable, and then somewhat resembles the odor of 
whiskey, and doubtless contains some of the same or allied ethers. It 
has very little taste other than the persistent bitter of the morphine; 
three ounces by measure, should weigh exactly 2 J ounces, troy, making 
its specific gravity '9654. Its color is very little afl^ected by sun- 
light and refracted light. It has an acid reaction with test paper. It 
enters into the composition of a preparation known as 



236 



Dover^s Solution. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
t May, 1885. 



Red Drops, viz : Tinctura cateclui coniposita, 5 v ; spiritus camphorse, 
5i ; liquor Dover!, ^ii. This is quite an efficient remedy for diarrhoea, 
dysentery, cholera morbus, and all summer complaints in general. 
Locally, it has acquired no mean reputation among the physicians and 
others, and is thought by some to be equally as good, if not superior, 
to the renowned Asiatic cholera mixture, Squibb's compound solution 
of opium, and other preparations of wide-spread reputation. 

In addition to the Dover's powder, a new preparation, known as 
tincture of ipecac and opium was made officiiial in 188(^ The solu- 
tion of acetate of morphia (B P.) is somewhat similar in its anodyne 
properties to the Dov'er's solution, and contains the acetate of mor- 
phine in acid solution of the strength of J gr. to the drachm. Dover's 
syrup is a preparation manufactured in Philadelphia, containing syrup 
as a menstruum, which makes it quite palatable. Syrup, however, is 
apt to prove disadvantageous on account of its nauseating effects. 
Nearly all the preparations of this type have this eifect, from the fact 
that they are compounds of opium and not morphine. 

The medical i)roperties accorded to the solution " are, diuretic, 
diaphoretic, analgesic and sedative. It is quite efficient in the treat- 
ment of coughs, colds, etc., and in the first stages of acute inflam- 
mations attending throat and lung troubles. It is also very useful in 
the treatment of rheumatism, neuralgia, etc. 

A fluidounce evaporated to pilular consistance, should not weigh 
more than 7 J gr. (-186 gms.) In attempting to scale the residue by 
the usual method I was not successful on account of its extreme 
deliquescence. The resulting mass, however, remains stable for several 
months, and may be conveniently rolled into pills. From several 
experiments I found it to be quite as effi^ctive in this form as in solu- 
tion, and being quite heavy (dose J grain), the pellets are very easy to 
take. The solution, on standing, without having been filtered, de- 
posited a dark colored sediment, light in weight. On testing this for 
morphine none was found. A full grown cat was given different 
doses (of both liquid and solid form of the preparations), ranging 
from \ gr. to 2 gr., with the eifect of producing sleep. Larger doses 
produced emesis with general exhaustion, but no alarming symptoms. 
From these experiments I concluded that it is almost a harmless 
preparation, as an overdose is almost certain to produce emesis. 



May'^iSr™" } Glecmings fi'om Foreign Journals. 237 

GLEANINGS FROM FOREIGN JOURNALS. 
By J. Robp:rt Moechel. 
Eucalyptol, from Eucalyptus globulus, according to C. Jahns, has 
the formula, QoHjgO, boils between 176-177°C., has the spec. grav. 
•923 at 16°C., is without optic action, and is identical with cajuputol, 
as it shows the same chemical and physical properties. He corrobo- 
rates the observation of Faust and Homayer (1874), that the eucalyp- 
tol of Cloez was a mixture, and shows that Eucalyptolum purissimum 
of commerce is merely rectified oil of eucalyptus. — Arch. d. Pharm., 
January, 1885. 

Determination of the Value of Pepsin. — O. Schlickum recommends 
for this purpose the conversion of albumen into peptone. An egg is 
placed in boiling water for five minutes, and rapidly cooled by cold 
water; the albumen will be hard, the yolk semi-liquid. Cut the albu- 
men into very *fine pieces, and rub through a fine sieve ; of this albu- 
men put 10 Gm. into a solution of O'l pepsin in 150 water, add 2*5 
HCl and keep the mixture at a temperature of 40°C. by means of a 
water bath. On being dissolved, the albumen is trasformed first into 
hemialbumose, and afterward into peptone. Digest for 12 hours, then 
filter, and to 10 cc. of the filtrate add, drop by drop, 1 cc. IINO3, 
which should not cause more than a slight opalescence. — Ph. Ztg., No» 
16, 1885. 

Quantitative Determination of Aloes. — According to H. Hager, aloes 
is soluble in a cold solution of carbonate of sodium, easily soluble in 
a 2 per cent, solution of ammonia, entirely so in 80 per cent, alcohol, 
incompletely in 90 per cent, and absolute alcohol, insoluble in a mix- 
ture of 1 vol. of absolute alcohol, 2 vol. of chloroform, and 3 vol. of 
benzol. To determine aloes in a liquid, evaporate, dry and powder; 
exhaust at a temperature of 18° to 25°C. with the mixture of alcohol, 
chloroform and benzol, to separate all the resinous substances soluble in 
that mixture, and dry the residue ; digest this with 80 per cent, alco- 
hol at a temperature near 50°C., frequently shaking ; place the result- 
ing solution in a weighed capsule, evaporate and dry. For each gram 
of the residue use 12 to 15 cc. of a 2 per cent, solution of ammonia, 
to dissolve the aloes ; treat the resulting solution with a very slight 
excess of a solution of acetate of lead, and restore a slight ammoni- 
acal smell by adding a few drops of ammonia water. Following these 
directions, the aloes is entirely precipitated as a lead compound. Col- 



238 Gleanings from Foreign Journals. 

lect this precipitate, wash with a little distilled water and dry in a 
warm place. 1 Gm. aloes giving about 2*35 Gm. of the lead com- 
pound, multiply the weight of the latter by 0*4256 ; the result gives 
approximately the amount of aloes. 

To determine the aloes, as such, mix the lead compound with an 
equal weight of sulphate of ammonium, moisten with water on a shal- 
low plate, kept in a w^arm place; repeat moistening and drying, to get 
rid of the ammonia, and extract the dry mass with warm 80 per cent, 
alcohol; the residue yielded from the latter solution, increased by 12 
per cent., gives the amount of aloes of the original mixture. — Phar. 
Centraih., No. 12, 1885. 

Mondamin is the meal of Indian corn deprived of oil. — Ph. Cen- 
traih., No, 10, 1885. 

Tasteless quinine tannate, containing a maximum quantity of the 
alkaloid. Mr. Peltz (''Ph. Ztg. f. Russland,'' 1885, p. 80) recom- 
mends the use of a solution (1:30) of hydrochlorate gf quinine (in 
place of the sulphate), which is added to a solution of tannic acid 
previously neutralized with ammonia. After 24 hours the precipitate 
is collected, washed, and dried at a temperature not exceeding 30°C. 
The tannate thus obtained is a pale yellowish white amorphous pow- 
der, containing at least 20 per cent, of quinine, is soluble in 400 parts 
of cold water, in 50 parts of hot water, in 48 parts of cold alcohol, 
and in 3 parts of hot alcohol. 

Vincetoxin. — Ch. Tanret, in an investigation of Vincetoxicum offi- 
cinale, found two modifications of vincetoxin, a glucoside of the for- 
mula CigHjgOg, one soluble, the other insoluble, in water. The coarse 
powder, mixed with some slaked lime, is exhausted with water, the 
solution saturated with chloride of sodium, the precipitate washed with 
salted water, dried, shaken with chloroform, decolorized with char- 
coal, the liquid distilled, and the residue dissolved in an equal weight 
of alcohol. Now add ether, for precipitation, then half of the entire 
volume of water, and shake. Evaporate the watery solution, which 
yields the soluble modification. To the etherial solution add water 
rendered slightly alkaline, which separates a resinous acid ; shake with 
diluted H2SO4, neutralize, distil, and dry the residue at 100°C., when 
the second modification is obtained. — Rep. Pharm. Chimie, No. 3, 
1885. 

The following formulas have been selected from a number contrib- 
uted by Eug. Dieterich to " Phar. Centralhalle,'' 1885 : 



May^8S5*'^™ } Gleankigs from Foreign Journals. 239 

Acetum Carholisatum (Carbolic Vinegar). — Mix 5 carbolic acid, 5 
Cologne water and 90 diluted acetic acid. KeejD in a cool place for 
several days and filter. 

Acetum Fumale Excelsms (FumigatingVinegar). — Mix 400 Gm. tinc- 
ture of benzoin, 400 alcohol, 50 acetic ether, 50 essence of jessamine^ 
100 acetic acid, 10 drops of attar of rose, and 5 drops each of oil of 
neroli and oil of wintergreen. Keep in a cool place for several days ; 
then filter. 

Acetum Stomaticum. — 200 compound tincture of spilanthes, 200 
spirit of cochlearia (scurvy grass), 100 aromatic tincture, 50 acetic 
ether, 30 glacial acetic acid, 20 salicylic acid, 400 distilled water, 5 
cochineal, 1 oil of sage, 1 oil of peppermint. Mix, warm in a water- 
bath to eO-TO'^C. ; then keep in a cool place and filter. This vinegar 
is used as a mouth wash after meals, for which purpose a teaspoonful 
of it is diluted with about 8 ounces (J liter) of water. 

Acetum Camphoratum (Camphorated Vinegar). — Dissolve 1 cam- 
phor in 19 alcohol; mix with 80 dihite acetic acid. Keep in a cool 
place for several days and filter. 

Acidum Aceticum Aromaticmn Excelsius. — Mix 50 oil of bergamot, 
50 oil of lemon, 9 oil of ylang ylang, 1 oil of wintergreen and 89 gla- 
cial acetic. acid. Keep in a cool place for several days; then filter. It 
may be colored with eosine or cochineal. 

Acidum Aceticum CarboUsatum. — Mix 10 carbolic acid cryst., 85 
acetic acid and 5 oil of eucalyptus. For fumigating the sick chamber, 
drop upon a hot plate. 

jFJther Cantharidini. — Dissolve 2 Gm. each of cantharidin and extract 
of cannabis in 996 ether. It is more effectual than cantharidal ether. 

uEther Phosphoratus. — Melt 5 phosphorus in 5 glycerin ; add grad- 
ually 10 pulverized charcoal ; mix well, then add 1,000 ether. Shake 
for half an hour ; repeat this four or five times during the day, and 
lastly filter, adding sufficient ether to make 1,000 parts of filtrate. 

Bismuthum p)eptonatum, a new ])reparation introduced by E. Merk ; 
it is a soluble powder, and is said to contain in 100 parts 3*1 of Bi, or 
3*5 of oxide of bismuth. — Ph. Central] lalle, p. 134, 1885. 

Koussinate of Sodium. — Pavesi recommends the following process: 
Mix the powdered kousso with lime, exhaust with alcohol and then 
with boiling water ; mix, recover the alcohol, precipitate the koussin 
w^ith an excess of concentrated acetic acid, wash, dry the precipitate, 
and decolorize by dissolving in boiling alcohol and treating with ani- 



240 Gleanings from Foreign Journals. {^^'m&y^iZb^'^^' 

mal charcoal. Put a portion of the koussin in a capsule containing 
very hot water, and add crystallized carbonate of sodium until com- 
plete solution has been effected. Boil for a few minutes with animal 
charcoal, filter, and evaporate at a moderate heat. The sodium kous- 
sinate is an amorphous, pulverulent mass, of a yellowish white color, 
little hygroscopic, soluble in cold and more so in warm water and 
alcohol. — Jonrn. de Pharm. Alsace-Lorraine, Xo. 3, 1885. 

Cocaine is recommended as an antidote to morphine. — D. Med. Ztg., 
p. 25, 1885. 

Ground pepper , according to Chr. Neuss, is readily examined for 
adulterations by pouring upon it concentrated HCl, which imparts a 
yellow color to all the pepper particles except the black shell. From 
a rather coarse powder the foreign particles may be readily separated 
and weighed. — Fli. Ztg. 

Ground cloves, adulterated Avith the powdered bark of sassafras,. has 
been observed by Bernbeck. — Ph. Ztg. 

Parajininii iodatum has been recommended in place of tincture of 
iodine. Paraffin oil dissolves iodine with a splendid deep violet color; 
the strength of the solution is stated by C. Jehn to be 5 per cent. ; a 
10 per cent, solution cannot be effected, except by dissolving the iodine 
in absolute ether and diluting with paraffin oil to the strength desired. 
—Arch. Pharm ; Chemiher Ztg., No. 16, 1885. 

The Phar. Centralhalle states that 5 per cent, of iodine cannot 
be dissolved w^ith the aid of slight heat in paraffin oil from different 
sources, and that the solution resulting at a higher temperature deposits 
iodine, leaving about per cent, of it dissolved in the cold paraffin 
oil. 

Bromine for bleaching sponges has been recommended. Dissolve, 
bromine in 30 parts of water; place the sponges in this solution until 
they have acquired the desired color; then wash with water acidtdated 
with HCl, and lastly with clean water. — Journ. de Pharm. d^Anvers, 
January, 1885. 

Antidote to Iodoform. — M. Behring recommends a 5 or 10 per cent, 
solution of bicarbonate of sodium. — Journ. de Pharmacologie ; Journ. 
de Ph. d^ Alsace- Lorraine, No. 2, 1885. 

Detection of Iodine after Taking Iodoform, — According to Dr. O. 
Schweissinger, the iodine cannot be completely separated as iodide of 
palladium, in consequence of the formation of organic combinations. 
The same observation has been made by Prof. E. Harnack. 



"^"^ Ma^is^s'"'^'"'} Gleanings from Foreign Journals. 241 

Acidulate the urine with HCl, precipitate with palladious chloride ; 
the following day collect the ])recipitate on a filter, wash, mix with 
soda and heat to redness ; extract with hot water, filter, wash, acidu- 
late the filtrate, and precipitate again with palladious chloride ; collect 
the precipitate on a filter, wash, dry and weigh. The resulting palla- 
dious iodide contains the iodine present as iodide. 

For determining all the iodine, measure a cerain quantity of urine ; 
add soda, evaporate to dryness, heat to redness, extract repeatedly with 
hot water, filter, acidulate, and precipitate with palladious chloride; 
weigh, and calculate the iodine. Harnack found in this way 0'5277 
iodine in 1 liter of which but 0*1072 was present as iodide, while 
nearly |- of the iodine was in combination, and could be estimated 
only after ignition.— P/i. Zfg., No. 20, 1885. 

Dental Mastich. — Dissolve 4 mastich and 2*5 balsam of Peru in 7 
chloroform. — Union Pharm., February, 1885. 

A formula in ^' Phar. Zeitg." recommends 2 mastich, 2 balsam of 
Peru, and 7 Gm. chloroform. 

Vinum iodatiim is a preparation highly praised by INI. H. Barnouvin. 
Any wine of but small percentage of tannin may be employed. The 
proportions are 0*4 to 0*5 Gm. iodine, dissolved in a small quantity of 
alcohol, and wine q. s. to make 1 liter. — Ij Union Pharni., February, 
1885. 

Corn Cure. — Oleum phosphoratum is recommended as excellent to 
be applied every morning on the place of the stocking touching the 
corn. 

To Distinguish Fresh from Old Ergot. — Koster recommends mace- 
rating for some time 2 Gm. of the powder with 5 cc. ether. The 
resulting solution will be colorless if the ergot is fresh, but yellowish 
if old. — Arch. d. Pharm. 

Bernbeck, in Phar. Ztg.,'' remarks that this solution should be 
neutral, and that the oil of old ergot is rancid, therefore giving a more 
or less acid reaction. 

Aqua Picis. — In the place of pine wood saw dust, previously recom- 
mended (see " Amer. Jour. Phar.," 1877, p. 350) for dividing (pulve- 
rizing) the tar, A. Simon uses the residue of powdered cinchona bark 
left from the preparation of the tincture, etc. The resulting tar water 
is slightly bitter from traces of alkaloids, the solution of which is 
flavored by the acids of the tar. The tar powder thus obtained may 

16 



242 Gleanings from Foreign Journals. { ''^VaT'iss^*'*™* 

be put into packages, and does not stain the paper. — Rep. Pharm. 
Chimie, ]So. 3, 1885. 

Test for Oil of Rose.—O. Helm, in " Archiv Pharm./' 1885, p. 104, 
observes that the test with a mixture of 5 p. chloroform and 20 p. 
alcohol cannot be relied upon, as no separation of crystalline scales 
took place in four different rose oils which were doubtless genuine. 
But Prof Fliickiger ('^Archiv," p. 185) states that in an experience 
of many years it has never failed in his hands. 

Russian Leather. — Skins tanned with willow bark, and dried, are 
rubbed wdth a woollen cloth moistened with birch tar ; a solution of 
alum is applied, then a solution of potassium carbonate and Brazil 
wood to giv^e the desired color, and lastly the leather is rubbed with 
fish oil— Fhar. Ztg., No. 18, 1885. 

To Prevent Label-moulding in Cellars, etc. — Dissolve borax in the 
water used to make the paste. — Ph. Handelsblatt, No. 5, 1885. 

Porcelain-like Label. — Mix thoroughly 1 part of oxide of zinc and 
10 parts of solution of silicate of sodium. Put on the bottle three or 
four coatings, and letter with coal tar diluted with some oil of turpen- 
tine. — Rep. Pharm. Chimie, No. 3, 1885. 

Gelatina Gli/cerini (Glycerin Jelly). — Mix in a mortar 140 Castile 
soap and 210 glycerin; add, gradually, 1,680 expressed oil of almond 
(in cold weather only 1,2(30 will be necessary), and scent with 4 oil of 
thyme, 8 oil of bergamot and 2 oil of rose. — L' Union Pharm ; Ph. 
Ztg., No. 21, 1885.^ 



Abrus precatorius. — The poisonous spikes, or ^^sui," which are 
used in the Punjab for poisoning cattle, according to Boverton Redwood, 
are prepared as follows: The shell of the seed is removed, the seed 
softened in water and pounded into a paste, which is then rolled out 
into little cylinders, about | inch long, sharpened at one end. After 
careful drying, the cylinders are further sharpened by being rubbed on 
a brick, and are finally soaked in animal fat. The suis are fitted, for 
use, into a wooden handle, from which the point just protrudes. Upon 
a blow being struck Avith this weapon, the point of the sui penetrates 
the flesh, the sui being withdrawn from the handle, into which it is 
loosely fitted, and remaining in the wound. Death ensues on an aver- 
age in 48 hours. — Phar. Jour, and Trans., Dec. 20, 1884, p. 483. 



Am. Jonr. Pharm. 
May, 1885. 



Tincture Deposits. 



243 



TINCTURE DEPOSITS.^ 
By R. a. Cripps. 

In November, 1883, I had the honor of reading before the School 
of Pharmacy Students' Association " a report upon " Tincture De- 
posits," by which I mean that sediment which is formed in a tincture 
after filtration. (See " Amer. Jour. Phar.," 1884, p. 101.) 

That report included notices of the following tinctures : Tinct. 
calurabse, cardam. comp., chloroformi comp., cinchonse comp., cinchonse 
flavse, ferri acetatis, gentian^e comp., ipecac, lobelise inf. ?ether., quinise 
and rhei, and it was there shown that the deposits in most of these are 
of little importance; the two cinchona tinctures and that of acetate of 
iron being exceptions to the rule. 

I now purpose to continue that report, giving the results obtained 
with a few more deposits received since that time. 

Tinctura Digitalis. — The deposit from this tincture is of a pale 
greyish-green color and small in amount. It was first washed slightly 
with proof spirit, then digested for a short time with dilute acetic acid, 
and the solution filtered. The filtrate was only slightly colored, it was 
shaken twice with chloroform, the chloroformic solution removed by 
a separatory funnel and evaporated slowly to dryness. The residue 
was then tested for digitalin by the following method : A few drops 
of strong sulphuric acid were added to the contents of the dish, and 
the vapor of bromine applied, a slight violet coloration was produced 
showing the presence of a small amount of digitalin ; but it was very 
small indeed, quite insufficient for estimation, perhaps 5 per cent, of 
the whole deposit, which from 1 gallon of the tincture weighed barely 
20 grains. 

Tindura Ferri Acetatis. — Another sample of this deposit having 
been sent to me I estimated the amount of ferric oxide it contained ; 
this amounted to 76*44 per cent., showing that the deposit varies in 
composition, the former sample giving 69'77 per cent. It was similar 
in appearance to the last, and the quantity obtained from 1 pint was 
33 grains. 

Tinctura Lobeliw jEtherea. — This deposit was similar in appearance 
to that previously examined, and like it contained no lobeline, but 

1 Read at a meeting of the " School of Pharmacy Students' Association." 
February 5, 1885. 



244 



Tincture Deposits. 



f Am. Jour Pharm. 
1 May, 1885. 



proved to be a fatty body. It is no doubt formed by the slow evapora- 
tion of the ether rendering the fat less soluble. Another sample 
occurred in crystals, but was of the same nature in other respects. 

Tinctum Nucis Vomicce. — The deposit in this case was very suspici- 
ous, being white and in feathery crystals. It was carefully washed 
with rectified spirit, and the following tests applied: 

1st. Sulphuric acid and bichromate of potash. No reaction for 
strychnia, only reduction of chromate. 

2d. Nitric acid. Only faint yellow color. 

3d. Sulphuric acid and gentle heat, an orange-red color, but scarcely 
like the loganin reaction of Messrs. Dunstan and Short. 

4th. Boiling with dilute sulphuric acid, and action upon Fehling. 
None. 

These results being negative, I proceeded to dry some, and in doing 
so noticed that it melted and gave a greasy stain to paper ; this, together 
with the production of soap with caustic potash, proved it to be noth- 
ing but fat. Its melting point was found to be 117° F. From J gallon 
of tincture only about 5 grains were obtained. 

Tinctura Opii. — This deposit was very small indeed, and appeared 
as little whitish warty masses on the sides of the bottle. They proved 
to contain neither morphia nor meconic acid. 

I have also received some few deposits which, from the very uncer- 
tain nature of their active principles, I have been unable to examine ; 
they are tinct. cascarilhe, from Messrs. Thresh and Wright, and tinct. 
cuspariffi and senn^e, from Mr. Want, of Blackheath. I desire to thank 
these gentlemen and also others who have sent me these deposits. The 
remaining tinctures of the Pharmacopoeia either deposit so slightly as 
to be unimportant and to make the examination of them a waste of 
time, or the drugs are themselves so little known that any examination 
is impossible.^ 

From the results I have obtained we see that the tinctures of the 
British Pharmacopceia reuiain practically of the same strength for any 
reasonable time after preparation ; that is, in so far as one may judge 
from the nature of their deposits, although of course changes may 
occur in the clear liquid by which the amount of active principle may 
be either raised or lessened, but this is not probable. It may be said 

1 I have since received a large deposit from Mr. J. O. Braithwaite which 
occurred in tinct. hyoscyami, the examination of which will shortly be 
published. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
May, 1885. j 



Tincture Deposits. 



245 



on this account that the present tinctures are a satisfactory series of 
preparations, and if made from drugs of g(^od quality leave nothing to 
be desired in point of uniformity. But this is a great mistake, for a 
drug of good quality in one year may be very much stronger than a 
similar one in the year following, and even in the same year drugs may 
vary considerably in power and yet be very similar in physical 
characters. These statements are borne out by the results of Messrs. 
Braithwaite and Hogg in the case of cinchona, and by Messrs. Dunstan 
and Short in the case of nux vomica. These instances are especially 
selected because those experimenters worked upon the tinctures them- 
selves; but much more might be added if we took the results of ex- 
periments upon the drugs. Mr. Hogg found in tincture of cinchona 
from 0*25 per cent, to 0*58 per cent, of total alkaloids, while Mr. 
Braithwaite's results showed a variation from 0*27 9 to 0*49 per cent, 
of total alkaloids, and from 0"070 to 0'345 per cent, of ether-soluble 
alkaloids. Messrs. Dunstan and Short have shown that tincture of 
nux vomica is equally liable to variation. Of twelve samples which 
they examined the total alkaloids varied from -124 to '360 per cent., 
while the strychnia ranged from "04(3 to '131 per cent. 

From these figures, and they might be multiplied almost indefinitely, 
one draws the very natural conclusion that a series of tinctures stand- 
ardized to a given percentage of active ingredient is a most desirable 
addition to pharmacy. But one is here met with the difficulty of 
determining what constituent of the drug shall be considered the active 
principle. The alkaloids or glucosides are no doubt by far the most 
potent constituents, but still they do not fully represent the drug, or 
there would be no need to use Pharmaceutical preparations at all. 
There must therefore be some other constituent which modifies the 
action of the alkaloid, and in most cases this is either unknown or 
extremely difficult of estimation. This is where analysis fails, and 
upon this Mr. Schacht has based an argument against standardization. 
Our present knowledge of drugs, he says, is not sufficiently accurate 
to justify us in bringing forward such preparations. 

But, I ask, are we always to wait till our knowledge is absolutely 
perfect before we apply it to practical uses ? I am afraid that if this 
were done we should never see the results of any scientific work. 
Besides, it is a general law of nature that things grow by use; if the 
child did not use his early power of moving his legs, would he ever 
learn to walk? If the mind were allowed to run riot and its powers 



246 



Tincture Deposits. 



A.m. .Tour, Phariu. 
May, 1885. 



of thought left uncultivated, where would be our mathematicians, 
scientists or men of business? So with scientific knowledge. Use 
what we have for practical purposes and it will increase in the use. 
To apply it to the present case : by the practical working out of methods 
of titration a deeper knowledge of the constitution of a plant mud 
follow, which will most certainly lead step by step to a thorough know- 
ledge of its more indefinite constituents. The alkaloids alone do not 
represent the full activity of a plant, but it is fairly well established 
that a specimen containing 1 per cent, of alkaloid is stronger than one 
containing only '75 per cent., and therefore the activity of a drug may 
be measured by that alkaloid, since the other constituents are present 
in both cases. 

This applies when there is but one alkaloid, but when there are two 
or more, as in cinchona or nux vomica, the difficulty is greater. • In 
these cases it would perhaps be safest to standardize the most powerful 
to a definite amount ; but the remaining alkaloids should also be kept 
within safe limits by the wise discrimination of drugs. For example, 
in the case of nux vomica tincture, '08 per cent, of strychnia is the 
average of Messrs. Dunstan and Short's results; but I think the nux 
vomica should be so chosen as to keep the brucia within the limits of 
•10 and "lo per cent., the highest and lowest of Mr. Short's being "24 
and 'OTo per cent. The practical difficulties of dilution, etc., urged by 
Mr. Scliacht against standard extracts, cannot be applied to tinctures, 
since there can be no objection to a little spirit nwre or less. Mr. 
Schacht seems rather to indicate that the medical profession does not 
call for such preparations. If this be the case I wonder at the use of 
the alkaloids at all ; why do they not confine themselves to the old- 
fashioned infusions and extracts ? The very fact of the immense use 
of alkaloids shows plainly that if standard tinctures and extracts are 
placed before the medical profession they will be largely and readily 
prescribed. One would scarcely expect a prescription to be written 
for standard tincture of opium, for instance, until some firm has brought 
out such a preparation ; the patient could scarcely wait while the 
chemist devised a method for estimating it. 

In regard to standard extracts which, like the tinctures, shall be 
constant in strength, I have not yet had sufficient experience to speak 
very strongly as to their feasibility, but I hope soon to be able to show 
that a series of them is not only desirable but also possible. — Pharm. 
Jour, and Trans., March 21, 1885, p. 769. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
May, 1885. | 



Gleanings in Materia Medica, 



247 



GLEANINGS IN MATERIA MEDICA. 
By the Editor. 

A new cotton plant. The account of Avhich we published an abstract 
on page 116 of our February number, had been communicated by a 
correspondent residing in one of the Gulf States. From more recent 
correspondence we have become satisfied that a hybrid, as there 
described, between the cotton and okra plants has not been produced. 

Herniay^ia glabra, Limie, is recommended by Zeissl in catarrh of the 
bladder; it is given in the form of infusion, 1 gram being used with 
the same quantity of Chenopodium ambrosioides, Linne, to 1 liter of 
boiling water. The addition of milk renders the infusion more agree- 
able.— J %. Med. Ztg. 

Herniaria belongs to the order Caryophyllacea?, tribe Paronychiece, 
and grows in sandy fields throughout the greater portion of Europe 
and Northern Asia. It is inodorous, has a saline, somewhat astrin- 
gent and slightly bitter taste, and was formerly employed in dropsy, 
in diseases of the bladder and kidneys, and in hernia ; it has long 
since fallen into disuse. 

Conium macukitiim, Linne. — Lepage corroborates the observations 
made by Orfila, that the root of this plant contains very little alka- 
loid. During the spring and summer of the first year, the quantity 
of alkaloid was very minute, but in September the root contained a 
larger proj^ortion than could be obtained from roots of the second 
year's growth. — Jour. Phar. Chim, Jan., 1885, p. 10. 

Guaiacum Resin. — J. S. Ward examined three samples of this resin 
and reported his results to the Liverpool Chemists' Association, at the 
meeting held Nov. 6 last. Petroleum spirit had no solvent action. 
Alcohol dissolved 96-22, 92-96 and 87-28 per cent; ether took up 
88-89, 89-91 and 84-12 per cent., and water between 3-00 and 4-66 
per cent. The alcoholic and etherial extracts were found to be soluble 
in glacial acetic acid, and in liquor potass?e, but only partly soluble in 
chloroform and in ammonia. Two samples of the resin yielded -299 
and -334 per cent, of ash, consisting ahnost wholly of calcium salts, 
while the third sample, Avhich had yielded least to alcohol and ether, 
and most to water, gave 6-55 per cent, of ash. — Phar. Jour, and 
Trans., Nov. 2 2d, p, 413. 

Rasa.malas. — Mr. E. M. Holmes states that the information obtained 



248 



Gleanings in 3Iateria Medica. 



(Am. Jour. Pharm. 
1 May, 1885. 



from Mr. Jamie seems to confirm Haiibiiry's statement that this liquid 
storax is not obtained from the rasamala tree, Liquidambar Altin- 
giana, De CandoUe. It is imported from Arabia and Persia, and is 
valued at §30 per picul (133 J pounds). It is used for scenting clothes 
and rampah-rampah (spiceries), and for rubbing over the body, also for 
swollen testicles. It is mostly sent from Bombay to Java. The black and 
white rasamalas seem to be identical, the latter being probably colored 
for the market.— P/iar. Jour, and Trans., Dec. 20, 1884, p. 482. 

Myroxylon PereircE. — The volatile oil distilled from the fruit is 
described by Mr. E. M. Holmes as being almost colorless and of a 
sweet odor, recalling the fragrance of a field of beans in blossom. It 
is slightly altered by exposure to air, the odor approaching that of 
cedar wood. A solution of tlie oil in rectified spirit separates a white 
precipitate. The oil seems well fitted for use in perfumery, as it is not 
exactly like any known perfume. — Phar. Jour, and Trans., Dec. 20, 
1884,'p. 483. 

Abrus jvecatorius, Lin. — The structure of the seeds has been de- 
scribed by W. Tichomiroff in a paper read before the Russian Society 
of Physicians and Naturalists at Odessa. They contain oil and 
granular albuminoids, but neither aleurone nor starch, and in the 
parenchyma sometimes crystals of stearic acid or hesperidin. The 
testa is composed of four layers, viz., (1) Rods, colorless in the red 
part, but purple-violet in the black spot ; (2) Palisade cells, branch- 
ing and at the lower end folded and of small diameter ; (3) Parenchyma, 
tangentially elongated ; (4) Albumen the cells of the inner layer being 
flattened radially and at length coalescing into a homogeneous pellicle 
which cannot l)e decomposed into its separate cells by maceration in 
chromic acid, and which swells strongly in caustic potash. The 
liilum has two layers of rods, and the palisade cells are replaced by 
sclerenchyma. By chloride of iron the presence of tannin can be re- 
cognized in the albuminous layer and rods. — Pharm. Jour, and Trans., 
September 6. 1884. 

Terminalia Chebula, Relzius. — The dried immature fruits furnish the 
Turkish drug kara kalileh," the black myrobalans of old writers. They 
are shriveled, black, hard, ^ to | inch long, with a shining fracture and 
very astringent taste. Mr. Dickson states that the drug is a mild tonic 
laxative, in great repute among the Mecca pilgrims, probably because the 
hadjis tell them that the Prophet praised its virtues. It should be bro- 
ken up into a coarse powder and swallowed, has a ligneous bitterish flavor, 



Am, Jour. Fharm. 
May, 1885. 



Gleanings in Materia 3Iedica. 



249 



and in the dose of a drachm acts as a very mild laxative. The Indian 
Pharmacopoeia mentions the drng as combinino; mild pnrgative with 
carminative and tonic properties. — Phar. Jour, and Trans., Dec. 20, 
1884, p. 483. 

Chinese Rhubarb. — Mr. Wm. Elborne, Assistant Lecturer on Mate- 
ria Medica, Owens College, states that Chinese or East Indian rhubarb 
consists of two varieties, of which one possesses the characteristic 
white lattice-worked venation with a red grained fracture, while the 
other possesses a longitudinal ramification of white veins with a black 
grained fracture. The first variety is referred by the author to Rheum 
palmatum, var. tanguticum, from which plant, the author believes, also 
the highly esteemed extinct Russian and Turkey varieties w^re obtained. 
The second variety is yielded by Rh. officinale, and agrees in all essen- 
tial characters with the roots from this species cultivated by Rufus 
Usher, of Bodicote. — Phar. Jour, and Trans., Dec. 20, 1884, p. 497. 

Homoquinine and. eupreine. — The researches of O. Hesse and of B. 
H. Paul and A. J. Cownley (see " Amer. Jour. Phar.,'^ 1884, pp. 515 
and 575), have been supplemented by others made by the same 
authr^rs. 

O. Hesse (Annalen, vol. 206, p. 240), corroborates the observation 
of Paul and Cownley that homoquinine on being treated with caustic 
soda is split into quinine and eupreine, yielding approximately 52 per 
cent, of the former and 48 per cent, of the latter alkaloid. Cupreine 
crystallizes from ether in colorless concentrically grouped small prisms, 
melts at 191° C, dissolves in dilute sulphuric acid without fluorescence 
and this solution gives with chlorine and excess of ammonia the green 
color like quinine but less intense. The neutral sulphate crystallizes 
in delicate prisms sparingly soluble in cold water, and the chlorhydrate 
forms small needles. The alkaloid combines also with bases, the 
sodium compound crystallizing in colorless satiny scales. Homo- 
quinine is a compound of the latter class and is obtained by crystal- 
lizing from ether a mixture in proper proportion of quinine and 
cupreine. The composition of the new alkaloid is being investigated 
by the author. 

Paul and Cownley (" Phar. Jour, and Trans.," November 22, 1884, 
p. 401), obtained from homoquinine 62 37 per cent, of cupreine and 
37*63 of quinine, and succeeded likewise in ])reparing homoquinine 
synthetically by crystallizing the mixed alkaloids from ether, quinine 
if used in excess, remaining in solution. A number of salts prepared 



250 



Gleanings in Materia Medica. 



J Am. Jour. Phariu. 
t May, 1885. 



by the authors show that cu])reine as well as homoquinine must be 
regarded as distinct alkaloids, and that the characters of the tartrate of 
the latter may to some extent account for the fact that De Vrij and 
others came to the conclusion that cuprea bark contains cinchonidine. 



Cupreine. 

Sulphate. Solutions easily super- 
saturated ; at the surface the salt 
separates as minute white specks, 
which under tiie magnifyin^^ glass 
show radiating needles. 

Acid Sulphate. Much less soluble 
than the homociuinine salt; tlie 
concentrated solution yields dis- 
tinct tufts of radiating acicular 
crystals. 

Hydrochlorate. Much loss soluble 
than the homoquinine salt ; dis- 
tinctly crystallizable in bunches of 
long glassy needles. 

Nitrate. Very soluble; di.stinctly 
crystallizable in tufts of long stout 
radiating needles. 

Oxalate. Ai^parently uncrystalliz- 
able, the solution drying up to a 
resinoid residue, with a few crystal- 
line spots. 

Tartrate. Much more soluble than 
the homoquinine salt. 

Hydriodate. Sparingly soluble in 
water ; distinctly crystallizable 
without any sign of a resinoid de- 
posit. 

Acid solutions. No fluorescence. 

j Ver^' soluble 
Caustic Soda, 10 per | in the cold, 

cent solution. f and without 
J decomposition. 
Strong alcohol. Le-^s soluble than 

homoquinine; crystallizes very 

readily in dense warty groups of 

minute crystals. 
From etht r. Crystals more massive 

than next, arranged in groups and 

conspicuously striated trans- 

verselv. 



Homoquinijie. 

Much more soluble than the cu- 
preine salt ; separates in slender 
needles, sometitnes grouped in 
stellate bunches and presenting 
characters closely analogous to 
those of quinine sulphate. 

By spontaneous evaporation the 
solution becomes syrupy and then 
solidifies as a gelatinous slightly 
fluorescent residue of very small 
bulk comparatively. 

Solution in drying up leaves an 
amorphous resinoid residue. 



Solution dries up to a resinous resi- 
due showing no sign of crystalliza- 
tion. 

Much less soluble than the cupreine 
salt ; delicate needles formed at 
the surface .and becoming opaque 
on drying. 

Very sparingly soluble, in many re- 
sjiects resembling cinchonidine 
tartrate. 

Faintly yellow resinoid mass, very 
similar'tothat furnished by quinine 
salts with potassium iodide. 

Very marked fluorescence. 
Decomposed into quinine and cu- 
preine. 



Very soluble; solution dries up 
almost to an amorphous residue 
before showing any signs of 
crystals in minute bunches. 

Very thin prismatic laminae, having 
characteristically shaped ends 
with two oblique planes. 



Sarcocephalus esculentus, Afzelius, s. Cephalina esculenta, Schu- 
macher , nat. ord. Cinchonaceae, grows from Senegambia to the Gaboon, 
from 16° N. lat. to 5° S. lat., and is known in the Sousou tongue as 
" doundake/' in the Touconleur as ''jadali/^ in the Bassa country as 
dorg,'' and in Sierra Leone as " amelliky.^' The root is sometimes 



^""'May'^'iSr™"} Gleanings in Ilateria Medica. 251 

exported from West Africa under the name of peach root. Heekell 
and SclilagdenliaufFen consider it valuable as an astringent and febri- 
fuge and as a yellow dye. The bark is sometimes mixed with the 
bark of Morinda citrifolia, M. longiflora, (r. Don, and M. Doun- 
dakee, Heckel, the latter being regaided by Oliver as a variety of the 
second species. Doundake bark from Sierra Leone, Avhen young, is 
grayish, smooth, somewhat fissured, and has small, hard, distant excres- 
cences of a darker color ; older bark becomes more blackish, the cracks 
multiply and the epidermis falls off as a reddish dust; the inner sur- 
face is ochrey yellow and striated longitudinally; the liber fibres sepa- 
rate easily in lamellae; the bark has a bitter taste and tinges the saliva 
yellow, while the corky layer is astringent only. Doundake bark from 
Boke (Rio Nunez) differs in the absence of the blackish excrescences, 
the inner surface is of a darker yellow, the outer layer is less astrin- 
gent and the liber is more bitter, but the anatomical structure is iden- 
tical. The authors have not been able to obtain the alkaloidal principle 
indicated by Bochefontaine, Feris and Marcus, but have found the 
bitterness to be due to two nitrogenous coloring principles of a resinoid 
character, differing in their solubility in alcohol and water and having 
the formulas C28HjgNOi3 and CigH^gNOg ; the other constituents found 
are glucose, traces of tannin and a tasteless jirinciple soluble in potassa. 
The morindas yield a bitter and astringent bark. — Phar. Jour, and 
Trans., Jan. 31, 1885, p. 614; Compt Bend., C, 69. 

Hedychiwn spicatuni. — Nat. ord. Zingiberacete. — The plant is a na- 
tive of the Himalayas, and the rhizome is known in Hindoostan as 
kafur-kachri or kajour-kachri , and is kept dried in slices which are J to 
f inch in diameter and from J to f inch in thickness. The transverse 
section is white and starchy and exhibits a large central portion, con- 
taining scattered minute vascular bundles, and separated by a faint 
line from the cortical portion. Externally the pieces are covered with 
a tough, wrinkled, reddish-brown epidermal layer. The taste is aro- 
matic and slightly pungent The odor may be described as interme- 
diate between storax and rhubarb. 

A proximate analysis, made by John C. Thresh, gave the following 
results: soluble in petroleum ether 5 9, soluble in alcohol (indifferent 
substance precipitated by tannin, acid resin, etc.) 2-7, glucoside or sugar 
1*0, mucilage 2'8, albuminoids and organic acid 1-9, starch 52-3, 
moisture 13'6, ash 4*6, cellulose, etc., 15*2 per cent. 

The benzin extract yielded colorless, inodorous, tabular crystals 



252 



Experiments on Strychnine, 



( Am. Jour. Pliarra . 
( May, 1885. 



which appear to be ethyl-methyl-paracoumaric acid, 2*9 parts of the 
extract consisted of fat with the odorous principle; a minute portion of 
this oily liquid dropped upon clothes renders them highly odorous for 
a considerable length of time, the odor recalling that of hyacinths. — 
Phar. Jour, and Tians., Nov. 8, 1884, p. 361. 



SOME EXPERIMENTS ON STRYCHNINE. 

By W. a. Shenstone, 
Lecturer on Cheniistrij in Clifton College. 

In 1883 Trans.," p. 101), I read a paper before the Society show- 
ing that brucine contains two methoxyl groups, and is probably a 
dimethoxyl derivative of strychnine, as rej)resented by the formula 
C2,H2,j(CH30)2N202. I have been unavoidably delayed in the further 
examination of this question, but am now working upon it in conjunc- 
tion with Mr. A. Richardson. 

Meanwhile, my experimental results have been in some degree con- 
firmed by the work of A. Hans-sen (^er., vol. 17, ]). 2266), who has obtained 
methyl chloride and a complementary base from brucine by the use 
of the same reagent that I employed, viz., hydrochloric acid. Appa- 
rently Hanssen was unaware of my exj)eriments, and he has not 
carried the action so far as I did, nor has he noticed its probable 
l)earing on the relationship between the two alkaloids in nux vomica 
beans. Since this relation between these bodies occurred to me, I 
have been much interested in the constitution of strychnine, and, 
amid many interruptions, have lately made the experiments recorded 
in this paper. Meanwhile several other chemists have also turned 
their attention to the subject. Thus, Plugge ('X1iem. News," 1883), 
by oxidizing it with potassium permanganate, has obtained an acid, 
CiiHjiN03,H20 ; Hanriot has re-examined nitrostryclyiine ; Gold- 
schmidt {Ber.^ vol. 15, p. 1977) has recognized, qualitatively, indole as a 
product of the distillation of strychnine with caustic potash ; and 
Scichilone and Magnanimi (" Gazzetta," vol. 12, p. 444) believe that by 
distillation with zinc-dust they have obtained a new isomeride of 
the known lutidines from strychnine. 

At the end of my last paper, I expressed my intention of working 
on strychnine in future, as I had reason for thinking it would prove 
more satisfactory than brucine ; and at the subsequent suggestion of 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ") 
May, 1885. J 



Experiments on Strychnine. 



253 



Dr. Armstrong, who I believe some years ago had a similar object in 
view, I decided to employ its bromo-derivative, as likely to give better 
results, and in order that at the same time the physiological action of 
this compound might be examined. This, as a subsequent paper will 
show, has been done by Dr. Lauder Brunton. 

The halogen compounds of strychnine have been already incom- 
pletely investigated, Herapath and Tilden having prepared some iodine 
compounds, and Laurent those of chlorine and bromine. 

Laurent observed that when bromine is added to a strong solution of 
strychnine hydrochloride and the resinous precipitate is filtered off, the 
solution yields to ammonia a precipitate of bromostrychnine, crystal- 
lizing from spirit and forming a crystalline hydrochloride. As I had 
reason for thinking that nearly all the alkaloid would be precipitated 
as resin if this method were followed, I attempted, but without success, 
to prepare bromostrychnine by adding a solution of bromine in chloro- 
form to solution of strychi-ine in the same solvent. I found, how- 
ever, that by adding bromine- water to the hydrochloride dissolved 
in 50 to 100 times its weight of water, no considerable proportion of 
resin was formed till two equivalent proportions of bromine had been 
added. From this solution, alkalis threw down a solid, insoluble in 
water, and crystallizing beautifully from warm alcohol ; this evi- 
dently corresponded with Laurent's compound. There was no diffi- 
culty in completely converting strychnine into this substance. 

A portion was crystallized in two fractions. 0'2626 gram of the 
first fraction gave 0*1188 gram silver bromide, equivalent to 19* 23 
per cent, of bromine; 0'3070 gram of the second fraction gave 0*1383 
gram of AgBr, equivalent to 19*15 of bromine. 

Theory for C2iH2iBrN202 requires 19*37 per cent, bromine. 

The platinochloride of this compound is not quite stable ; its color 
slightly changes during drying. A specimen was examined, however, 
and was found to contain 17*2 per cent. Pt, as against 16*03 required 
by the above formula. 

The crystallography of bromostrychnine is given in a separate note 
by Mr. H. A. Miers. The crystals are rectangular tables of the 
rhombic system ; a:b:c = 1*45907 : 1 : 1*19457. 

I found bromostrychnine to be fairly soluble in cold, and more so in 
hot alcohol ; also soluble in chloroform. It unites very readily with 
methyl iodide, the methiodide separating in crystals when methyl 
iodide is added to an alcoholic solution of monobromostrychnine. 



254 



Experiments on Strychnine. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
( May, 1885. 



Monobromostrychnine forms a hydrochloride, which, on evaporation, 
yields gelatinous masses, and these soon set into silky needles. 

Having observed that by the addition of four equivalent propor- 
tions of bromine to solutions of strychnine practically all the strych- 
nine is thrown down as the resin mentioned by Laurent, I was led to 
suspect its nature. If precipitated at about 40°, it can be secured 
easily as a bright yellow powder, which sloAvly evolves bromine, is 
insoluble in water and chloroform, but soluble in alcohol. On analysis, 
0*1262 gram gave 0-1293 gram of AgBr, equivalent to 43*58 per 
cent, of Br. It is therefore dibromide of monobromostrychnine, 
C.jitl2i^^'^2^25B''2 (^^'hich requires 41*8 per cent, bromine), a little 
contaminated with some other more highly l)rominated substance. 
This was confirmed: 1. By the fact that the same body is thrown 
down on adding l)romine to solution of bromnstrychnine. 2. That by 
the action of ammotiia, it is changed to a white substance, having all 
the properties of bromostrychnine. A specimen of bromostrychnine 
made in this way was found to contain 21*17 per cent, of bromine, 
theory requiring 19*37. This is what would be expected from the 
above facts. 

Dibvomostrychnine. — When the above precijiitate is heated with its 
mother-liquor for some hour.s, it presently dissolves. This led me to 
hope th it dibromostrychnine was formed by the reaction C2iH2iBr 
NA'Br, = G,iH.,Br,NA,HBr. 

Analyses of the products always show great deficiency of bromine, 
so there is no doubt that oxidation occurs. Neither did I succeed in 
effecting the above reaction by heating the dry solid, or by exposing 
it to sunlight. If, however, solution of bromine in chloroform is 
added cautiously to a solution of strychnine in the same liquid, there 
is not much precipitation until two equivalents of bromine have been 
added. After that, it is rapidly precipitated, probably as a dibromide, 
analogous to that above described. If the addition of bromine is 
stopped at the right point, and the solution is treated with alkali, it 
gives, on evaporation, a resin-like residue, rather easily decomposed by 
heat; this does not appear to be crystalline. Analysis of a specimen 
showed it to contain 35*3 per cent, of bromine ; so probably it is 
dibromostrychnine with the formula C2iIl2oBr2N202, which requires 
32*5 per cent. Br, contaminated with some more highly brominated 
product. Although I have not succeeded in its purification, I hope 
it will prove useful in some future work. 



Am. Juur. Phaim ) 
May, 1885. j 



Experiments on Strychnine. 



255 



(Jhlorostrychnine. — Before proceeding to describe my further expe- 
riments with bromostrychnine, I may point out that, although I have 
not made any experiments on chJorostrychnine, yet the above affords 
an explanation of the discordant results obtained by Laurent and 
Pelletier. 

The former, by a method analogous to that by which he obtained 
bromostrychnine, prepared a substance which yielded a crystalline sul- 
phate, and was shown by analysis to be chlorostrychnine, C21H21CIN2O ; 
whilst Pelletier, by completely precipitating a solution of strychnine 
with chlorine, obtained a compound which contained 24' 57 per cent, 
of chlorine. From the mode of its formation, and from the fact that 
the formula for dichloride of monochlorostrychnine requires 24*2 |)er 
cent, of chlorine, I think there can be no doubt that Pelletier's com- 
pound stands in the same relation to Laurent's that the above described 
dibromide does to Laurent's monobromostrychnine ; so that for the 
present I have not thought it necessary to examine .them, although 
possibly they may be of value in the future progress of this work. 

Actio7i of Nitric Acid on Bromostrychnine. — When this compound 
is heated with excess of strong nitric acid for some hours, copious red 
fumes are evolved, and the bromine appears to be almost entirely ex- 
pelled. On concentrating and diluting, a resinous precipitate forms, 
which consists of the nitrated bodies that have been examined with 
somewhat varying results by Nicholson and Abel, Glaus, Hanriot, and 
others. The amount of this resin represents a very large proportion 
of the materials used. The liquid separated from this precipitate was 
found to have a bright yellow color, and dyed silk. On neutralizing 
it with potassium carbonate and concentrating, a crop of crystals w^as 
obtained which resembled potassium picrate in appearance and solu- 
bility ; they were explosive. After recrystallization, a portion was 
examined quantitatively. 

0-2386 gram gave 0-0758 gram of K2SO4. This is equivalent to 
14-2 per cent, of potassium. The picrate requires 14-6 per cent. 

The acid itself was isolated by extraction with ether from an acid 
solution of the salt. The residue, on evaporation, melted at about 
120° ; it is therefore the 1:2:4:6 trinitrophenol. 

On repeating the above treatment with strychnine itself, I got a 
similar result. When I used ordinary strong nitric acid, I secured 
6 J per cent, of picrate ; so that allowing for the inevitable loss in work- 
ing on a small scale, probable the amount was not less than 10 per 



256 



Active Principle of Senna Leaves. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1885. 



cent. ; and as I estimate that at least half the strychnine remained in 
the form of insoluble nitrostrychnines, this may be regarded as repre- 
senting perhaps nearly 20 per cent, of the material actually acted on. 
When fuming nitric acid was employed, the yield was rather greater, 
for 12 per cent, of potassium salt was secured. It was, however, ac- 
companied by another substance which could not be removed except 
with considerable loss, so that the exact amount of picrate was uncer- 
tain. 

It is singular that this formation of trinitrophenol in a reaction that 
has been so frequently studied, should have been overlooked hitherto. 
It is of considerable interest, for it appears to indicate, in the first 
place, that strychnine contains a benzene-riug of carbon-atoms, and 
secondly, that it may perhaps contain one or more hydroxyl-groups ; 
the latter inference is supported by the behavior of strychnine under 
the action of the alkaline oxidizing agents used. This, if correct, is 
important, as there are so few cases among the alkaloids in which the 
manner in Avhich the oxygen is united is know^n. 

I am continuing my experiments on this subject, and hope to be 
able to carry on the work without interruption in the future, and also 
to extend my observations to other alkaloids. — Jour, Chem. Soc, 
March, 1885, pp. 139. 

THE ACTIVE PRINCIPLE OF SENNA LEAVES.^ 
By Ralph Stockman, M.B., 

Assistant to Professor of Materia Medica, Uaiversiti/ of Edinburgh. 

Although the literature of the senna plant, as given by Martins,^ is 
verv extensive, and dates at least from the year 1496, it was not till 
1821 that a systematic attempt was made to determine the nature of 
the active principle, and the other constituents of the leaves. In that 
year, Lassaigne and Feneulle^ investigated the subject very fully, and 
described as the active principle a body which they named cathartin. 
As their results afterwards became the subject of a good deal of dis- 
cussion and contradiction, it may be interesting to describe briefly the 
method by which they obtained cathartin. 

' Read at a meeting of the North British Branch of the Pharmaceutical 
Society, February 18. 
2" Versuch einer Monographie der Sennesblatter," Leipzig, 1857. 
3 Annates de Chimie et de Physique, xvi, 1821. 



5[i'!;y;^885!™"} Active Principle of Senna Leaves. 257 

The watery decoction of the leaves was treated with acetate of lead, 
filtered, the excess of lead in the filtrate removed by sulphuretted 
hydrogen, and the sulphide of lead got rid of by again filtering. 
This second filtrate was then evaporated to dryness, and treated with 
spirit of wine, the alcoholic solution being subsequently eva|3orated to 
the consistence of an extract, again treated with spirit of wine con- 
taining sulphuric acid (to precipitate the sulphate of ])otash which is 
insoluble in alcohol), and filtered. The excess of sulphuric acid was 
neutralized with acetate of lead, and the excess of the latter removed 
in its turn with sulphuretted hydrogen. On evaporating the liquid, 
cathartin was obtained. They describe it as being yellow in color, 
actively purgative, and give an account of its solubility in various 
menstrua. They also isolated a body which they thought to be the 
coloring matter of the leaves. Heerlein,^ however, found that cath- 
artin prepared as above was quite inert as a purgative, and that the 
same holds good for the tincture made from the leaves with strong 
alcohol. 

There appeared about the same time several other papers on senna, 
none of which are of much importance with the exception of one by 
Bley and Diesel.^ These chemists obtained a brown extractive body 
which they considered identical with cathartin, and a yellow resin 
which they named chrysoretin, on account of its resemblance to chrys- 
ophanic acid. They took the chrysoretin in doses up to 30 grains, the 
brown resin to 60 grains, and the cathartin to 90 grains without caus- 
diarrhoea. They came to the conclusion that the taste, odor and pur- 
gative qualities of the drug depend on the combined action of the 
brown extractive matter and the chrysoretin, and that the inorganic 
salts and other constituents of the drug are quite inert. 

Following this came a series of papers from Buchheim's laboratory. 
The first of these is by Tundermann,^ who stated that the active prin- 
ciple is very sparingly extracted by alcohol of 85 per cent, strength, 
and therefore tried to obtain it by precipitating the watery infusion 
with strong alcohol. The resulting precipitate when dried formed a 
brown powder, which was strongly purgative. He states positively 
that it is not the cathartin of Lassaigne and Feneulle, but thinks that 

' FharmaceutisGhes Centralblatt, 1847. 
Archiv der Fharmacie, Bd. 105. 
Meletemata de Senn?e Foliis," Dorpat, 1856. 
17 



258 



Active Principle of Senna Leaves. 



f Am Jour. Pliarm. 
1 May, 1885. 



the body which is excreted in the urine and which gives the well- 
known reddish coloration on the addition of an alkali, is identical 
with the chrysoretin of Bley and Diesel. Sawicky^ treated the watery 
infusion of the leaves with acetate of lead, decomposed the precipitate 
with sulphuretted hydrogen, and then extracted with alcohol, which 
took up all the active principle. On evaporating the alcohol he ob- 
tained a body which readily combined with calcined magnesia — the 
combination so formed being very purgative. His conclusions are of 
importance, viz., that the active principle is an organic acid soluble 
in alcohol, but the salts of which are quite insoluble in that men- 
struum. 

The further investigations, two in number, conducted under Buch- 
heim's direction, call for little mention, except that in one of them the 
active principle was lirst named cathartic acid. 

In the Monographic der Sennesblatter " of Martins we find a 
long account of the botanical sources, etc., of the senna leaves, but 
only a comparatively short portion of the book is devoted to a consid- 
eration of their chemistry. He examined the so-called cathartin care- 
fully, and found it to consist of a mixture of inorganic acids and 
bases, coloring matter, sugar, etc., and also that it is non-purgative. 
By digesting the leaves with dilute soda solution, adding sulphuric 
acid, and allowing the sulphate of soda to crystallize out, he obtained 
from the crystals, on shaking them up with ether, a yellow body, 
which he says consists of chrysoplianic acid, pha^oretin and aporetin 
(the same bodies as are found in rhubarb). The chrysophanic acid 
was in such small amount that he had not enough to apply the 
ordinarv chemical tests to, and yet lie gives as his opinion that it is 
the sole active constituent in the leaves. Chrysoretin he found to con- 
sist of a volatile oil and coloring matter. 

The most valuable contribution to the subject, however, is that of 
Kubly.^ He evaporated in vacuo the watery infusion of the leaves to 
the consistence of a syrup, and then, by adding an equal quantity of 
alcohol, threw down the inorganic salts and mucus. The filtrate was 
precipitated with large excess of alcohol, the precipitate dissolved in 
water, and again precipitated with alcohol. This was repeated again 
and again, hydrochloric acid being finally used to precipitate albu- 

1 " Qusedam de Efficaci Folioruin Seniise," etc., Dorpat, 1857. 
2 Ueber das wirksame Princip imd einige andere Bestandtheile der Sen- 
nesbldtter, 1865. 



^"''Ma^'iSi'''^"''} Active Pr'mciple of Senna Leaves. 259 

minous substances. He describes the acid as shiny bhick in color and 
non-crystalline, insoluble in ether, absolute alcohol and water, but 
soluble in dilute alcohol. He assigns to it the formula Cj8oH950g2N2S, 
and shows that it is a glucoside, being easily split up into glucose and 
a body which he names cathartogenic acid. In addition he gives some 
experiments to show that it is a colloid and diffuses with great diffi- 
culty through animal membranes. 

Rau^ obtained a crystalline body which he named sennin, but 
Kubly^ has since shown that it consists simply of sulphur and a bitter 
stuff. 

More lately Bourgoin and Bouchut^ have stated that in the leaves 
there are three purgative bodies — chrysophanic acid, cathartic acid 
and another unnamed substance. They do not appear, however, to 
have tested the physiological action of the bodies which they sepa- 
rated. 

The above is as brief an account as possible of all the literature on 
the subject which I have been able to find. The results of Kubly are 
those which are to be found in most of the standard text-books of the 
present day, but the formula which he has assigned to cathartic acid 
rouses the suspicion that he was not dealing with a pure body but 
with a mixture. This idea, coupled with a desire to investigate more 
fully the action of senna as a purgative, led me to undertake a further 
investigation of the subject. 

In my first attempts to isolate the acid I used as precipitants various 
salts of lead, lime, copper and soda, but invariably obtained by these 
methods a substance, which although strongly purgative always con 
tained a considerable amount of nitrogen. Finally, baryta was used, 
and by its use a pure cathartate may be got. The method which was 
finally adopted was as follows: The fol. senn^e spiritu extracta were 
thoroughly moistened with very dilute sulphuric acid in order to set 
free the cathartic acid from its salts, and then all the matters soluble 
in cold or hot alcohol were extracted. The alcoholic solution was 
then precipitated with hot saturated solution of baryta, which was 
added until it no longer gave a precipitate. The whole was then fil- 
tered, the residue well washed, and having been put into a glass vessel 
a stream of carbonic acid gas was passed through it for some hours. 

' American Journal of Pharmacij, 1866. 
Vierteljahrschrift f.prakt. Phartn., Bd. xvii. 
Jahresberieht ilber die Fortachritte der Chemie, 1871. 



260 



Active Principle of Senna Leaves. 



j Am. Jour Pharm. 
t May, 1885. 



It was again filtered, and as the CO2 does not decompose all the cath- 
artate of baryta the cathartic acid is found partly free in the filtrate 
and partly as cathartate of baryta in the residue on the filter. The 
latter, after treatment with sulphuric acid and filtering, yields a light 
brown colored filtrate, which was repeatedly shaken up with ether to 
remove the coloring matter arising from a slight decomposition of the 
cathartic acid. It was then carefully neutralized with lead carbonate 
or oxide at a very slightly elevated temperature, filtered, and so much 
alcohol and ether added to the filtrate that a moderate precipitate 
occurred. After again filtering, the filtrate was treated with very 
great excess of alcohol and ether, the resulting precipitate of cathar- 
tate of lead collected on a filter, washed with alcohol, and dried in 
vacuo over sulphuric acid. There remains in the alcohol-ether, how- 
ever, a considerable quantity of cathartic acid, because the neutral 
cathartate of lead seems during the precipitation to form both a basic 
and an acid salt, the latter of which is not thrown down. 

To obtain the baryta salt, the same method practically is used 
barium hydrate being substituted for lead. The neutral solution, 
however, is only very slightly precipitated by alcohol-ether, and hence 
baryta water must be added to it, thus greatly facilitating the precipi- 
tation. 

In the filtrate obtained after treating the original barium precipitate 
with CO2 there is also a large amount of cathartic acid, which may be 
recovered by adding acetate of lead, treating the precipitate with sul- 
phuric acid, filtering, and then adding to the filtrate baryta water. 
The resulting precipitate is then washed and from it either the lead or 
barium salt obtained as before. 

By this method a large quantity of th() cathartic acid is undoubt- 
edly lost, unless the various filtrates and precipitates be re- worked, but 
after trial of many other methods and modifications of this method, I 
have found that by it the purest specimens of cathartic acid are 
obtained. The chief points in it are: (1) that the solutions of the 
active substance must never be evaporated by, or even exposed to heat, 
as thereby, whether the solution be acid, alkaline or neutral, decompo- 
sition is certain to ensue. This was proved by a series of special 
experiments. And (2) the use of must be avoided, as it was 
probably from this that the sulphur in Kubly's acid arose. 

The salts have the following characteristics : Cathartate of lead is a 
non-crystalline, grayish powder. The neutral salt is readily soluble 



^^■j^^°j;'"-g^^arni.| Actwe Principle of Seyina Leaves. 261 

in water, the basic salt insoluble, or nearly so, and on treatment with 
water, the former splits into an acid and basic salt. The baryta salt 
behaves in the same way. When in mass it is almost black in color, 
but when finely powdered becomes yellowish red. When quite pure 
neither salt contains either nitrogen or sulphur, and hence the presence 
of these bodies in Kubly's cathartic acid must be attributed to impu- 
rities. If the salts be decomposed with sulphuric acid and then fil- 
tered, a clear brown solution of the free acid is obtained. The test for 
its purity consists in agitating it with ether, when the latter should 
remain quite colorless. It is almost tasteless. 

Comparatively few experiments were needed to demonstrate the 
physiological action of cathartic acid. 

A solution of the free acid was carefully neutralized with sodium 
carbonate, and a portion of it given by the mouth to a rabbit. Within 
an hour very violent diarrho?a occurred, which lasted for two or three 
hours, at the end of which time the animal died. Smaller doses caused 
simj)ly violent diarrh(»a. The urine in all cases gave a red color on 
the addition of caustic potash, just as it does when the ordinary phar- 
macopoeial preparations of senna leaves have been administered. 
Post-mortem, examinations were made in four cases, when the only 
changes found were inflammation and hyper?emia of the intestinal 
mucous membrane. 

It has been stated that the senna preparations, when injected directly 
into the blood, are capable of causing purgation,^ and to test this a 
series of experiments was made. I began by giving small doses sub- 
cutaneously and by the jugular vein, but, finding them without efl^ect, 
increased the dose given until it was twice as large as that which had 
caused violent diarrhoea and death when given by the mouth. In no 
case did purgation follow the administration. The animal simply 
appeared out of sorts for the next few days, probably chiefly from the 
cflects of the operation. In all these cases the urine gave the caustic 
potash reaction, showing that the cathartic acid had become decom- 
posed in the blood. 

The investigation of the chemical relationships and decomposition 
products of cathartic acid ofi^ers many difficulties, owing largely to the 
instability of the bodies with which one has to deal and to the small 
quantities obtained. 

1 Compare Nasse " Beitr. zur Physiologie der Darmbewegung," Leipzig, 
1866; Wood " Treatise on Tlierapeutics," 3d edit., p. 464. 



262 Active Principle of Senna Leaves. {^'^'£y\m^'''^^ 

If the solution of the acid or one of its salts be boiled for a few 
minutes with a dilute mineral acid, the clear solution becomes turbid 
and throws down a yellowish brown precipitate mixed with black 
flecks ; these latter collect themselves into a black mass, and finally 
form the only decomposition product which is insoluble in water. It 
is the cathartogenic acid of Kubly (also purgative), but contains other 
bodies as well. In the filtered solution there is present a kind of glu- 
cose which reduced Fehling's solution, but could not be got to ferment 
with yeast. Boiling with caustic potash also decomposes cathartic 
acid, but the products were not investigated. 

The yellowish brown precipitate was next examined. It was sepa- 
rated from the other matters present by agitation with ether, which dis- 
solves it, the yellow ethereal solution being then poured off. On evap- 
orating the ether a light orange colored resinous- looking body is left be- 
hind. It is insoluble in water, but was purified by dissolving it in a 
small quantity of sodium carbonate solution from which it was pre- 
cipitated by the addition of hydrochloric acid, the precipitate being 
collected on a filter, well washed with water and finally dissolved in 
alcohol. On evaporating the alcohol, a dark brown amorphous body 
is obtained, which however consists of various constituents. On 
treating it with ether a portion of it only is dissolved, the solution 
being of a pure yellow color. This body is also amorphous, and 
on the addition of an alkali gives a bright cherry-red color, being 
probably the substance which gives this reaction in the urine. It^ 
howev^er, is also not a simple substance, as it undergoes further 
changes on being boiled with an acid. 

Among the decomposition products of cathartic acid is also found a 
body which is present in commercial chrysarobin. It is obtained from 
chrysarobin by treating the latter with ether, whereby a small portion 
of it is dissolved. The ethereal solution is then washed with very 
dilute potassium hydrate, and the substance obtained by allowing it to 
crystallize out from a hot alcohol-chloroform solution. This body 
is almost identical with chrysarobin, but differs from it in so far as 
that when dissolved in strong caustic potash and exposed to the air it 
is not oxidized into chrysophanic acid, and in fact seems to undergo no 
change whatever. 

If this body be oxidized by boiling it with Fehling's solution, and 
after the addition of HCl the whole be shaken up with ether, a por- 
tion of it is dissolved. The ethereal solution is dichroous, being by 



Am Jonr. Pltarm 
May, 1885. 



Active Principle of Senna Leaves. 



263 



direct light of a beautiful emerald greeu and by reflected light of a • 
fine red color, just ay chlorophyll is. Its absorption bands in the 

spectrum are also very similar to those of chlorophyll. The amount j 

of this coloring matter is very minute, the principal product, after the i 

above treatment with Fehling, being a body of a pure reddish brown j 

color which is insoluble in alkalies, acids and other menstrua, and j 

only very sparingly soluble in boiling chloroform and acetic ether, ] 

to which it imparts a violet cohjr. If cathartic acid, after being j 

decomposed by boiling with dilute HCl, be treated in the same way I 

with Fehling, etc., the product gives exactly the same reactions. The j 

reaction could invariably be obtained with chrysarobin, but not with j 

cathartic acid, the explanation probably being that with too little boil- ' 

ing the body is not formed, and with too prolonged boiling it is fur- '] 

ther decomposed. Nothing definite could be made out as regards its j 

relations to cathartic acid. i 

From the results given above it may be safely inferred that cath- I 

artic acid is a colored glucoside. On boiling with acids a simple i 

decomposition into glucose and the coloring matter does not take j 

place, because at the same time a whole series of intermediate products ■ 

are formed, the investigation and identification of which would con- ; 

sume a vast amount of time. From the results of a few experiments i 

which were afterwards made it seems probable that the difficulties | 

would be lessened by usin^ KHO instead of HCl to decompose the 1 

acid. ! 

An ultimate analysis to determine its formula was not made, because 

in a free state it is so easily decomposed and therefore difficult to ; 
obtain quite pure, and also because it was so difficult to obtain its 
salts otherwise than as a mixture of the neutral and basic cathar- 
tates. All the purgative substances which up to the present time 
have been separated, either pure or as decomposition products of 
glucosides from rhubarb, senna and rhamnus — viz., chrysophanic acid, 

cathartic acid, emodin and many other unnamed bodies — act locally as , 

irritants, and hence as purgatives when introduced into the alimentary ; 

canal. A colloid glucoside like cathartic acid has an especially violent I 
action, as it is absorbed with great difficulty, and hence traverses the 

greater part of the intestines. Its decom])osition products act in the ■ 
same manner. 

In conclusion, I have to express my thanks to Professor Schmiede- 

berg, of Strassburg, for much valuable advice while carrying out this I 

investigation. — Phar. Jonr. and Trans., March, 1885, p. 740. j 



264 



Active Principle of Indian Hemp. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I May, 1885. 



THE ACTIVE PRINCIPLE OF INDIAN HEMP.^ | 

By Surgeons Warden and Waddee, 1 

Bengal Medical Service. i 

One of the most serious drawbacks to the medicinal use of this powerful • 
drug {Can7iab is Indica) is that we cannot depend upon its preparations 

being possessed of activity ; moreover, the large amount of resin in each ,': 
dose is often productive of gastric disturbance. These objections would at 

once be overcome were we able to extract from the resin its active prin- J 

ciple. j 

Since 1839, when Sir W. O'Shaughnessy, of Calcutta, brought the pecu- ] 

liar properties of Indian hemp prominently to the notice of the medical j 

world, 2 several attempts have been made to isolate the active principle of j 

the plant with remarkably conflicting results. "i 

In 1846, Smith^ separated a resin which he called " caunabin," and which [ 

he believed to be the active principle ; and said that it possessed nmch nar- ,| 

eotic activity. No subsequent observers, however, have been able to obtain ' 

by the process employed by Smith, any bodj' which fully answers to the ! 

description of Smith's "cannabin." ■ 

In 1857, Personne* resolved the volatile oil, obtained by distillation of the | 

l^lant, with water, into cannabene (CisH.20), a light hydro-carbon, and a 1 

solid crystalline hydride of canmibene (CVsHj.,). He states that inhalation ? 

of the vapor of cannabene produces a powerfid physiological effect, and he ^ 

claims it as being the sole active principle of Indian hemp. | 

In 1876, Preobraschensky,^ operating on " hashisli " got from Turkestan, j 

asserted that the active |)rinciple was not a resin, but an alkaloidal body, \ 

which he recognized as nicotine, the volatile liquid alkaloid of tobacco. It '; 
has been suggested that the presence of nicotine might be due to the hemp 

having been mixed, as it sometimes is in the bazaars, with tobacco, but * 

Preobraschensky states that he obtained this nicotine from the flowering ' 
tops of the plants as well as from the commercial resin. 

ISIerck, of Darmstadt, applies the term "cannabin tannin " to a glucoside 
contained in Indian hemp which he has combined with tannin. This 

preparation is not possessed of powerful activity, and frequently is inactive. ■ 

By treating this tannin compound with zinc oxide Herr Bombelon obtained j 
a substance which he named " cannabinum," as a greenish-l)rown powder 

not agglutinating upon exposure to the air and volatilizing without residue ■ 
on platinum foil.* 

In 1881, Siebold and Bradbury reported to the British I^harmaceutical 

Conference that Indian hemp does contain a volatile alkaloid which, how"- : 

1 From tlie Indian Meiiical Gazette 

2 "Oil Indian Hemp or Ganjah," Calcutta, 1S39; also " Bengal Dispf^nsatory,"' Cal- 

cutta, 1842, pp. 579-601. I 

3 I>harm. Journ., vol. vi., p. 171. In Ph. Jour. April 18, 1885, Thos. Smith describes the 

effects upon himself of his cannabin, and states that it was not a simple principle 

and after keeping for three years, had become inert. i 

4 Journal de Pharm,, xxxix., p. 48. 

^ Pharm. Zeitsch.f. Riissland, p. 705. 

6 Pharm. ZeiL, May 10, 1884. { 



May' 1885^'"''} Active PnuGiple of Inclkin Hemp. 265 

ever, does not possess the characters of nicotine. They called it " cannabi- 
nine"and obtained only 2 grains from 10 pounds of hemp. They do not 
appear to liave tested its action physiologically, and so have left it undeter- 
mined whether this volatile alkaloid be really the narcotic principle of 
hemp. 

The above chemists thus obtained widely different bodies, yet each indi- 
vidually believed that the substance which he isolated represented the 
active principle of the drug. With the subject thus involved, and having 
at hand a supply' of fresh and active hemp, we undertook an examination 
of the plant in the endeavor to isolate its active principle. Since commenc- 
ing our observations, Dr. Matthew Hay has reported^ that he has isolated an 
alkaloid in the form of colorless, needle-like crystals, which, however, 
did not posses the narcotic properties of the plant, but produced tetanus in 
frogs in exactly the same manner as strychnine — though not chemically 
identical with it. Dr. Hay, therefore, called this- alkaloid " tetano-canna- 
bin." It must exist in the plant in exceedingly minute traces, for only a 
few grains were obtained from 1 kilogramme of hemp. He considers it a 
secondary alkaloid of the plant, and not the chief active principle. We 
have specially investigated this point as to whether tiie plant contains an 
alkaloid with tetanizing properties. 

The following is a preliminary note of some of our results : One thousand 
grams of the flowering tops and leaves of Indian hemp of ascertained 
activity were roughly powdered and then moistened with 1 litre of a 5 i)er 
cent, solution of sulphuric acid and allowed to digest at a temperature of 
6S°F. This mixture was then packed in a percolator and percolated with 
about 1 litre of distilled water till the fluid which passed through was col- 
orless. 

This fluid, after flltration, measured \l litres, and was of a dark sherry 
color, smelling very strongly of the characteristic odor of the plant Car- 
bonate of lime was added to neutralize the free acid, and carbonate of soda 
solution to render it alkaline. On the addition of the soda a copious pre- 
cipitate fell down. The unflltered mixture was then well agitated with 
ether ; and this ethereal layer, which ought to contain any alkaloidal body 
soluble in ether, was afterwards drawn ofl[* and allo\\'ed to evaporate spon- 
taneously. 

The subjacent liquid which remained after removal of the ethereal layer 
was evaporated on the water-bath to dryness and then boiled with absolute 
alcohol and filtered, and the filtrate evaporated on the water-bath. This 
ought to contain Hay's tetano-cannabin, which is freely soluble in alcohol, 
but sparingly so in ether. 

The ethereal layer, yielded on evaporation about half a gram of a yellow- 
ish-brown extract which was insoluble in w^ater, but soluble in a weak solu- 
tion of carbonate of soda. Of this extract 0'25 gram was injected into the 
stomach of a young cat without the slightest eftect. 

The alcoholic solution yielded about 3 grams of a dark greenish-brown 
extract with a very fragrant aromatic odor. The whole of this was rubbed 
up well with water and carbonate of soda solution (Hay's alkaloid is "easily 



1 Pharm. Journ., 18S3, p. 998. 



266 Active Principle of Indian Hemp. {^'"'Ma^'iSr''"'' 

soluble in water''); and frequently shaken up with ether. The ethereal 
layer was then siphoned off and the ether driven off by evaporation on the 
water-bath, giving about "2 of a gram of ati am()rj)h'ms light brown sub- 
stance, wliich was soluble in about twenty times its weight of distilled 
water. This watery solution w^as neutral in reaction. Half of it was 
injected hypodermically into the thigh of a cat without any positive result. 

It will thus be seen that although operating on so large a quantity of the 
plant of ascertained activity, we were unable to find any evidence of the 
existence of such a principle as Dr. Hay describes. 

As many of those addicted to the hashish form of intemperance obtain 
the intoxicating eft'ects by sjnoking the plant in a pipe, it is to be expected 
that destructive distillation of the freshly prepared resin might yield up the 
active principle. This process was, therefore, resorted to. By the destruc- 
tive distillation of the freshly prepared alcoholic extract of the plant to 
which an excess of caustic potash solution had been added, an amber col- 
ored oil was obtained, which, by exposure to the air or the action of alka- 
lies, rapidly became of a dark reddish-brown color. This oil had a mildly 
empyreumatic odor which was distinctly tobacco-like. Its taste was warm, 
aromatic and somewhat terebinthinate. The oil contained phenol, ammo- 
nia and several other of the usual products of destructive distillation. 

The nicotine-like principle contained in this oil appeared to be alkaloid. 
It formed salts whicli evolved a strong nicotine-like odor when acted on by 
alkalies. B it physiologically it was found to be inert, and, therefore, was 
evidently not identical with nicotine. 

The oil as a whole was also found to be devoid of any narcotic or irritant 
qualities. About one-eighth of an ounce was introduced into the stomach 
of a cat without producing any sensible eflect. These results do not coin- 
cide with those of Personne, who asserted that the active principle of the 
plant resided in the volatile oil. It is just possible that the active principle 
was deconjposed by the high temperature necessary for destructive distilla- 
tion. 

The principle which represents the full activity of the plant has yet to be 
isolated. If the active principle be a body which is actually distinct from 
the resin, the tact of its being so intimately associated with the resin renders 
its separation a matter of peculiar difficulty, for it is remarkably difficult to 
deal chemically with resinous compounds. — Phar. Jour, and Trans. ^ Janu- 
ary 17, lS8o, p. 574. 

Value of C'onvallaria Majalis.— The glitter of novelty is wearing 
away, and after two or three years of universal praise we find that Lily of 
the Valley is exciting some doubts as to its medical value. Leubascher 
affirms that grains i of convallarin produces paralysis and loss of refiex 
activity in frogs, and in animals a progressive fall of arterial pressure, with 
slowing of the pulse and final diastolic arrest of the heart. Pel. Leyden 
and Stiller agree with Leubascher in finding no therapeutic utility in its 
employment. Prof. E. T. Bruen, in our own country, says that it can be 
employed with reasonable confidence in functional cardiac disorders and 
in mitral obstruction, and that, in comparison with digitalis, it acts more 
as a cardiac regulator, but much less as a cardiac stimulant. — Therapeutic 
Gazette ; Paoif. Med. and Surg. Jour.^ Aiiril, 1885. 



Am, Jour. Pharm. 
May, 18S5. 



Varieties. 



267 



VARIETIES. 



Liquid Extract of Cinchona containing 5 per cent, of mixed alka- 
loids, is now recommended by Professor Redwood to be prepared as follows : 
One pound avoir, of red cinchona bark in No. 60 powder is exhausted, by 
digestion and percolation, with J fluidounce of hydrochloric acid and dis- 
tilled water, and the percolate is evaporated below 180° F. to the consistence 
of a firm extract If on dissolving 30 grains of this extract in 2 drachms 
of hot distilled water it gives more than a slight precipitate on cooling, the 
whole of the extract should be similarly treated and the clear liquid again 
evaporated to the consistence of a solid extract, the alkaloidal strength of 
which is to be determined. 

The liquid extract is then i^repared by taking as much of the solid extract 
as contains 1 ounce of total alkaloids, adding 5 tluidounees each of glycerin 
and water, heating over a water-bath until solution is effected, and when 
cool, adding 5 fluidounces of alcohol and as much water as is required to 
make the product measure 20 fluidounces. — Fhar. Jour, and Trans., Decem- 
ber 6, 1884, p. 441. 



Fluid Extract of Ergot, in doses of 5 to 20 drops 4 or 5 times a day 
has been found advantageous by Dr. G. L. Magruder, of Washington, in 
dysentery of children. — Virg. Med. Monthly. 

Ergot in Pulmonary Diseases. — According to the "London Medical 
Record," ergot is of advantage in congestions of the lungs, as in pneumonia 
and acute bronchitis, relieving the hemorrhagic sputa, difficult expectora- 
tion, dyspnoea, fever and delirium. — Pac. Med. and Surg. Jour., April, 1885. 

Quebracho. — Drs. Huchard and Eloy, of Blois, affirm that the six 
alkaloids of Quebracho reduce temperature in fevers even more effectually 
than quinine. Such a result is obtained in typhoid by the hypodermic in- 
jection of gr. U to 8 of muriate of aspidospermine. — PacifiG Med. and Surg. 
Jour., April, 1885. 



Cfiloral in Albuminuria.— Dr. Wilson has treated a few cases of 
albuminuria with this drug, and has noticed that by its constant use he 
was able to cause a complete disappearance of albumin from the urine, the 
albumin reappearing as soon as the remedy was suspended. The theory 
of its action is not stated. — Am. Med. Digest, March, 1885 ; Brit. Med. Jour. 

EsERiNE in Tetanus.— G. H. Brandt ("Practitioner," October, 1884), 
reports a cure of traumatic tetanus in an adult from the administration of } 
of a grain of eserine every hour. — Pac. Med. and Surg. Jour., April, 1885. 

Ointment of Lead Nitrate. — For old ulcers of the leg. Professor 
Bartholow recommends blistering the surface of the ulcer and the adjoin- 
ing integument, then putting on a light poultice, and afterwards applying 
an ointment composed of : R. Plumbi nitratis, 5 i. ; vaseline, 5 i. — Med. 
Herald. 



268 



Bevieios, etc. 



J Am Jour. Pnarm. 
I May, 1885. 



EEVIEWS AND BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 



Micro-Chemistri/ of Poisons ; iucludiiig their pliysioloj^ical, pathological 
and legal relations. With an Appendix on the detection and micro- 
scopic discrimination of blood. Adapted to tlie use of the medical jurist, 
physician and general chemist. By Theodore G. Wormley, M.D., etc., 
Professor of cliemistry and toxicology in the Medical department of the 
University of Pennsylvania. With 96 illustrations upon steel. [Second 
edition. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Company, 188'i. 8vo, pp. 784. 
Price, in cloth, ?7.50. 

"This excellent work is a very valuable addition to the literature on the 
subject of poisons. Each page bears evidence of untiring research, and of 
a vast amount of labor." With these words we introduced the review of 
the first edition of this work, in 1867, and we repeat them now, as equally 
applicable to the new edition now before us. Even a superficial compari- 
vson with the former would show that the j^resent volume has been thor- 
oughly revised and brought up to the requirements of the present time. 
While its scope and design have not been altered, the additions are nume- 
rous, the more important being poisoning by potassium chlorate, post-mor- 
tem diffusion of arsenic, presence of arsenic in various articles, including 
glass, Dragendorflf''s method for the isolation of vegetable poisons, the pto- 
maines, jervine and gelsemium, with its two characteristic principles, gel- 
semic acid and gelsemine ; finally, tiie properties, detection and discrimi- 
nation of blood, which subject is illustrated by eight engravings on steel 
and a chronio-lithograph of blood spectra. In addition to these, a number 
of wood-cuts have been added, and ten steel engravings, showing the 
micro-chemical reactions of jervine and of gelsemium, the total number of 
illustrations on steel being 96, all of which have been engraved by Mrs. 
Wormley and her daughter, Mrs. J. Marshall. A table giving the beha- 
vior of 15 alkaloids to chemical reagents is also a valuable addition for the 
comparison of the reactions of these alkaloids and of the observable limits. 

The importance of the subject treated, and the care and labor bestowed 
upon all the details, render the volume a standard work to which those 
interested may refer with the assurance of finding trustworthy informa- 
tion. The book is handsomely gotten up, and the proof-sheets have been 
very carefully read, the typographical errors being very few ; on page 652 
the name of Prof. Ladenburg has been twice rendered Landenburg. 

Year-Book of Pharmacy ; comprising Abstracts of jDapers relating to phar- 
macy, materia medica and chemistry contributed to British and foreign 
Journals from July 1, 1S83, to June 3 J, 1884; with the Transactions of the 
British Pharmaceutical Conference ac the 21st annual meeting, held at 
Hastings, August, 1884. London : J. & A. Churchill. 8vo, pp. 628. 

Proceedings of the American Pharmaceutical Association at the thirty- 
second annual meeting, held at Milwaukee, Wis., August, 1884. Phila- 
delphia : published bv^tiie American Pharmaceutical Association. 8vo, 
pp. 623. 

The first one of these annual publications reached here early in Febru- 
ary. The " Proceedings" have been printed, and will be distributed about 
the middle of May ; with it will be bound the " General Index to vols. 



Am. Juur. Pliarni. \ 
M'y, 1885. i 



Reviews, etc. 



269 



xviii to XXX (1880 to 1882)," covering 174 pages. Accounts of the meetings 
of botii Societies, with brief abstracts of the papers read, will be found in 
the October number, 1884, of tliis Journal. The "Year-Book" occupies 
326 pages, in addition to wliich 28 pages give the titles of new publications 
relating to pharmaceutical subjects. The "Report on the Progress of Phar- 
macy " embraces 363 pages, or more than one-half of the second volume 
mentioned above. As usual, the " Year- Book " and the " Report " contain 
abstracts of most papers of pharmaceutical interest published during the 
year in Europe or America. 



The Proceedings of the following State Pharmaceutical Associations for 
1884 have not been previously noticed : 

Illinois. — Fifth meeting held at Bloomington, on Sept. 30, 1884. 8vo, pp. 
128. IMext meeting in Chicago, on first Tuesday (1st day) of September 
next. T. H. Patterson, Secretary. 

Iowa—¥\f[h meeting held at Marshalltown, May 27, 1884. 8vo, pp. 160. 
With phototy})e of J. H. Harrison, of Davenport, who was President of 
the Association fur 1883-84. Next meeting in Council Bluffs, May 12, 1885. 
Local Secretary, J. B. Atkins. 

Michigan. — Second meeting held at Detroit, Sept. 9, 1884. 8vo, pjj. 227. 
Next meeting in Detroit, Oct. 13, 1885. Local Secretary, A. W. Allen. 



Review of the Drug trade of New York for the year 1884. Prepared by D. 
C. Robbins, Esq., for the 29th annual report of the Chamber of Com- 
merce of the State of New York. 8vo, pp. 12. 

During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1884, as compared with the pre- 
ceding year, the importation of cinchona barks has decreased over one mil- 
lion pounds, while the quinine imported has increased over 200,000 ounces, 
the amounts being respectively 2,588,307 lbs., and 1,263,732 oz. The impor- 
tation of opium during the same period has reached 264,746 lbs., an increase 
over the preceding year of 35,734 lbs. In consequence of the advance in 
the Customs rate from ^56 to |10 per lb., only 1,066 lbs. of opium prepared 
for smoking was imported, but the importation of the same commodity 
during the preceding fiscal year was unusually large, having reached 298,- 
153 lbs. 



An Introduction to the Study of the compounds of Carbon^ or Organic 
Chemistry. By Ira Remsen, Professor of Chemistry in the Johns Hop- 
kins University. Boston : Ginn, Heath & Co., 1885. 12mo, pp. 364. 
Price, by mail, $1.30. 

As stated on the title-page, this book is intended for beginners, as an 
introduction to the study of the subject, and it therefore deals not so much 
with special facts, but rather with the fundamental principles underlying 
the compounds of this class. These principles are illustrated by special 
cases, and the general relations are discussed more fully than is usual in 
elementary works, and in a clear and attractive manner, well calculated 
for aiding the student in grasping the fundamental laws preparatory to the 



270 



Reviews, etc. 



j Am. Joiir. rhajm 
i May, 1885. 



study of special subjects or branches. More than eighty experiments are 
described, illustrating the methods used in preparing the principal classes 
of compounds, and the fundamental reactions involved in their transforma- 
tions, tlius showing the way to the proper study of this important branch 
of science. 

The book deserves to be widely known among students of pharmacy, 
medicine and others whose aim is not merely a knowledge of a few isolated 
facts, but a sound foundation upon which correct knowledge of causes and 
effects jnay be based. The book is well printed ; the proof-sheets have been 
carefully read ; the equations explaining the reactions are numerous ; gra- 
phic formulas are judiciously used to a limited extent ; a limited number 
of illustrations showing the arrangement of apparatus in the performance 
of certain experiments have been added; and nothing of importance 
appears to have been omitted for accomplishing the objects had in view. 



Cocaine hi/drochloride as the name of the salt formed by cocaine with 
hydrochloric acid, and a discussion of the nomenclature of alkaloidal salts 
in genera!. New Yoik : Druggists' Circular Press, 1885. 12mo, pp. 97. 
Price, 50 cents. 

A reprint from the " Weekly Drug News" of a number of editorials and 
communications on the above subject. 



The MecUeal Directory of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Delaware, and the 
Southern half of New Jersey. Is85. Philadelphia: P. Blakiston 8on & 
Co. Pp. 397. Price, $2.50 ; "^to subscribers, $2.00. 

Til is is a very comj)lete and very carefully compiled directory, giving, in 
addition to the names and locations of medical practitioners, also those of 
pharmacists, druggists, chemists, dentists, veterinarians, and of other voca_ 
tions more or less directly connected with or depending on the practice of 
medicine; also national, State and local associations, the Pennsylvania 
laws relating to medicine, pharmacy and dentistry, hospitals, dispensaries, 
homes, charitable organizations, etc. This varied information becomes 
readily accessible by a full table of contents and a complete index, and ref- 
erence is greatly facilitated by the arrangement of material and types. 

The Medical Directorij of Chicago, i.nclading Cook Co., for 18S4-85. Edited 
by Robert Tillv, M. D". Chicago: \V. T. Keener. 12ino, pp. 179. Price 
$1.25. 

The scope of this work applying to Chicago and Cook Co., III., is similar 
to the preceding one, and it contains in a concise form such information as is 
frequently desired by physicians and pharmacists. 

Official Register of Physicians rind Midwi,ves now in practice to whom cer- 
tificates have been issued bv the State Board of Health of Illinois, 1877- 
18S4. Chicago : W. T. KeJner. 8vo, pp. 324. Price $1.50. 

The register is arranged by counties in alphabetical order, reference to 
the names being had by three indexes, of physicians, midwives and towns. 
A directory of medical societies of Illinois, a list of revoked certificates for 
unprofessional and dishonorable conduct, the laws referring to the practice 
of medicine in Illinois and other 'natters are contained in this volume. 



Am. Jour. Phaim. ) 
May, 1885. j 



Reviews, etc. 



271 



Index Medicus. Edited by John 8. Billings, M.D., and Robert Fletcher, 
M. D. Published by George S Davis, Detroit. 

In former years we have repeatedly called attention to this valuable peri- 
odical, the publication of which was undertaken by the late Frederick 
Leypoldt, New York, and will henceforth be continued by the firm men- 
tioned above. The general plan will remain unaltered, and the same regard 
as heretofore will be given to typograpliical accuracy and finish. We learn 
that thus far the enterprise lias not been pecuniarily remunerative ; but it 
is to be lioped that the support from the medical profession will be such as 
to make the publication self-sustaining; its importance cannot be over-esti- 
mated, containing as it does the subjects of all papers relating to medicine, 
appropriately classified, which are published throughout the civilized 
world, thus making an invaluable repository of all investigations and 
observations on the science and practice of medicine in its widest applica- 
tion. 



The Elements of Botany ; embracing organography, histology, vegetable 
physiology, systematic botany and economic l»otany. Arranged for school 
u.>e or for independent studv. Together with a complete glossary of 
botanical terms. By W. A. Kellerman, Ph.D., Professor of t)otany and 
zoologv in the Kansas State Agricultural College, etc. Philadelphia: 
John E. Potter & Co. 12mo, pp. 3(30. Price, 11.25 

As a work giving the outlines of botany, this publication is a very valu- 
able one, which is admirably calculated to serve as an introduction to tlie 
more extended study of botany. Its arrangement is convenient, the 
descriptions, though necessarily brief, are clear and correct, the illustra- 
tions are characteristic, and the selection of the material shows good judg- 
ment and discrimination ; the book will prove to be of value to students 
generally and to pharmaceutical students in particular. 

The first part treats of organography, the morphological appearance of 
the different parts of plants. Then follows histology and physiologv, in 
which the cell, the tissues and the conditions of growth are discussed. The 
third part is devoted to a brief exposition of systematic botany, followed by 
80 pages on which an account is given of the more imiwrtant plants and 
vegetable products used in medicine, as food and in the arts. The appen- 
dix contains valuable suggestions regarding the study of botany, the collec- 
tion and preservation of plants, the use of the microscoj^e, and a full 
glossary. 



Plant AnalysiB ; a classified list of the wild flowers of the Northern United 
States, with keys for analysis and identification ; to which is added a 
complete glossary of botanical terms. By W- A. Kellerman, Ph.D., etc. 
Philadelphia: John E. Potter & Co. 12mo, pp. 253. Price, |1. 
This book is intended to aid the beginner in the identification and classi- 
fication of the wild-growing North American phanerogamous plants grow- 
ing east of the Mississippi, and from Kentucky northward, with the excep- 
tion of the grasses, sedges, rushes, and those restricted (o alpine or other 
limited localities. It is divided into two parts, the fir^t of which is devoted 
to the morphology of the different parts arranged in the order of their 
importance for classification, viz., flower, fruit, leaf, stem and root, fol- 



272 



Reviews, etc. 



Arn. Jour. Pharm 
May, 1885. 



lowed by practical notes and suggestions, a glossary and a list of abbrevia- 
tions of authors' names. The second part contains keys to the families, to 
the genera and to the species, followed by a systematically arranged list of 
the plants, numbering 1,707 species. The keys are arranged in quite a con- 
venient manner, prominent and opposite characteristics having been 
selected for the purpose of analysis, and placed in juxtaposition, so as to 
become more thoroughly impressed on the mind. 



Insomnia and other Disorders of Sleep. By Henry A. Lyman, A. M., M.D., 
Professor of Physiology and of diseases of the'nervous system in Rush 
Medical College, etc Chicago: W. T. Keener, 1885. Pp. 239. Price 
§1.50. 

The subject is treated of in seven chapters on the nature and cause of 
sleejD, insomnia, remedies, treatment in particular diseases, dreams, som- 
nambulism and artificial somnambulism or hypnotism, the last chapter 
closing with the consideration of the phenomena of so-called spiritualism, 
table-rapping, planchette-writing and metaphysical healing. 



The reception of the following pamphlets is acknowledged : 
Twenty-eighth Annual Report of the Council of the Pharmaceutical Society 
of Australasia, with which is incorporated the Pharmaceutical Society of 
Victoria, 1885, witli list of members and honorary members. Melbourne. 
Pp. IG. 

The Annual Report of the Pharmacy Board of Victoria. Melbourne, 1885. 

Report on the Wcders of the Hudson River, together with an analysis of 
the same, made to the Water Commissioners of the city of Albany. By C. 
F. Chandler, Ph.D. January, 1885. Pp. 35. 

The Filth-power. By J. B. Olcott. From Report of Secretary of Connec- 
necticut Board of Agriculture, 1885. Pp. 41. 

Typhoid Fever and low water in Wells. By Henry B. Baker, M.D., Lan- 
sing, Mich. From the annual report of the Mich. State Board of Health, 
1885. Pp. 26. 

Report of Committee on School Hygiene, in Tennessee. By Dan. F. Wright, 
M.D., Clarksville. From the second report of the Tennessee State Board 
of Health, January, 1885. Pp.51. 

Yale College Observatory. Report for the year 1883-84. Horological and 
Termonietric bureaus. 

Pennsylvania Hospital. Addresses delivered by Dr. Thos. G. Morton and 
John B. Garrett on the unveiling of West's picture Christ healing the 
sick. Eleventh mo. 10th, 1884. Pp. 30. 

Sur le sulfo-carbol {acide orthoxyphenylsulfureux), ses proprietes antifer- 
mentescibles et antisej^ticjues. Par M. F. Vigier, Pharmacieu. 

On sulphocarbol, its antifermentative and antiseptic properties. 

International Electrical Exhibition, 1884. Reports of Examiners of Sec- 
tions xiv-xvi (batteries), xix (electric telegraphs), xxiv (electro-dental 
apparatus), xxvii (applications of electricity to warfare; and xxx (machi- 
nery and mechanical appliances). 

The Oleates; further investigation into their nature and action. By John 
V. Shoemaker, A.M., M.D., etc. From the "British Medical Journal," 
October 14, 1884. 



THE AMERICAN 

JOURNAL OF PHARMACY. 



JUNE, 1885. 



NOTE ON FROZEN GLYCERIN.^ 
By Wallace Procter, Ph.G. 

Having occasion to empty a 50 lb. case of glycerin, daring the early 
part of April, I found, to my surprise, that half the contents of the 
can was a mass which, on examination, seemed to possess a crystalline 
structure of great toughness and solidity. Suspecting an adulteration, 
tests for glucose, as the most probable, were first applied, but with a 
negative indication. 

On applying to the party from whom the glycerin was purchased, I 
was informed that the whole of a large consignment, received from 
abroad, was more or less " frozen," as it is expressed technically. The 
stateuient was also made that, in the course of twenty years' extensive 
dealing in glycerin, only once previously had it been observed in this 
condition, and that some three years ago. It was of the nitro grade, 
such as is used in the manufacture of nitroglycerin, and almost with- 
out water. The article in question was not sold as the finest quality, 
but as a second grade, though comparing favorably in appearance and 
freedom from odor with any usually to be procured. 

A further and more critical examination was made, with the follow- 
ing results —specific gravity of unfrozen portion, at 15*5°C., 1'235 to 
1-237. 

A portion, heated to 100°C. for ten minutes with an equal volume 
of sulphuric acid, gave but a very slight coloration ; warmed with 
diluted sulphuric acid, an appreciable but very faint butyric odor was 
developed; when diluted with distilled water, test solution of silver 
nitrate produced no cloudiness after standing some hours. As before 
stated, the absence of sugars was also determined. 

These results seemed to conclusively prove that the phenomenon 
was inherent with the glycerin itself, and not caused by any admixture 
or inipurity. 

1 Read at the Pharmaceutical Meeting, held May 10th, 1885. 
18 



274 



Note on Frozen Glycerin. 



fAm. Jour. Pharm. 
1 June, 1885. 



I was aware that two instances of the kind had been observed, 
and were commented on in a foot-note in the U. S. Dispensatory, 15th 
edition, p. 711 ; bnt, as I had never seen the substance in the solid 
state, my first impression was but natural. A specimen of the mass 
was removed from the can and preserved in a wide-mouthed bottle ; 
this was placed in a refrigerator. It was brought to the college on 
April 21st, to be shown at the pharmaceutical meeting called for that 
day, but which, for lack of attendance, did not come to order. On 
that occasion more than half of the solid contents of the bottle melted, 
but a re-exposure to the temperature of an ordinary refrigerator has 
again caused crystallization. The crystalline structure is beautifully 
defined, as may be noted in the bottle presented, which I have packed 
in a freezing mixture to insure the preservation of that form. 

The melting point, roughly ascertained, is between 21 °C. to 26 °C., 
or 70°F. to 80°r. 

When completely melted and exposed to the temperature of a mix- 
ture of ice and salt for an hour, no signs of " freezing were observed. 
Whether a longer period would cause recrystallization I am unable to 
say. 

If the sp. gr. were higher, it would the more readily suggest that 
a state of almost complete dehydration was the most reasonable expla- 
nation of the phenomenon; but here we have '013, or '015 less than 
the officinal standard glycerin, which during my acquaintance with its 
properties has not been observed to " freeze." Since writing the above 
an accurate determination of the sp. gr. of the melted crystals reveals 
the fact that the portion which actually solidifies has really a high per- 
centage of glycerin as indicated by the sp. gr. 1*2618 obtained by Prof. 
Trimble. 



Aquae Aromaticse. — Mr. R., in a communication to the "Central- 
halle," recommends to dissolve 15 drops of the best quality of essen- 
tial oil in 4 Gm. of alcohol (95 per cent.), and to use 1 drop of such an 
essence to 10 Gm. of distilled water. Medicated waters prepared with 
alcohol soon turn sour ; therefore a large stock of them should never 
be kept on hand, but it is more economical and convenient to prepare 
them extemporaneously as stated. Mr. R. speaks very highly of the 
orange-flower water prepared with such an essence, and distilled from 
a glass retort. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. } 
June, 1885. J 



Note on Glycerin. 



275 



NOTE ON GLYCEKIN/ 
By Henry Trimble. 

In the April number of this Journal, page 173, is an abstract on 
the use of glycei'in vapor in throat tronl)les. The question has arisen, 
whether or not the vapor of glycerin would be given off when used as 
there recommended, by heating in a porcelain capsule, or whether the 
irritating decomposition products would be evolved. To determine 
this about 50 grams were heated in a capsule, with a thermometer 
dipping into the liquid. The temperature was allowed to rise very 
slowly with the following results: At 92° C. vapor could, with some 
difficulty, be seen rising; at 100° C. it was very perceptible; at 130° 
it was abundantly given off, rising as a dense white smoke. This vapor 
was almost odorless, without the slightest irritation, and tasted sweet 
when drawn into the mouth. This evolution of vapor continued with- 
out the liquid in the capsule becoming dark until a temperature of 
234° C. was reached. At 264° there was a slight boiling, but the 
glycerin had so nearly all vaporized that the experiment was discon- 
tinued. The room was so filled with vapor that one could not dis- 
tinguish objects clearly 10 feet away, yet none of those working there 
experienced any irritation or other difference except the sweetish taste 
on drawing air through the mouth. This experiment was repeated 
with the same result, and shows that when exposed to the air ^vith a 
gradual application of heat glycerin will entirely vaporize with little 
or no decomposition. I am aware that a strong heat will cause it to 
boil and ignite in an open capsule. 

Another experiment was tried by placing a large quantity of glycerin 
in a flask attached to a condenser. The flask was placed in a sand-bath 
and heat gradually applied. No change was observed, except a very 
small amount of vapor which condensed on the sides of the flask, until 
174°C. was reached when ebullition began. A small amount of a 
disagreeable smelling liquid came over, which proved to be water and 
a small quantity of glycerin, with sufficient decomposition products to 
impart the odor. This moderate boiling continued with no further 
change, until at 274° C. the flame was removed, as it was evident the 
boiling would continue with greater decomposition as the temperature 

1 Contribution from Chemical Laboratory of Philadelphia College of 
Pharmacy. 



276 



Chocolate. 



/Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ June, 1885. 



increased. Only a small quantity of distillate was obtained. The 
glycerin used in these experiments had a specific gravity at 15° C. of 
1*257, and otherwise came up to the requirements of the Pharmacopoeia. 

The statement has been made (Gerlach, Zeitschrift fiir analytische 
Chemie/' 24,110) that absolute glycerin, specific gravity 1'2653, boils 
at 290° C, and that 95 per cent, glycerin, sp. gr. 1-2526, boils at 164° 
C. This practically corresponds to the experience above given, as 
very small differences in specific gravity make widely different boiling 
points. 

In view of these facts it is evident that the boiling point given in the 
Pharmacopit'ia should be not below 16.i.°C, instead of 290° C. which is 
for absolute glycerin. 



CHOCOLATE. 
By jAJtES Hkrvy Hagexbuch, Ph. G. 
Abstract from ari Inaugural Essaij. 

There are several different ways of preparing chocolate. The best, 
and the one most generally used, is to take chocolate nibs (which are 
the seeds deprived of their outer covering) and grind them to a smooth 
paste in a mill \vith rollers, which are heated by passing steam into 
them by means of a i)ipe. To this paste the sugar and flavoring sub- 
stances, principally vanilla or cinnamon, are added, and the whole 
reduced to a homogeneous mass, is moulded into cakes ready for the 
market. The heated rollers are used because they melt the fatty sub- 
stance in the ''nibs," and thus facilitate the making of the paste. 

Unadulterated chocolate is compact, brittle, breaking with a smooth 
fracture, has a dark reddish brown color, and forms a perfectly homo- 
geneous mass when worked into a paste. It should dissolve easily in 
the mouth, without leaving any gritty particles behind. The adulte- 
rations are very numerous, being composed principally of potato 
starch, fiour, earthy matter, paraffin, tallow, lard, and other animal 
fats. Though nearly all the different kinds of chocolate contain 
starch it is nevertheless considered an adulterant. It makes a heavy 
and indigestible compound, because starch, unless boiled, is far from 
being digestible. Blythe says that it is considered an adulterant 
because it contains no nitrogenous principles, which are the main, and 
most valuable parts of the cacao, the principal ingredient of chocolate. 



Am. Jour. Pharni. I 

June, 188.5. J 



Chocolate. 



277 



If this were the case, sugar also would be considered an adulterant, for 
it contains no nitrogen. There are certainly other reasons ; one most 
likely is the solubility of sugar and insolubility of starch. 

The chocolates are either sweet or bitter. The sweet chocolate is 
used mainly by the confectioners in making the different kinds of choco- 
late candies. When they use it for coating the chocolate drops it is 
sometimes adulterated with paraffin, which gives them their shiny 
appearance. The bitter chocolate is used principally as a nutritious 
drink; as a nutritive it stands much higher than either tea or coffee. 
Owing to the large quantity of fatty matter present in some brands, it 
is with all its nutritive powers apt to disagree with persons having 
very delicate stomachs; for this reason the English claim that the ex- 
pression of the oleum theobromae from the seeds, makes them better 
for the manufacture of a chocolate, which is more easily digested, 
and though the oil is extracted still contains the active principles. 

From several Philadelphia manufacturers of chocolate, specimens 
were obtained for examination. These were first exhausted with ether 
to remove all the fatty ingredients. The residue was next treated with 
twenty per cent, alcohol, and allowed to stand twenty-four hours to 
remove the sugar. The remaining residue was boiled in water, the 
liquid filtered through charcoal, and the starch precipitated with fifty 
per cent, alcohol. 

From Baker's chocolate was obtained the greatest amount of fatty 
matter, it containing 45*8 per cent, which fused at 36° C. (96° F.), this 
being near the fusing point of pure cacao butter. It contains twenty- 
eight per cent, of sugar, some starch, and 3*1 per cent, of ash. 

C. and A.'s contained 35J per cent, of fat, wdiich fused at 38° C. 
(100° F), this being about 5°F. higher than the melting point of 
cacao butter; sugar, starch, a substance insoluble in cold or hot water, 
or hydrochloric acid, and 2*75 per cent, of ash were found. 

E.'s cocoa contained thirty-eight per cent, of fat which fused at 
37° C. (98° F.), sugar nearly forty per cent., starch eighteen per cent., 
and an insoluble substance. The ash was 2 3 per cent. 

W.'s plain commercial chocolate, contained 26*5 per cent, of fat, 
which fused at 36° C. (96° F.), sugar forty-five percent, starch, and 
2*2 per cent. ash. 

W.^s sweet chocolate had but twelve per cent, of fat, and this fused 
at 38° C. (100° F.), nearly sixty per cent, of sugar, and 1*7 per cent, 
of ash. 



278 



11 licium Floridanum . 



( Am. Jour. Pharra. 
1 June, 1885. 



A. & M/s brand " A contained twentj-six per cent, of fat, sugar, 
starchy and a quantity of coloring matter. 

A. & M.^s powdered chocolate, contained fourteen per cent, of fatty 
matter, which fused at 39° C. (102° F.), sugar, and 4*4: per cent of ash. 



ILLICIUM FLORIDANUM, Ellis. 

Natural order, Magnoliacece Illiciece. 
By Henry C. C. Maisch, Ph.G. 
From an Inaugural Essay. 

(Continued from page 228.) 
CHEMICAL INVESTIGATION. 

The analytical researches were made in the chemical laboratory of 
the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. The parts of the plant were 
taken in No. 80 powder, and the estimations were made on the plant 
as obtained and not previously dried by artificial means. 

Leaves. — The moisture of the leaves was determined to be 13*75 
per cent. The same portion was used for estimating the ash which 
amounted to 5'033 per cent. The solubilities of the ash were as fol- 
lows : 

Soluble in water 1'600 

Solul)le ill liydrochlorie acid 2-500 

Insoluble in either (silica) 0-933 

5-033 per cent. 

The qualitative analysis resulted as follows : Acids, carbonic and 
phosphoric; Bases, potassium, sodium, aluminium, iron and calcium. 

1. Petroleum extraction. — A portion of the powder was macerated 
with petroleum spirit (boiling point below 45 °C.), the quautity being 
1 gm. to 10 cc, which proportion was retained throughout the whole 
analysis. The percentage of rc^sidue remaining on spontaneous eva})0- 
ration of a portion of the liquid was found to be 2*60, of which, on 
being heated, 0*23 was lost. This loss Avas estimated as volatile oil, 
because, on heating, the extract became entirely odorless. The reac- 
tions of this volatile oil are given under "Capsules,'^ as the yield there 
was greater. The extract was not saponified by either aqueous or 
alcoholic solution of potassium hydrate. The latter solution was jn^e- 
cipitated by the subsequent addition of water. The odorless residue 
amounted to 2*37 per cent. 

2. Ether extraction. — The powder was next treated with the requisite 
quantity of ether. A part of the resulting liquid was evaporated and 



Am. Jour. Pharm 
June, 1885. 



lllicinm Floridamim. 



279 



the residue found to amount to 1*46 per cent., whicli lost nothing on 
heating to 110°C. The residue from another portion was treated with 
water, which acquired a bitter taste ; the dissolved principle will be 
treated under the alcoholic maceration as this dissolved a larger quan- 
tity. The residue from the ethereal solution was completely soluble 
in strong alcohol, cliloroform, benzol, aqueous and alcoholic potassium 
hydrate solution. The alcoholic solution was precipitated by distilled 
water and also by acidulated water. The extract was principally resin. 

3. Absolute Alcohol maceration. — The residual powder from the 
above maceration Avas treated with the necessary quantity of absolute 
alcohol. The dried extract was equal to 5 per cent., whicli lost nothing 
on heating to 1 10°C. The air-dried residue was treated with water 
heated slightly and allowed to macerate for 24 hours. The water had 
assumed an acid reaction and a yellow color which was turned to a 
yellowish brown by ammonia water. The portion soluble in water 
amounted to 4*29 per cent. The aqueous solution was acidified and 
shaken with petroleum, benzol and chloroform. The liquid was after- 
ward made alkaline and shaken with the same liquids, ether being used 
in addition. Most of the residues were crystalline. 

In order to obtain a larger quantity of the crystals 75 grams of the 
drug were treated with 95 per cent, alcohol. This tincture was evapo- 
rated to a small bulk and precipitated with water. The filtrate obtained 
was shaken with petroleum, benzol and chloroform. The residue from 
the petroleum was entirely soluble in aqueous sodium hydrate solution, 
and after neutralization with hydrochloric acid a precipitate of a 
brownish color formed. The aqueous solution was then acidified and 
shaken with the liquids mentioned above. The residues from benzol 
and chloroform had a bitter taste, a neutral reaction and a crystalline 
structure. The same crystals were also found after the acidified aqueous 
liquid had been made alkaline and at that place the reactions are also 
given. 

The precipitate obtained from the alcohol was boiled with dilute 
acid and this liquid shaken as above, and also after it was made alka- 
line. The residues consisted of a yellow resin neutral to test paper. 

The undissolved precipitate from above was boiled with potassium 
hydrate solution and this shaken with the same liquids noticed above. 
The residue from the petroleum shaking consisted of a soft resinous 
mass and of colorless crystalline plates, the whole having the odor of 
orris root. The crystals were freed from adhering resin by a few 



280 



lllicimn Floridaimm. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1885. 



drops of alcohol. This liquid, like the dry resin, gave a green color 
with sulphuric, hydrochloric and nitric acids, the degree of intensity 
being in the order as enumerated, sulphuric acid giving the stronger 
color. Sodium hydrate dissolves but does not saponify the resin. 

The crystals gave no precipitates with alkaloidal reagents, and did 
not produce any ammonia on heating with potassium hydrate. After 
boiling with dilute acid, they reduced alkaline copper solutions. The 
following are the reactions obtained for this principle : Sulphuric acid 
dissolved it in the cold without color, but on warming, the color be- 
came carmine-red. It gave no reaction with hydrochloric acid or 
nitric acid. Sulphuric acid and bichromate of potassium (Otto's test) 
gave in the cold a brownish yellow color, which on heating was 
changed to green. Sugar and sulphuric acid (Schneider's test) gave 
no color in the cold, but on warming the color is first light brown and 
I'spidly darkens by the caramelizing of the sugar, while all through 
the reaction red spots are visible. Froehde's test (molybdate of am- 
monium and sulphuric acid) gave first a green color, and on heating 
slightly the color was rapidly changed to a dark blue. These reactions 
show the principle to be different from Eykman's sikimin, which does 
not reduce Fehling's test, even after boiling with dilute acid. From, 
the reactions noted above, the crystals were regarded as those of a 
glucoside to which the bitter taste of the leaves is due. The crystals 
amounted to about 0*75 per cent. 

The residues from benzol and chloroform shakings were of a dark 
green color and soluble in alcohol. The alcoholic solution was clouded 
by the addition of water, and further by a few drops of hydrochloric 
acid. The same solution gave with sulphuric acid a green liquid and 
a brown precipitate. The same reaction was obtained with hydro- 
chloric and nitric acids ; but, if heat be applied to the test with sul- 
phuric acid, it becomes of a purplish color and ultimately chars; if the 
liquid with nitric acid is treated in the same manner, the precipitate 
becomes yellow and the green color is discharged ; if to tlie hydro- 
chloric acid test a few drops of nitric acid be added, the color is 
changed to red and ultimately to red-browm. If a quantity of the 
dry extract (resin) be heated in a glass tube open at both ends, it gives 
a reddish brown sublimate, inflammable vapors and a residue of char- 
coal. The shakings of the acidified alkaline solution gave nothing 
but resin. 

4. Aqueous Extraction. — The powder from the above maceration 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
June, 1885. j 



Illiciuvi Florldanum . 



281 



was treated with the required quantity of water wliicli formed a thick 
mucilage; it was therefore diluted to allow of straining, and bv evap- 
oration brought to the first quantity when the liquid was thinner and 
permitted filtration. There was about 6'335 per cent, of precipitate 
present, which was regarded as albuminous matter. The liquid was 
then treated with twice its quantity of 95 per cent, alcohol, which 
gave a precipitate amounting to 4*75 per cent. The precipitate from 
the filtrate by lead acetate was yellowish brown in color. This was 
separated, suspended in water and decouiposed by hydrogen sulphide. 
The filtrate from this precipitation was evaporated to drive off hydro- 
gen sulphide, this liquid then gave precipitates with barium and cal- 
cium hydrates, and a green color with ferric chloride ; it was also 
precipitated by gelatin solution, by which means it was estimated. 
The tannin present amounted to 3'9(3 per cent. 

5. Alkaline Extraction. — The powder was next treated with a 0*2 
per cent, solution of sodium hydrate. The dissolved portion amounted 
to 9'9 per cent. 

6. Acid Maceration. — The insoluble portion of the leaves was then 
treated with diluted 2 per cent, hydrochloric acid. The extract 
amounted to about 6 per cent. 

The remaining, undissolved portion was bleached and weighed. It 
amounted to 42*6 per cent. This was regarded as lignin. 

Stem. — The moisture and ash of the stem, as in the case of the 
leaves, were estimated from the same portion of the powder. The 
moisture amounted to 10*16 per cent, ai d the ash to r333 per cent., 
the small amount of ash being probably due to the large amount of 
sclerenchyma. 

The solubilities of the ash are as follows: 

Soluble in water 

Soluble in hydrochloric acid 
Insoluble in either 



The qualitative analysis gave the following result: Acids, sulphuric 
and hydrochloric; Bases, magnesium, potassium, sodium, iron. 

1. Petroleum maceration. — The powder was macerted with the 
necessary quantity of petroleum, the portion soluble herein amounted 
to 0'19 per cent, which lost nothing on heating to 110°C. The resi- 
due was soluble in ether, tasteless, unsaponifiable by cither alcoholic or 
aqueous solution of potassium hydrate. 



•083 
1-067 
•233 

r333 per cent. 



282 



I Hie lam Floi idanum . 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ June, 1885. 



2. Ether extraction. — The powder was next treated with ether. 
The portion soluble in ether amounted to 0*23 per cent. The extract 
was sohible in alcohol, and in aqueous and alcoholic solution of sodiuui 
hydrate. Its reactions show it to be an acid resin. 

3. Absolute alcohol maceration. — Absolute alcohol was the next 
solvent used for maceration. The soluble portion amounted to 1'9 
per cent., of which 1-687 was soluble in water, '211 soluble in dilute 
ammonia, leaving '002 as insoluble in either. The extract was astringent 
but not bitter. Tannic acid .was present to the amount of 0*54 per 
cent. 

4. Aqueous extraction. — The ])Owder remaining from the foregoing 
macerations was treated with the necessary quantity of water. The 
precipitate obtained by the addition of alcohol amounted to 1*8 per 
cent. There was an acid present, but on account of decomposition of 
the liquid it conld not be estimated, although the reactions show it to 
be tannic acid. 

5. Alkaline extraction. — The powder was next treated with a 0*2 
per cent, sohition of sodium hydrate. A part of this solution was 
neutralized with acetic acid and subsequently alcohol added; the 
resulting precipitate amounted to 0*9 per cent ; the total extract being 
ecjual to 5 per cent. 

(3. Acid maceration. — The powder insoluble in the above extractions 
was next treated with diluted hydrochloric acid of about 2 per cent, 
strength. A portion of this liquid was neutralized with ammonia. 
The resulting precipitate amounted to 0*24 per cent., the total extract 
amounting to 1*88 per cent, and containing some iron. The remain- 
ing insoluble powder after bleaching weighed 64*005 per cent. 

Root barh. — The moisture of the bark amounted to 13*865 per cent, 
and the ash to 5*7 per cent. The solubilities of the ash were as follows : 

Soluble in water -334 

Soluble in hydrochloric acid 2-833 

Insoluble in either (silica) 2 533 

5-700 per cent. 

The qualitative analysis resulted as follows : Acids : sulphuric and 
phosphoric; Bases : aluminium, calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium. 

1. Petroleum extraction. — The powder was extracted with petroleum 
as in the previous analyses. The soluble portion amounted to 2*60 
per cent., of which 0*11 per cent, was volatile oil and the remainder 
2*49 per cent, fat and a crystalline principle. The latter melts at 110° 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
June, 1885. j 



IlUcium Floridanum. 



283 



C. ; the same was also found in the capsules. The crystals were insolu- 
ble in alcohol and ether, but soluble in chloroform, and were neutral 
to test paper. 

2. Ether maceration. — The powder was next treated with the neces- 
sary amount of ether. The extract amounted to 0'G6 per cent., and 
consisted of resin. 

3. Absolute alcohol treatment. — The powder was next treated wiih 
the requisite quantity of absolute alcohol. The soluble portion 
amounted to 12 2 per cent. The dry extract was soluble, as follows : 
7*625 per cent, in water, 4*275 per cent, in dilute ammonia, and 0'3 
per cent, insoluble in either. The aqueous solution contained tannin 
amounting to 5*4 per cent. The dilute ammonia dissolved the resin, 
which was of a ruby-red color and precipitable by neutralization with 
acetic acid. 

4. Aqueous extraction. — The powder insoluble in the foregoing was 
treated with the necessary quantity of water. This mixture was 
diluted on account of the mucilage present and filtered. Alcohol gave 
a precipitate which amounted to 4 per cent., and on condensation 
alcohol precipitated 3 per cent. more. The total extract amounted to 
8*96 per cent. 

5. Maceration with diluted alkali. — The powder was next macerated 
with a 0*2 per cent, solution of sodium hydrate. The total extract 
amounted to 10'510 per cent., of Avhich 9*605 percent, was precipitated 
by alcohol and acetic acid to neutralization. 

6. Treatment with diluted acid. — The powder insoluble in the fore- 
going extractions was treated with diluted 2 per cent, hydrochloric 
acid. The soluble portion amounted to 8 per cent. The remaining 
insoluble powder amounted to 42*625 per cent. 

Capsules. — The moisture in the capsules amounted to 10*833 per 
cent, and the ash to 3*5 per cent. The solubilities of the ash were as 
follows : 

Soluble in water 2-333 

Soluble in hydrochloric acid - '467 

Insoluble in either 700 

3 '500 per cent. 

The qualitative analysis resulted as follows: i\cids: sulphuric and 

phosphoric; Bases: copper, magnesium, iron, aluminium, potassium, 

sodium. 

1 . Petroleum treatment. — The powder was exhausted with petroleum. 
The soluble portion amounted to 1*25 per cent.; 0*5 per cent, was 
volatile oil and 0*75 per cent, was wax and a crystalline principle. 



284 



Illic imn Floridanum . 



j Am, Jour. Pharm., 
t June, 1885, 



The crystals melt at 110° C. and are identical with those found in the 
root bark. The volatile oil is aromatic and pleasant, resembling in 
odor a mixture of bergamot and orange flower oils. The reactions 
are as follows: Strong sulphuric acid added to a chloroform solution 
gave a greenish color which changed to a purplish-red ; ferric chloride 
and sulphuric acid gave a light green color, Avhich gradually changed 
to brown and red brown. 

2. Ether extraction. — The portion insoluble in petroleum spirit was 
treated with ether. The soluble portion amounted to 1"1 per cent., of 
which 0'2 were crystals and 9 resin. The extract is partly soluble 
in potassium hydrate and is precipitated on neutralization. The crystals 
have a bitter taste and the reactions obtained show it to be identical 
with the glucoside from the leaves. 

3. Treatment with absolute alcohol. — Tiie powder was next treated 
with absolute alcohol. The total extract amounted to 9*25 per cent., 
of which ()"12") \)Qv cent, was soluble in water. Tiie glucoside was 
only found in the etherial solution as it existed only in a minute 
quantity. 

■4. Aqueous maceration. — The powder insoluble in the foregoing 
was treated with the requisite quantity of water ; in this case double 
the quantity was used, making the proportion 1:20. The precipitate by 
alcohol amounted to 2*48 per cent. The total extract was 7*48 percent. 

Alkaline extraction. — The powder was next treated with 0*2 per 
cent, solution of sodium hydrate. The portion soluble amounted to 
4 per cent., of which 1 j^er cent, was precipitated by alcohol and acetic 
acid to neutralization. 

(3. Treatment with diluted acid. — The insoluble powder from the 
last treatment was treated with diluted 2 per cent, liydrochloric acid. 
The total extract amounted to 2'6 per cent., about 1 per cent, was pre- 
cipitated by ammonia and consisted mostly of iron. The remaining 
insoluble powder after bleaching amounted to 62*3 per cent. 

Seeds. — The moisture of the seeds amounted to 7 per cent, and the 

ash 2-222 per cent., the solubilities of which were as follows : 

Soluble in water -834 

Soluble in hydrochloric acid 1*444 

Insoluble in either (silica) '444 

2*222 i^er cent. 

The qualitative analysis resulted as follows : Acids : sulphuric, 
hydrochloric and phosphoric ; Bases : iron, aluminium, magnesium, 
potassium, sodium. 



Am. Jour. Pliarm. ) 
June, 1885. j 



Illicium Floridanum. 



285 



1. Petroleum maceration. — The powdered seeds were extracted with 
petroleum. A portion of the liquid on evaporation left a residue 
amounting to 35*8 per cent, and consisting of fixed oil. This is bland, 
without odor, has the specific gravity 0*903, and is saponified by 
alcoholic and aqueous potassium hydrate solution. Sulphuric acid has 
no action on it; nitrous acid converts it into elaidin. 

2. Ether extraction. — The powder was next treated with ether. 
The dried extract amounted to 1*3 per cent. It was a soft yellowish 
resinous mass of an acid reaction. 

3. The alcoliol maceration was lost entirely through an accident. 

4. Aqueous treatment. — The powder was treated next with water. 
The soluble portion amounted to 1 per cent., which was completely 
precipitated by alcohol. 

5. Alkaline maceration. — The powder insoluble in the above was 
macerated with 0"2 per cent, solution of sodium hydrate. The total 
extract amounted to 15"9 per cent., of which 6 per cent, was precipitated 
by acetic acid and alcohol. 

6. Acid extraction. — The powder was next treated with diluted 2 
per cent, hydrochloric acid. The total extract amounted to 3 percent. 

The remaining insoluble powder was bleached and dried. It 
amounted to 31*4 per cent. 



Becapitulation. Quantitative Results of Proximate Analysis. 





Leaves 


Stem. 


Root 
Bark. 


Cap- 1 
sules. 

1- 25 
•1-10 

9- 25 
5 -000 
4-00 

2- «0 
62-300 

3- 667 

10- 833 


Seeds. 




2-600 
1-460 
5-000 

15-045 
9 -900 
0-000 

42-600 
3 -615 

13-750 


•190 
-230 
1-900 
1-800* 
5-000 
1-880 
64 -005 
14 -829 
10 -166 


2-60 
0-66 

12- 20 
8-90 

10 -51 
8-00 
42 -625 
•640 

13- 865 


35 -80 
1-30 

t 




1-00 
15-90 

8-00 
31-40 

4-60 

7-00 










100-000 


100-000 


100 -000 


100 -000 


100-00 


ASH. 














1 5-083 


1 -333 


5-700 


i 3 -500 






5 -835 


j 1-484 


6-617 


1 8-925 


2 -389 



^Is not complete on account of loss. fTliis was entirely lost. 



286 Preparations — Mexican Pharmacopoeia. {^^^inTissT^'^' 

PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS OF THE MEXICAN 
PHARMACOP(^:iA, 

By the Editor. 

Under " Preparaciones Farmaceiiticas the Mexican Pharmacopoeia 
inchides a number of animal and vegetable products which are rarelj, 
if ever, made by the pharmacist, but are manufactured in industrial 
establishments and are met with in commerce as manufactured products. 
Among others, wine, vinegar, suet, lard, cacao butter, cocoanut oil, cod- 
liver oil, olive oil, and all other fats, as well as the various volatile oils 
have been placed in this class, while tar, oil of cade, empyreumatic 
animal oil, oil of amber, and similar articles are among the chemical 
products, " Productos quimicos." Only the galenical preparations will 
be considered in the following abstracts. 

These preparations are as a rule nia'le by weight, and the formulas 
direct the ingredients in parts by weight, the total weight being usually 
1,000 parts. The Spanish names have precedence in the pharmaco- 
])(eia, and are followed by the French and English synonyms, and 
these by the Latin title. In the following only the Spanish and Lptin 
names as recognized by this Pharmacopoeia, will be given. 

Aceite alcanforado. Oleum cam})horatum. — Camphor 100, sesame 
oil 900. 

Aceite de Cantfiridas, Oleum Cantharidum. — Coarsely ])0wdered 
cantharides 50, sesame oil 500; digest by means of a water-bath for 
six hours, express and filter. 

Aceite de Cicuta, Oleuiii de foliis Conii maculati. — Fresh conium 
leaves 500, sesame oil 1,000 ; bruise the leaves, boil with the oil until 
the water has evaporated, digest at 80°C. for two hours, express 
and filter. The oils of belladonna, hyoscyamus, stramonium, solanum 
nigrum and tobacco are prepared in the same manner ; instead of the 
fresh leaves, one-fourth the quantity of dried leaves may be used and 
moistened with a little water. 

Aceite de estramonio compuesto, Balsamum tranquillans, Oleum 
Stramonii compositum. — Hyoscyamus, stramonium, solanum nigrum, 
and tobacco leaves, fresh of each 200 (or dried 50), belladonna leaves 
50, sesame oil 5,000 ; bruise, boil and digest as above, express, decant 
and filter; then add 3 parts each of the volatile oils of lavender, rose- 
mary, thyme, cedronella and spearmint; keep in a dark place. 

Aceite fosforado, Oleum phosphoratum. — Phosphorus 2, sesame oil 



Am Aoxir. Pnariu. 
June,18S5. 



Prepcu 'alio ns — 3Iexican Pharmaco pee la . 



287 



100; fill a flask, stopper it, heat in a water-batli for 15 or 20 minutes, \ 

shake frequently, when cool decant from the phosphorus and preserve - 

in small, well stoppered vials. ! 

Aceite de higado de bacalao ferruginoso, Oleum jecoris aselli ferra- | 

tum. — Ferric benzoate 1, cod-liver oil 100; triturate the salt with a 1 

portion of the oil, put into a bottle, keep in a moderately warm place 1 

and shake well until a clear red-brown solution is obtained, rendering j 

filtration unnecessary. i 

Aceite de huevos. Oleum e vitellis Ovorum. — Yelk of egg is coagu- | 

lated by heat, expressed between hot iron plates, and the oil filtered ' 

while hot and preserved in well-closed vessels. \ 

Aceite de manzanilla comun, Oleum de fioribus Matricaria^ Chamo- j 

milhe. — German chamomile flowei's 100, sesame oil 1,000; dit^est in a I 

rl 

Avater-bath for two hours, express and filter. In the same manner | 
prepare the oils of St. John's wort, fenugreek and rose petals. :| 

Aceite de sandalo compuesto, Oleum Santali compositum. — Oil of ; 
St. John's wort 500, turpentine 120, sweet gum (liquidambar) (lO; i 
clissolve and mix with powdered dragon's blood 15, })owdered red J 
Saunders 15 and oil of cloves 2. 

Acido acetico aromatizado, Acidum aceticum aromaticum. — Glacial i 
acetic acid 60, camphor 6, oil of lavender 0*05, oil of cloves 0"20, oil ' 
of cinnamon 0*10 ; dissolve. 

Aguardiente alcanforado, Alcohol camphoratus communis. — Cam- 
phor 100, alcohol (60 per cent.) 3,900; dissolve and filter. 

The following medicated waters are directed to be prepared by dis- 
tillation, 1,000 parts of distillate being obtained from the quantities ■: 
given in each case : 

Agua de azahar, Hydrolatum florum Citri Aurantii, fi-om fresh orange 
flowers 3,000. 

Aqua de canela, Hydrolatum Cinnamomi, from Ceylon cinnamon 
500. 

Agua destilada de corteza de naranja amarga, Hydrolatum de cortice 
Citri vulgaris, from fresh bitter orange peel 150 and alcohol (80 per 
cent.) 81. The distilled waters of the peels of sweet orange, citron and ' 
lemon are prepared in the same manner. • 

Agua destilada de hojas de capulin, Hydrolatum foliorum Cerasi ' 
Capollin, from fresh leaves of Cerasus Capollin, De CancL, 1,000. j 
This water is used in the place of cherry-laurel and bitter almond < 
water; 1,000 parts of it contain 0*5 parts of hydrocyanic acid. ; 



288 Preparations— Mexican PharmaGopceia. { i'lSs"''"'' 

Agua destilacla de lecliuga, Hydrolatum haetiiGse, from 2^000 parts 
of flowering garden lettuce, deprived of the lower leaves. 

Agua rosada, Hydrolatum Kos?e, from fresh rose petals 1,000. 

Agua destilada de tilia, Hydrolatum Tilise, from dried linden 
flowers 1,000. In the same manner prepare distilled water from 
chamomile flowers, fennel, valerian and analogous drugs. 

Agua destilada de yerbabuena, Hydrolatum Menthse viridis, from 
fresh spearmint 4,000. Prepare in the same manner the water of 
eucalyptus leaves and of Cedronelhi mexicana. 

The term agua is also applied to various solutions and mixtures, 
some of them containing alcohol. 

Agua albuminosa, Aqua albuminosa. — White of two eggs, w^ater 
500 Gm. 

Agua alcanforada, Aqua camphorata. — Macerate for two days pow- 
dered camphor 10 in distilled water 1,000; it is stated to contain 0'33 
per cent, camphor in solution. 

Agua de alquitran, Aqua picea. — Norway tar 5, pine sawdust 10; 
mix well and macerate for 24 hours with distilled or river water 1,000. 

Agua articular, Tinctura de Nicotiana composita. — Tobacco 90, 
origanum, sage, rosemary, elder flowers, lavender, black pepper and 
mustard seed of each 60, euphorbium 30, castor 30, alcohol (60 per 
cent.) 3,000 ; bruise all the drugs except the mustard, macerate in the 
alcohol for 10 days, express and Alter. Used as a stimulating embro- 
cation. 

Agua segunda de cal, Aqua calcica. 

Agua de cal mercurial, Aqua phagedienica nigra. — Calomel 0*50, lime 
water 300 ; mix. 

Agua carmelitana, Alcoholatum Cedronellse mexicanae compositum. 

Fresh cedronella flowers 1,000, fresh lemon peel and bitter orange 

peel, each 120, nutmeg, cloves and coriander each 90, Ceylon cinnamon 
60, alcohol (80 per cent.) 6,000 ; macerate for two days and distil from 
a water-bath. Dose as a stimulant 8 to 15 Gm. 

Agua cefalica, Alcoholatum Rosraarini. — Fresh rosemary leaves 
1,000, dry lavender flowers 500, alcohol (80 per cent.) 3,000; mace- 
rate for four days and distil ofl" the spirit ; from the residue by means 
of steam obtain 500 parts of aqueous distillate and mix the two liquids. 
Used externally. 

Agua celeste, Collyrium cDeruleum. — Sulphate of copper 1, ammonia 
water (20 per cent.) 5, water 625. 



"^""■june'iSr""*} Preparations— Mexican Pharmacopceia. 289 

Agua de Colonia, Alcoholatum coloiiiense. — Volatile oils of limes 
and lemon each 30, of orange, cedronella, linaloe, lavender and rose- 
mary each 15, of orange flowers and Ceylon cinnamon each 5, alcohol 
(84 per cent.) 3,500 ; mix, after four days distil, and to the distillate 
add essence of jessamin 30. 

Agua del Dr. Sanchez, Collyrium cum sulfato zincico ex Sanchez. — 
Sulphate of zinc 2, powdered orrisroot 4, water 500 ; macerate for three 
days and filter. 

Agua fagedenica roja. Aqua phaged?enica flava. — Corrosive sublimate 
0-40, lime water 120. 

Agua fenica oficinal, Aqua phenicata officinalis. — Crystallized phenol 
20, water 1,000. 

Agua heraostatica de Pagliari, Aqua hfemostatica ex Pagliari. — 
Dissolve benzoin 20 in alcohol (90 per cent.) 50, and alum 100 in 
water 1,000 ; mix, heat to 60° C. with frequent agitation until the mix- 
ture is no longer turbid, and replace the water which may have 
evaporated. Its density is 6°B. 

Agua sedativa de Raspail No. 1, Aqua ammonio-camphorata ex 
Raspail. — Ammonia water (20 per cent.) 60, Raspail's spirit of 
camphor 10, sea salt 60, water 1,000. For No. 2 the ammonia water 
is increased to 80, and for No. 3 to 100 parts. 

Agua de vegeto. Aqua cum subacetate plumbico ex Goulard. — 
Subacetate of lead 15, water 500, cologne water 30; mix. 

Alcohol alcanforado, Alcohol camporatus. — Camphor 100, alcohol 
(90 per cent.) 900. 

Alcohol alcanforado de Raspail, Alcohol camphoratus ex Raspail. — 
Camphor 100, alcohol (95 per cent.) 400. 

For preparing distilled spirits, the drugs properly comminuted, are 
macerated in the alcohol for two or four days, after which time the 
liquid is distilled by means of a water-bath. 

Alcoholato de canela, Alcoholatum corticis Cinnamomi. — Ceylon 
cinnamon 500, alcohol (80 per cent.), 4,000 ; distil off all the spirit. 
Orange and lemon spirits are made in the same manner from the fresh 
peels, using alcohol 3,000. 

Alcoholato de contrayerba compuesto, Alcoholatum Dorsteni?e com- 
positum. — Contrayerva 120, valerian 60, ginger 60, rosemary, sage, 
lavender and cloves of each 30, alcohol (80 per cent.) and water, each 
3,000; distil 4,000 Gm. 

Alcoholato de enula compuesto, Alcoholatum Foeniculi compositum. 
19 



290 Prepay^ations — Mexican Pharmacopoeia. {^^'/nnl'im^'''^' 

— Fennel 120, anise, caraway, allspice, Ceylon cinnamon and laurel 
berries of each 30, rosemary, elecampane and ginger each 60, nutmeg, 
cloves and bitter orange peel each 5, alcohol (80 per cent.) 3,000, water 
1,000; distil 3,000 Gni. 

Alcoholato de Garus, Alcoholatum ex Garus. — Aloes 20, saffron 20, 
myrrh, Ceylon cinnamon, cloves and nutmeg, of each 10, alcohol (56 
per cent.) 5,000 ; distil 2,500 Gm. This is used for preparing the 
Elixir de Garus by mixing of the above spirit 1,000, simple syrup 
1,200 and double orange flower water 100 Gm. 

Alcoholato de toronjil, Alcoholatum Cedronell?e mexicanse. — Fresh 
cedronella leaves and flowers 1,000, alcohol (80 per cent.) 3,000; distil 
all the spirit ; add to the residue fresh cedronella 500, and by means 
of steam obtain 500 Gm. of watery distillate and mix with the spirit. 

Alcoholato de trementina compuesto, Alcoholatum Terebinthinse 
compositum. — Common turpentine 500, white copal 180, myrrh 120, 
sweet gum (liquidambar) 120, laurel berries 100, galbanum, Ceylon 
cinnamon, cloves, nutmeg, ginger and origanum, of each 60, alcohol 
(80 per cent.) 3,500 ; distil 3,000 Gm. Used externally in rheumatic 
complaints. 

Aleoholaturos, Alcoholatura, are tinctures prepared from fresh drugs, 
the plants being collected when the flowers begin to appear, bruised 
and macerated with an equal weight of 90 per cent, alcohol. Such 
tinctures are prepared from aconite leaves, aconite root, arnica flowers, 
hyoscyamus, belladonna, colchicum tubers and flowers, digitalis, stra- 
monium, tobacco, toxicodendron and from the flowers of Magnolia 
mexicana. 

Algodon absorbente Gossypium absorvens. — Prepared by a process 
similar to that recommended by Mr. F. L. Slocum Am. Jour. Phar.,'' 
1881, p. 53). 

Algodon yodado, Gossypium iodatum. — 25 Gm. of carded cotton 
are mixed as intimately as possible with 2 Gm. of finely powdered 
iodine; the mixture is introduced into a glass stoppered bottle, which 
is heated for several minutes in water to expel the air, then firmly 
closed, and heated to about 100° C for at least two hours. After cool- 
ing the cotton is preserved in well stoppered bottles. 

Apocema blanca de Sydenham, Apozema alba ex Sydenham. — Pre- 
cipitated calcium phosphate 20, powdered white bread crumb 40, 
white gum, 40 ; mix, boil with water, stirring continually, and when 
the mixture has been reduced to two liters, pass through loose cotton 



June' 1885*'^'"*} Preparations — Mexican Pharmacopeia. 291 

and add syrup of gum, 120 Gni. Used as an anodyne and absorbent, 
60 to 290 Gm., or more being taken during a day. 

Apocema de cuso, Apozema de Brayera antlielmintica. — Powdered 
koosso 10, water 200; macerate for 12 hours, boil until reduced to 
one-half and dispense without straining. 

Apocema sudorifica, Apozema sudatorium. — Guaiac wood 60, sarsa- 
parilla 30; boil for one hour with sufficient water for making 1,000 
parts of decoction, macerate for two hours with sassafras 10 and 
liquorice root 20, then strain and decant. To be taken in divided 
doses during a day. 

Arrope de mora, Rob mororum. — Evaporate slightly fermented 
juice of mulberries to the consistency of thick honey. Rohob of 
elderberries is prepared in the same manner. 

4zucar naranjada purgante,01eosaccharuretum Aurantii purgativum. 
— Powdered jalap 60, soluble tartar (potassium boro-tartrate) 15, 
sugar 440, oil of orange 4. Dose as a purgative 8 to 15 Gm. 

Balsamo anodino, Tinctura cum Opio et Sapone camphorata. — 
Opium 60, soap 120, camphor 90, saffron 30, alcohol (80 per cent.) 
3,000 ; macerate for ten days. Used externally in rheumatism and 
neuralgia. 

Balsamo catolico, Tinctura balsamica. — Angelica 10, flowering tops 
of St. John^s wort 20, alcohol (80 per cent.) 720 ; macerate for eight 
days, express, strain and add myrrh 10, frankincense 10 ; again mace- 
rate for eight days and add tolu balsam 60, benzoin 60, and (^ape aloes 
10; macerate as before and filter. Used as a topical application for 
indolent and troublesome ulcers. 

Balsamo de Gonzalez, Linimentum anodynum, — Stramonium oil 
(oleoinfusion) 250, anodyne balsam 25, ammonia water (20 per cent.) 
15. Used in muscular pains of the breast and back. 

Balsamo nerval, Balsamum nervale. Pomatum nervinum. — Camphor 
3, Tolu balsam 6 ; reduce to a fine powder, add gradually with tritu- 
ration a mixture of beef marrow 70, expressed oil of nutmeg 90, and 
sesame oil 20, and incorporate with it oil of rosemary 6, and oil of 
cloves 3. Used as an anodyne in rheumatism. 

Balsamo Opodeldoc concreto, Linimentum Opodeldoch concretum. 
— Formula of the former French Codex. 

Balsamo Opodeldoc liquido, Linimentum Opodeldoch liquidum.— 
Equivalent to our soap liniment, but contains about 2*6 per cent, of 
ammonia water. 



292 



Gleanings from Foreign Journals. 



/Am. Jour. Pharm 
\ June, 1885. 



GLEANINGS FROM FOREIGN JOURNALS. 
Bv J. Robert Moechel. 

Stable Solution of Salicylate of Sodium. — G. M. Markovich recom- 
mends adding gradually 60 Gm. of sodium bicarbonate to 100 Gm. 
salicylic acid, and 225 Gm. water, contained in a flask ; when effer- 
vescence ceases, warm ; then pass through a previously washed filter, 
and add 1,000 Gm. of distilled water. This gives a solution contain- 
ing 10 per cent, of the salt. — Phar. Post, 1885, p. 273. 

For removing iron mould a weak solution of zinc chloride is recom- 
mended as being better than oxalic acid; afterwards wash with cold 
water.— P/t. Post, 1885, p. 368. 

Poudre Refulgente, Polishing Powder. — Mix 93 maguesia with 7 
parts red oxide of iron. —Bund sch. Leitm., 1885, No. 7. 

Cologne Water, 1. — 10 oil of bergamot, 5 oil of lemon, 1 oil of lav- 
ender (best), 5 oil of rosemary (rectified), 1 oil of cloves, 1 oil of neroli 
(best), 0*2 oil of ylang-ylang, 1 acetic ether, 1 acid acetic, 825 alco- 
hol, 150 distilled water. AVarm this mixture to 70° or 75°C., then 
keep in a cool place for two days, and filter. Heating to such a tem- 
perature improves a Cologne water considerably, and makes it resem- 
ble the distilled perfume, surpassing the simple mixture of the ingre- 
dients. The true Cologne waters are either acid or alkaline in charac- 
ter. No. 1 belongs to the former class ; those of the latter class con- 
tain a little ammonia ; but it should be remembered that the oils of 
lavender and rosemary acquire a strong unpleasant odor in presence of 
free alkali. 

Cologne Water, 11. — 10 oil of bergamot, 5 oil of lemon, 2 oil of 
rosemary, 1 oil of neroli, 0*5 oil of lavender, 0*2 ammonia water, 885 
alcohol, 100 distilled water. 

Cologne Water, III, for bathing. — 2 oil of citronella, 2 oil of lemon, 
5 oil of bergamot, 5 oil of rosemary, 2 oil of sassafras, 1 oil of cloves 
1 oil of wiutergreen, 10 acetic ether, 800 alcohol, 200 distilled water. 
Prepare as above. For distilling, add one-half more of water, and 
distil very slo^vly, avoiding unnecessary heat. 

Fly V^ater. — Mix when needed, and dispense without filtering, 200 
syrup of quassia, 50 alcohol and 750 water. It is used by moistening 
with the mixture a cloth or filtering paper on a plate. 

Syrupus Quassice. — Macerate, during 24 hours, 1,000 parts of quas- 



June 1885 Gleanings from Foreign Journals. 293 

sia wood with 5,000 parts of water, then boil for J hour. Set aside 
for 24 hours, and press. Mix the liquid with 150 parts of molasses, 
and evaporate to 200 parts. A weaker decoction of quassia does not 
kill the flies. 

Tincture of iodine is proposed as a new blow-pipe reagent by Wheeler 
and Ludeking, who find it to take the place of hydriodic acid, recom- 
mended by E. Haanel. In place of the ordinarily used charcoal they 
recommend discs made of plaster of Paris. The substance to be exam- 
ined is [)laced on one end of the disc, moistened with the tincture, and 
then heated with the blue flame ; the volatilized iodides settle on the 
cooler part of the disc. The metals are distinguished by the follow- 
ing colors: arsenic, orange^red; lead, chrome yellow; tin, orange- 
brown ; silver, pale grayish yellow when cold, and light yellow when 
hot; antimony, orange-red ; mercury, yellow, soon changing to scar- 
let; selenium, reddish brown; bismuth, chocolate-brown, with red 
border on the side nearest the substance examined ; cobalt, greenish 
brown, with green border (the brownish hue soon changes to light 
green, especially when blown upon) ; molybdenum, deep ultramarine 
blue near the heated spot; tungsten, pale greenish yellow near the 
heated spot; copper, white ; cadmium, white, turning bright golden 
yellow when vapor of sulphide of ammonium is blown over it; zinc, 
white, disappearing soon. 

If a drop of a solution of ammonia be added to, or if ammoniacal 
vapor be blown upon the velvety chocolate- brown mass produced by 
bismuth, the color changes from brown to bright red. 

Many of the colors soon vanish. By this method tin and zinc can 
be distinguished by means of the blow-pipe. The reaction of molyb- 
denum is distinct and characteristic. — Chemiker Zeitung. 

Terpin has been rcommended as an excellent expectorant in bron- 
chitis, in doses from 20 to 0'40 Gm. 

Fournie prepares terpin as follows : a mixture of 4 liters of recti- 
fied oil of turpentine, 3 liters of alcohol (80°), and 1 liter of nitric 
acid, is placed in large shallow porcelain or glass vessels. The crys- 
tals which separate are collected, dried between folds of filtering paper, 
and again dissolved in 95 per cent, alcohol which has been made alka- 
line so as to neutralize any adhering HNO3 ; the solution is set aside 
in a cool place to crystallize. The yield is about 12 per cent, of the 
turpentine used. — Lyon Med.; Ph. Centralhalle, No. 17. 



294 Alleged Decomposition of Quinine. 



NOTE ON THE ALLEGED DECOMPOSITION OF QUININE 
IN CONTACT WITH LIME.^ 
By F. W. Passmore. 

In a recent communication to the Journal de Pharmacie/^^ M. 
Masse expresses an opinion that the lime used in the ordinary pro- 
cesses of cinchona bark analysis exercises an injurious influence upon 
the yield of alkaloid, especially at the temperature of the water-bath. 
This opinion he considers to have been confirmed by the results of 
some experiments made directly upon quinine sulphate^ of which he 
describes the following : 

One gram of the crystalline salt, containing 12 per cent, of Avater, 
and therefore representing 0*88 gram of anhydrous sulphate, was dis- 
solved in 50 cc. of water, acidulated with 1 cc. of hydrochloric acid. 
The solution was divided into two equal parts, and 10 grams of lime 
having been added to each portion both were evaporated to dryness, 
one upon a water-bath at a temperature of 91 °C., the other in the cold 
under a bell-glass connected with a water- pump. The dry mixture 
which liad been submitted to the temperature of the water- bath, when 
extracted with chloroform, gave a solution which, according to M. 
Masse, yielded a residue of quinine equal to only 0*389 gram of 
sulphate of quinine dried at 100° C. The other mixture, which was 
air-dried, when treated in the same manner yielded a residue equal to 
0*430 gram of dry sulphate of quinine. As the theoretical quantity 
that should have been obtained in each case was 0*440 gram, there was 
a deficiency in the former case of 0*051 gram and in the latter of 0*010 
gram of sulphate of quinine, which M. Masse attributes to the action 
of the lime. 

If this statement could be substantiated it would be of considerable 
importance, as pointing to a loss of upwards of 1 1 J per cent, of alkaloid, 
and therefore constituting a source of serious error in the analysis of 
bark by methods ordinarily followed. In order therefore to test its 
accuracy, M. Masse's experiment was repeated. 0*5 gram of pure 
quinine sulphate, containing 5*3 per cent, of water and equivalent, to 

^ Read at an Evening Meeting of the " Pharmaceutical Society " of Great 
Britain, April 1, 1885. Reprint from " Pharm. Jour, and Trans.," April 11, 
1885, p. 829, communicated by the author. 

2 "Journal de Pharmacie et de Chimie," March 1, 1885, p. 260. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 1 
Jane, 1885, J 



Alleged Decomposition of Quinine. 



295 



0*411 gram of alkaloid, was dissolved in 25 cc. of a 2 per cent, solution 
of hydrochloric acid ; to this solution 10 grams of lime was added and 
the whole was dried at the temperature of the water-bath. The residue 
was finely powdered, introduced into a small glass percolator and the 
alkaloid extracted with chloroform. After complete exhaustion of the 
mixture the chloroform solution was carefully evaporated to dryness. 
The residue gave a weight of 0'409 gram of quinine alkaloid, or a 
deficit of two milligrams, which slight loss may be considered to be 
due to experimental error. In a subsequent experiment ether Avas 
employed in preference to chloroform as an extracting agent, as being 
less difficult of manipulation. The ether residue obtained was, to 
avoid impurities, redissolved in a slight excess of acid, and the alkaloid 
precipitated with ammonia and extracted with ether. This second 
ether solution upon evaporation left a residue of quinine alkaloid 
Aveighing 0'409 gram, or a deficit of 0*002 gram upon the 0*41 1 gram 
of alkaloid required by theory. This loss also may be considered due 
to experimental error, and both results are totally at variance with 
those obtained by M. Masse. 

Note. — The results obtained by Mr. J. F. C. Jiuigk and by Professor R. 
Fresenius, in investigations made for an entirely different purpose (see 
"Am. Jour. Phar.," 1883, jj. 484, 435) agree completely with those of Mr. 
Passmore.— Editor Am. Jouk. Phar. 



Cassia Absus, Lin. — Attention has recently been called again to 
the seeds of this plant which have long been used in the East foi' granular 
conjunctiva under tlie name of cliichem or schimsch, and occasionally 
in Europe as semen cismce. The plant is an annual, indigenous to the 
East Indies and westward to Central Africa; the rather narrow gland- 
ular-pubescent legume contains 5 or 6 seeds, which resemble flaxseed? 
are flattish-ovate, glossy, brow^nish black, and have a somewhat aromatic 
odor and a mucilaginous disagreeable and bitter taste. J. J. Virey, in 
"Jour, de Phar.," May, 1823, described the application as follows: The 
seeds are well washed, then dried, finely powdered and mixed with an 
equal quantity of sugar; a small portion of this powder is dropped or 
blown into the diseased eye, which is then closed. The powder is of 
rapid action and irritating, and should not be used in the inflammatory 
stage of the disease; according to Erank its activity is increased by the 
addition of turmeric. J. M. M. 



296 



Detection of Phenol in Creasote. 



/Am. Jour. Pharm. 
X June, 1885. 



DETECTION OF PHENOL IN CREASOTE.^ 
By Peter MacEwan. 

In the "Chemical News/' of May 2, 188 4, there appeared the follow- 
ing note among the weekly "Chemical Notices from Foreign Sources/' 
the source in this instance being "Zeitschrift fiir analytische Chemie 

^'A Sensitive Reaction of Phenol (J. F. Eykman). — A very dilute 
solution of phenol mixed with a few drops of nitrous ether, and the 
same volume of undiluted sulphuric acid, takes a red color. If the acid 
is allowed to run down the side of the glass so as to form a layer below 
the phenol solution, there appears a narrow red band where the liquids 
meet. This reaction indicates one in two millions." 

On trying the test with a 5 per cent, solution of pure nitrous ether, 
and i per cent, and 1 per mille solutions of phenol, I obtained a triple 
ring, the intermedial stratum being brown, the lower a bright emerald 
green, and the upper pink. This not being satisfactory I referred to 
the " foreign source " and found that Eykman's paper had appeared in 
New Remedies and that spirit of nitrous ether was to be used in the 
test. With the spirit the emerald green color is not produced ; the 
ring is at first brown with a red shade, but after standing for a short 
time the brown color disappears, leaving a fine pink stratum, and the 
strong acid has also a pink shade. On mixing the two liquids an 
opaque solution of a red shade (approaching magenta) is produced. 
The pure nitrous ether solution is quite clear and of a darker red 
color. The red color is due to reaction between phenol-sul phonic acid 
and the aldehyde contained in the sweet spirit of nitre. ^ The reaction 
as a mere test-tube experiment is pretty and interesting, particularly 
when a solution of pure nitrous ether is used, the immediate bright 
green color, and the gradual development of the red owing to the slow 
formation of aldehyde, are very interesting. Apart from this it struck 
me that the reaction might be practically useful in the detection of 
phenol in creasote, and I put the matter on trial. 

An aqueous solution of creasote (1 in 500) on the addition of spirit 
of nitrous ether becomes cloudy and colored (phenol solution remains 
transparent and colorless), and when the sulphuric acid is added a 

' Read at a meeting of the Edinburgh Chemists' Assistants and Appren- 
ti-^es' Association, January, 28. 

^ See paper by Mr. Dunstau, "Pharm. Journ.," [3], xiv, 837. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
June, 1885. j 



Detection of Phenol in Creasote. 



297 



dark brown ring is formed between the layers. After cooling, the 
layers are mixed, and a brown sohition with a brown froth is formed. 
The following results were also obtained: 

Creasote containing 10 per cent, of phenol. Dark brown ring, 
brown above, acid acquired pink tinge. On mixing: dark brown 
solution, and brown froth with red shade. 

Creasote containing 20 per cent, phenol. Dark brown ring, brown 
above, acid acquired pink color. On mixing: red-brown solution and 
froth of red shade. 

Creasote and phenol, equal parts. Red-brown ring, brown above 
and pink below. On mixing: pink-brown solution and pink froth. 
(This mixture gives results which nearly approach to those with pure 
phenol.) 

If the solutions of pure creasote and those containing 10 and 20 per 
cent, of the adulterant be allowed to stand for half an hour or longer 
after mixing, again shaken and allowed to rest for a few minutes, the 
pure creasote froth is found to be white, while the others are distinctly 
red tinted. 

From these results I consider that the application of Eykman's test 
to the detection of ])henol in creasote is practicable; the reagents required 
are common things, and the application of the test quite easy. Although 
I have made parallel experiments with solution of pure nitrous ether, 
the results obtained were not much different from those with spirit of 
nitrous ether. The strength of the creasote solution should be about 
1 in 500 — a single drop dissolved in an ounce of water will serve. In 
applying the test, five drops of spt. aether, nit. are first placed in a test- 
tube (5 inches by f inch diameter is the best size to permit shaking), 
then a drachm of the creasote solution, and, lastly, the same volume of 
strong sulphuric acid carefully poured down the ^tide of the tube. 
There are first to be noted the color of the ring and any change pro- 
duced in the acid; if it be pink, phenol is present. Then after the 
contents of the tube are quite cold the layers should be mixed and the 
color of the froth noted, which will corroborate the first observation. 
Further, if the contents of the tube remain undisturbed nntil the floc- 
culence rises to the surface, the clear liquid in the case of pure creasote 
is of a pale brown color, but when phenol is present to the extent of 
10 or 20 per cent, it is a dark red or reddish brown. — Phar. Jour, and 
Trans., March 14, 1885, p. 754. 



298 



Certain Aerated Beverages. 



j Am. Jour. Pliarm 
( June, 1885. 



A TECHNICAL POINT IN THE MANUFACTURE OF 
CERTAIN AERATED BEVERAGES.^ 
By W. a. H. Naylor. 

A short time ago a manufacturer of aerated beverages brought to 
me a bottle each of ginger ale and ginger beer that he had recently 
made, in which neither aroma nor pungency could be detected. He 
was quite unable to account for the rapid disappearance of those char- 
acteristic properties, which he affirmed the syrupy essence possessed to 
a high degree before aeration, and he desired from me an explanation. 

As no clue to the cause of this remarkable disappearance was obtained 
from the answers he supplied to numerous questions put to him regard- 
ing the purity of the materials he had used in the production of the 
drinks, it was deemed advisilile to subject the two samples to a general 
examination. 

As a preliminary step, the carbonic acid was drawn off, collected and 
examined, the result being that the gas was found to be mixed with an 
appreciable quantity of air. The further discovery was made that 
both sain[)les were contaminated with copper, a circumstance which 
sufficiently explained the metallic t iste that characterized them. But 
in these facts there did not appear more than a show of reason for 
regarding them as sources of the evil which formed the subject of com- 
plaint. Accordingly the machinery was overhauled and the necessary 
repairs were executed. In proof of the fact that the mechanical defects 
were remedied, it may be mentioned that subsequent ^^charges,'' after 
bottling, showed no admixture of gas with air, and no metallic con- 
tamination. The complete result, however, was not obtained, for on 
opening one of the bottles four hours afterwards it became evident 
from the absence of pungency that the old grievance still existed. 
The next step consisted in testing the respective materials, solid and 
liquid, which played any part in the manufacture of the ginger bever- 
ages. These included citric acid, sugar, ginger essence, water, and 
calcium carbonate from which the gas was generated. All were found 
to be unexceptional as to quality. There was yet one more chemical 
to be examined, viz., the oil of vitriol. The chief feature that attracted 
attention in regard to the acid was the unpleasant smell it emitted, 

^ Read at an Evening Meeting of the Pliarmaceutieal Society of Great 
Britain, March 4, 1885. 



Am. Jour. Pharni. \ 
June, 1885. J 



Certain Aerated Beverages. 



299 



recalling nitrous acid. This suspicion as to the presence of nitro- 
compounds was confirmed on the application of the well-known iron 
test. A given volume of the acid was next treated with an excess of 
pure sulphuric acid and metallic mercurVj and the voluuie of nitric 
oxide evolved was measured. It gave gas corresponding to the follow- 
ing amounts of nitrogen : One hundred pints of the acid yielded four 
and a half pints of nitrogen, equivalent weight for weight to '003 per 
cent, of nitrogen. Beyond traces of iron no other impurity was de- 
tected. 

At this stage the following experiments were instituted. Into a 
soda-water bottle were put suitable quantities of the ginger essence, 
syrup and calcium carbonate, and water to nearly fill it. Then suffi- 
cient of the contaminated acid was added to decompose the lime, and 
the contents of the bottle were immediately secured by a cork wired 
down. Repetition experiments were made, in which a portion of the 
ginger essence was replaced by capsicine and gingerine, and others in 
which a pure acid was substituted for the impure oil of vitriol. The 
bottles were opened at varying intervals, when the following observa- 
tions were made. Those in which the impure acid had been used showed 
a marked decrease in pungency at the end of two hours ; at the end of 
four hours the pungency was faint; at the end of six hours it had 
completely disappeared. The ginger essence, gingerine and capsicine 
had been affected apparently to the same degree. Those in which the 
pure acid had been used had retained their pungency apparently in its 
entirety. 

These results, which were in perfect accord with those which were 
obtained at the factory, left little doubt that the cause of mischief was 
attributable to the nitro-compounds in the oil of vitriol used for gen- 
erating the carbonic acid gas. 

This conclusion received the clearest verification at the hands of the 
manufacturer the instant he used an acid that was free from smell and 
that did not respond to the iron test. 

Beyond this point the inquiry was not pushed, and, therefore, it is 
not possible to predict with certainty the precise change which here 
takes place. Dr. Thresh, in his investigations on the pungent princi- 
ples of plants, has demonstrated their ready destructibility under the 
influence of oxidizing agents. And it is not improbable that the effect 
produced by small amounts of nitro-compounds, acting under great 
pressure, on the active princi[)les of ginger and capsicum is similar to 



300 



Impurity in Distilled Wate7\ 



Am. Jour. I'liarm. 
June, 1885. 



that which results from the use of strong oxygenated solutions acting 
at ordinary pressures. If this were so, the decomposition would give 
rise among other products to a fatty acid of the acetic series. 

In offering this note for publication I desire it to be understood that 
its one object is to supply an explanation — hitherto I believe unknown 
— of an important fact, and to caution makers of aerated beverages 
against the use of an acid impregnated with the oxides of nitrogen. — 
Phar. Jour, and Trans., March (, 1885, p. 731. 



AX IMPUEITY IX DISTILLED AYATER.^ 
By T. p. Blunt, F. C. S. 
In the late autumn of last year an anomaly was observed in the 
indications of Tidy's permanganate test for water. It was found that 
the amount of iodine set free from potassium iodide in the blank ex- 
periment with distilled water was very much in excess of what was to 
be expected, and the amount of hyposulphite solution used in destroy- 
ing it varied in successive determinations within very wide limits. It 
was at first suspected that the iodide used contained iodate, but this 
did not prove to be the case. Then one by one the different solutions 
were made afresh until all had been changed. Still the perplexing 
anomaly continued; 75, 80, even 120 measures of hyposulphite solu- 
tion were used up instead of the calculated 54 or 56. Thus by a pro- 
cess of exhaustive elimination I jvas driven back on the distilled water 
as the source of the trouble. I tested it by adding some quantity to 
acidified starch and iodide solution, and at once obtained a strong blue 
coloration. This reaction pointed to the presence of nitrous acid, and 
though I was not in a position to apply the direct metapheiiylenedi- 
amine test there can be no doubt that the anomalous results observed 
were to be attributed to that body. The dilute permanganate for the 
blank experiment is prepared at the time by mixing a measured bulk 
of a stronger solution with distilled water, and no doubt the great 
difference in the quantities of iodine liberated was due to accidental 
variations of the time intervening between the mixture and the addi 
tion of potassium iodide, the mutually destructive reaction between 
permanganate of potassium and nitrous acid occupying some little time. ^ 

1 Read at an Evening Meeting of the " Pharmaceutical Society " of Great » 
Britain, April 1, 1885. 



r 



^""'jine'issr'^*} Impurity in Distilled Water. 301 

Together with the nitrous acid, ammonia was found in unusual quantity, 
and the acid was probably present in part at least in the form of am- 
monium nitrite. 

It will be noticed that this occurred in the late autumn, Avhich 
agrees with the recorded fact that the organic impurities in water 
increase on the approach of the winter months. Nitrous acid in water 
is usually ascribed to the reducing action of a micro-organism on nitrates, 
themselves produced from ammonia or combined organic nitrogen by 
another organism of opposite chemical function, as recently shown by 
Warington, and in the present case this is no doubt the true account of 
the matter. But nitrites are by no means invariably due to organisms; 
it is well known that in Williams's process for determining nitrates 
witli the copper-zinc couple, and in other similar methods where zinc 
is used for reducing them, the apj^earance of ammonia is preceded by 
that of nitrites, and it has come under my observation that where a 
water containing nitrates is passed through some length of '^galvan- 
ized iron piping, nitrites are formed in some quantity. Indeed, 
wherever nitrites are detected in a water it is always safer to test for 
zinc, which may be done in a moment with potassium ferrocyanide 
and a few drops of hydrochloric acid. 

It is clear that nitrous acid is a very undesirable constituent of dis- 
tilled water from a pharmaceutical point of view, and I am noAV in the 
habit of adding to my still-charge a slight excess both of sulphuric 
acid and of potassium permanganate. I thus succeed in destroying 
nitrites and keeping back ammonia, and am able to provide for myself 
and supply to my colleagues in the town a distilled water of excep- 
tional purity, giving no reaction whatever either with Nessler's test or 
starch and iodide solution. — Pharm. Jour, and Tram., April 11, 1885, 
p. 829. 



Sedum acre, Lin., nat. ord. C^rassulaceae, is recommended by Dr. 
Louis Duval, of Madrid, as a remedy for diphtheria, a decoction in 
beer being made of which a wineglassful is taken every hour. After 
several doses copious vomiting is produced, removing the diphtheritic 
membranes. 

This is the mossy stonecrop of our gardens and naturalized in dry 
and rocky places in the United States. It formerly enjoyed consider- 
able reputation as a remedy in scurvy, drojisy, epilepsy, and externally 
in ulcers and various skin diseases. J. M. M. 



302 



Spurious Cubebs. 



(Am. Jour. Pharna. 
1 June, 1885. 



SPURIOUS CUBEBS. 
By E. M. Holmes, F. L. S., 
Curator of the Museum of the Pharmaceutical Society. 

My attention has recently been directed again to the spurious cubebs 
which were offered for sale in the London market last year, by a para- 
graph in the " Lancet " (May 2, p. 829), from the pen of Dr. Buxton 
Shillitoe, in which lie states that a patient came to him, who had been 
taking cubeb powder, and complained that it made him feverish, with 
sickness and purging. The patient had previously taken cubeb pow- 
der for a week without its disagreeing with iiim, and then had to buy 
some more. The new sample had a more acrid and unpleasant taste, 
and gave rise to nausea, followed by diarrhoea, etc. He persevered 
with it for three days, when he became so ill that he could not go to 
business. 

Feeling sure that either the si)urioiis cubebs (Piper crass Ipes'^), which 
Mr. W. Kirkby kindly examined microscopically at my request (f' Phar. 
Jour.," Feb. 14, p. 653), or the berries of Daphnklium Cubeba, which 
have still more recently been offered as cubebs, had been used, either pure 
or mixed with true cubebs, I wrote to Dr. Shillitoe, who kindly fur- 
nished me with a specimen of the cubebs which caused the unpleasant 
symptoms above descril)ed. 

The distinctions between the true and spurious cubebs, given in Mr. 
Kirkby 's paper, being available only for detecting the entire fruit, and 
not for the examination of the powder if mixed with that of true 
cubebs, it seemed desirable to again examine the drug in the interests 
of public safety, in the hope of finding out some practical test that 
could be easily and quickly applied so as to enable chemists who might 
unwittingly have received the adulterated article to detect its character. 
I therefore made a decoction of the true drug, of the Piper crassipes 
and of the Daphnidium Cabeba, and of the adulterated cubebs for- 
warded by Dr. Shillitoe, and applied several reagents, with the follow- 
ing results. 

Iodine solution gave a bright indigo-blue coloration with the gen- 
uine cubebs, a dull purplish hue with P. crassipes, no change of color 
with Daphnidium Cubeba, and a dull purplish blue with the spurious 
cubebs, indicating an admixture of a little genuine cubebs with P. 
crassipes, very different to the very distinct blue tint of the genuine 
drug. 



Am. .lour. I 'harm. 

June, 1885. 



Spurious Cubebs. 



303 



Solutions of bichloride of mercury, suhacetate of lead, perchloride 
of iron, and nitric acid gave no nseful indications. 

On crushing a little of the genuine cubebs on a porcelain slab with 
concentrated sulphuric acid a deep crimson color with a distinct car- 
mine tint in it is quickly developed. P. crassipes gives a reddish 
brown color, Daphnidium Ciibeba a yellowish brown hue, and the 
adulterated cubebs a crimson-brown tint. Under the microscope the 
small angular starch of both the false and genuine cubebs is easily 
recognized, bnt D. Cabeba does not show any starch granules. 

On repeating the experiments, I found that the distinct pure blue 
tint given by iodine to a decoction of genuine cubebs could be distin- 
guished without difficulty from the dull purple tint (like diluted ink) 
of the spurious cubebs, even when the liquid was diluted, and that the 
peculiar carmine hue of the genuine was easily recognizable in the gen- 
uine article, especially at the edge of the drop of acid, but not in the 
adulterated cubebs. 

I hasten, therefore, to point out these two tests, in the ho})e that 
they may serve to prevent this spurious cubebs from being further 
sold to the public. In view of the difficulty that exists in preventing 
spurious drugs, especially in tne form of powder, entering into com- 
merce, it may be interesting to state the facts concerning the spurious 
cubebs, so far as I am acquainted with them. 

On March 21, 1884, 1 received a specimen of spurious cubebs from 
Mr. J. Hartford, of New York, who stated : " I picked up, in the 
early part of the week, a sample of cubebs out of a lot of two bags 
oftered at a public auction here. I was unable to procure any infor- 
mation about this lot, but learned that the Customs office here had 
condemned a lot as not being genuine and had confiscated the same, 
and by the courtesy of Major Horner I am enabled to send you two 
samples. No doubt the high price now ruling has to do with this 
imitation." On May 6, 1884, I received another sample from a 
wholesale druggist, who requested an opinion as to their genuineness, 
stating that they had been offered for sale, and two hundredweight 
had been purchased, presumably in ignorance, by a London drug firm. 
Subsequently, on June 17, I was informed that the same cubebs were 
offered a second time, and not a single bid Avas made, and the selling 
broker was simply laughed at. Nevertheless, there can be no doubt 
that the spurious cubebs have been powdered and sold as genuine, or 



304 Borax Deposits in California and Nevada. { *'^°'iJ?,e'i885*™' 

mixed with the genuine^ as has apparently been done in the case alluded 
to by Dr. Shillitoe. 

It is worthy of note in connection with this subject that a species of 
pepper, evidently so nearly allied to cubebs, should possess properties 
so different to that of the genuine drug, and it may serve as a warning 
to wholesale as well as retail chemists to carefully examine the drugs 
that pass through their hands, even when presenting a genuine appear- 
ance. At the present time I have good reason to believe that there is, 
in commerce, a root which closely resembles the true Pareira hrava in 
appearance, except in having narrower and more woody concentric 
zones. Although evidently belonging to the same natural order, there 
is no evidence as yet that it possesses similar properties. 

In conclusion, it may be reiterated here that the spurious cubebs 
hav^e a more bitter taste and an odor resembling that of mace. 

It may also be pointed out, as a general rule, that when a drug goes 
up in price, it is time to be on the look out for adulteration or substi- 
tution. — Phar. Jour, and Trans., May 9, 1885, p. 909. 



THE BORAX DEPOSITS IN CALIFORNIA AND NEVADA.^ 

It may be said in general terms that all California, south of the 
Chon-chilla and Tresno region and east of the coast range, is a silver 
and borax region. Southern Nevada is much the same. The counties 
of Mono, Juyo, and San Bernardino, with a part of San Diego, are the 
chief localities, though a remarkable line of borax deposits extends 
across Nevada, from west of Humboldt Sink to Desert \¥ells and Fish 
Lake, 140 miles southeast. The first discovery of borax in California 
was made in 1856 near Red Bluff, in the northern part of the State. 
The first deposits, however, successfully worked, were those of the 
Borax and Hachinhama Lakes in Lake county, 100 miles north of 
San Francisco. At present the supply comes from the more easily 
worked and richer deposits in the sandy deserts about Death Valley 
and southeast of Pyramid Lake in Nevada. The first shipment of 
borax was made in 1864. 

The crystals of borax in the mud were removed by the use of coffer- 
dams, 4 feet square, and often nearly 1,000 lbs. were taken from one 



^ From a report on the production of borax in the United States, for- 
warded by Mr. L. S. Sackville West to Earl Granville. 



Am. ./our. Pliarm. ) 
June, 1885. j 



Bora.v Deposits in California and Nevada. 



305 



such space. In the deepest iniid stratum the small crystals disappeared 
and immense ones, often 7 inches and four inches thick, were disco- 
vered. These needed only solution and recrystallization to render them 
fit for market. 

About 1868, operations ceased at Borax Lake, but continued at 
Hachinhama till 1873, producing annually 250,000 lbs. In 1866 the 
borax still remaining was estimated at 54,000,000 lbs. 

In San Bernardino deposits of tincal and boraled sands have atti acted 
much attention. The product is of the finest quality, and its manu- 
facture has been highly profitable. The marsh is twelve miles long 
and eight miles wide, and is worked by several English and Ameiicau 
companies. 

Borax minerals are found throughout this region in a great variety 
of forms, as native borax or tincal, as boracic acid, as ulexite or borate 
of lime, as pricute, pandermite and colemnite. Of all these the silky 
white balls of ulexite, often one foot in diameter, compressible, cotton- 
like, and similar to the Tarapacji produce, is the most attractive form. 

The .crude boraxes of the Pacific Coast are usually of high Cjuality, 
but the chief problem is to economize labor and cost of transportation, 
and the effort is being made to produce the highly concentrated " boracic 
acid glass," 1 lb. of which is equal to 3 lbs, of common borax. The 
Basin of Nevada, in which the alkaline lakes or marshes of Mono, 
Owens, Walker, Carson, Humboldt, are situated, is covered in many 
parts with dry efflorescent salts, washed in the course of ages from the 
soda feldspar of the volcanic rocks and ridges of yellow lava which 
cover the country for miles. The waters of the lakes are heavy, appear 
like thin oil, smell like soap, possess great detersive qualities, are caustic 
as potash, and (easily saponify. 

Teel's Marsh, in Nevada, is the most productive borax field on the 
Pacific Coast, and its tincal deposit covers ten square miles of surface. 
Dr. Le Conte visited Rhode's Marsh in 1882, and found it to contain 
chemically pure common salt, borax in three forms, sulphate of soda 
and carbonate of soda, all in great quantities, and within a space of 
three miles square. — Fhar. Jour, and Trans., xipril 25, 1885, p. 874. 

Cannaf,is Indica as Local Anaesthetic. — Dr. A. Aaronson recom- 
mends (lilutedtinctureof Cannabis Indica as a local anaesthetic in dentistry. 
It is mixed with three or five parts of water and frequently applied to the 
?j::inns and cavities during: the operation. — Paeif. Med. and Stirg. Jour., 
April, IS.So. 

2) 



306 Gleanings in Materia Medica, {'^"^ /une'issr""' 

GLEANINGS IN MATERIA MEDICA. 
By the Editor. 

Chinese Cabbage oil, obtained from the seeHs of a species of Brassica, 
according to R. H. Davies, has at 60°F. the specific gravity *914; is 
of a deep brown color, somewhat tiiicker than olive oil, at 12°C. (10° 
F.) solidifies to a bright orange-yellow mass, and yields a rather dark 
colored elaidin. 100 grams of the oil required 0125 gram caustic 
potash for neutralization, and 17"52 grams for complete saponification. 

The mixture of fatty acids begins to soften at 17°C., melts com- 
pletely at 22°C., has nearly the same saturating power as brassic acid, 
and contains oleic acid. — Phar. Jour, and Trans., Feb. 7, 1885, p. 635. 

According to E. M. Holmes this oil is probably obtained from the 
seeds of the petsai, Brassica sinensis, which is largely cultivated in 
China. The oil is employed as a purgative, and externally for skin 
diseases; also like a yellow colored brassica oil, which is probably 
obtained from Br. campestris, Lin., the aburana of the Japanese. 
This oil is iisL'd for culinary and lighting purposes, in tobacco manu- 
facture to prevent the leaves falling to powder after rapid drying, and 
for the manufacture of lampblack for use in making Chinese ink. The 
residue after the expression of the oil is used for manuring plantations 
of tea and other plants. — Ibid. p. ()36. 

Tea oil from Camellia oleifera, Abel, resembles olive oil in color, 
transparency and mobility, and has a characteristic odor anil taste. 
Rob. H. Davies found it to have the spec. grav. "9175 at 60°F., and 
placed in a freezing mixture to deposit a solid fat, probably stearin. 
The oil mixed with a drop of sulphuric acid, has a behavior similar to 
almond oil; nitrous acid solidifies it. It contains less free acid than 
olive oil. 1,000 grams of tea oil require for complete saponification 
11)5"5 grams of caustic potash; the oleic acid obtained amounted to 
83*15 per cent., and about 10*8 per cent, was probably stearic or })al- 
mitic acid; an insignificant amount of fatty acid was soluble in water. 
— Phar. Jour, and Trans., Feb. 7, 1885, p. 634. 

A S})ecimen exhibited at the International Health Exhibition was 
labeled oil of Camellia japonica. It is used in Japan by watchmakers 
and as a pomade, combined with Japanese wax and flavored with oil of 
cloves and other essential oils; it is non-drying, very fluid, free from 
unpleasant odor and according to E. M. Holmes could doubtless com- 
pete with almond oil and olive oil for many purposes. 



Am Jour Phaim.) (Meiminus (u Materia Medim. 307 

June, 1885. j 

III China the oil of C. oleifera is used for culiuaiy purposes and as 
a hair oil, and is an important article of trade. The seeds of C. Thea 
were recently offered in London under the name of /a/me, meaning 
seeds; they contain about 33 per cent, of oil, ]3*(S per cent, of starch 
and 1 per cent, of theine. — Ibid., p. 637. 

Myroxylon peruiferumy Lin. F. — Mr. P. Macewan has examined a 
sample of what he calls the oleo-balsam of the red oleo, oleo vemielho, 
of Rio Janeiro, the results differing in several respects from those ob- 
tained by Th. Peckolt (see Am. Jour. Phar.," 1881, p. 334). In 
bulk the balsam was dark brown, and in thin layers dark red; its odor 
was smoky and feebly fragrant. On tasting it, a persistent choky and 
disagreeable feeling was left in the throat. The spec. grav. was '915. 
Petroleum spirit dissolved 63*7 per cent., leaving a light brown pul- 
verulent resin undissolv^ed, and on evaporation left an amber colored, 
faintly aromatic residue, which gave a red-brown color with nitric 
acid; Peru balsam left an insoluble cohesive resin and the solution in 
petroleum spirit yielded a straw-colored fragrant residue, giving a yel- 
low and pale violet-color with nitric acid. The oleo-balsam was com- 
pletely soluble in alcohol and in ether, and partially soluble in carbon 
bisulphide, separating a flocculent brown resin which became adhesive 
to the sides of the vessel. The most marked diiference between the 
two balsams is the behavior with sulphuric acid; on the subsequent 
addition of cold water to the mixture with Peru balsam, a beautiful 
violet color is imparted to the surface of the mass, while a gray color 
is produced with the oleo-balsam. The oleo-balsam has not the fra- 
grance which is perhaps the most valued property of Peru balsam 

Phar. Jour, and Trans., March 21, 1885, p. 771. 

Caltivation of Ginseng. Consul-general Aston has visited several 
of the numerous ginseng gardens near Songdo, Corea. The seed is 
sown in March ; the seedlings are planted out in beds raised a foot 
above the level of the surrounding soil, bordered with upright slates 
and covered in from snn and rain by sheds of reeds 3 or 4 feet high, 
towards the north left more or less open according to the weather, and 
placed in rows with just room enough to walk between them. During 
the first and second year the plant has only two leaves and is frequently 
transplanted, in the fourth year the stem is about 6 inches high with 
four horizontal leaves, and in the fifth or sixth year the plant has 
reached maturity. Mould containing plenty of rotten leaves is the only 
manure used. The root is either dried in the sun or during unfavor- 



308 



Gleanings in 3Iateria Medica. 



j Am. Jour. Pharui 
( June, 1885. 



able weather, over a charcoal fire; or to make the red or clarified 
ginseng it is placed in wicker baskets which are put in a large earthen- 
ware vessel with a closely fitting cover and pierced at the bottom with 
holes. It is then placed over boihng water and steamed for about four 
hours. The export of this quality of ginseng is a strict monopoly and 
death is the punishment for smuggling it out of the country. The 
annual amount exported to China is 202 piculs, valued at forty dollars 
a picul (133J lbs.) The white ginseng is worth about half as much. 
It is the wild ginseng for which enormous prices are sometimes paid. 
— Phar. Jour and Trans., March 7, 1885, p. 732. 

Synthe.iis of hoinoquinine (see ''Am. Jour. Phar./' 1885, p. 249). 
By decomposing homoqninine with caustic soda and determining the 
amount of quinine thus })r(>dueed, B. H. Paul and A. J. Cownley 
obtained 41*4 per cent, of quinine and 58'6 cupreine. By mixing the 
ether solutions of cupreine and excess of quinine and after crystallizing, 
determining tlie surplus quinine, the same authors obtained in two 
exi)eriments tlie following figures as representing the composition of 
liomoquinine : quinine .")7"2U and 39'08 per cent.; cupreine 62*80 and 
()0'U2 per cent. Fj'om these resuhs the proportion of quinine and 
cupreine in liomoquinine seems to be as 2:3. — Phar. Jour, and Trans., 
March 7, 1885, p. 729. 

Vac.Giniuin Ardostaphylos, Lin., Trebizond tea. From communica- 
tions by E. M. Holmes and \V. J. T. Dyer to "Phar. Jour, and 
Trans.," January 17 and March 27, 1885, it appears that this tea was 
first prepared about the year 1877, and became a commercial article in 
1880. About 5,000 ocques (the ocque = 2f lbs.) are manufactured 
annually, the cost on the spot being about 5 piastres per ocque. The 
plant grows in Trebizond, Kroum and other parts of Asiatic Turkey, 
on mountains not below an altitude of 5,000 feet, and is not found 
beyond the mountains of Gummo hame. The tea is manufactured by 
Circassian planters in the province of Roum, and has the appearance 
and aroma of coarse black tea, but a sweet and somewliat less astrin- 
gent taste. The best quality is yielded in May, several gatherings 
being made during the year. The leaf is much thinner than the true 
tea leaf, and could, Mr. Holmes thinks, be easily distinguished by a 
botanist from the true tea leaf when soaked in water, should the tea 
over come into use as an adulterant of cheap teas. 



jSne 1885™ } Mcderki lledica of the 3Iexican Pharmacopoeia. 809 



MATERIA MEDICA OF THE NEW MEXICAN PIIARMA- 
COPCEIA. 
• By thp: Editor. 

(Continued from p. 2.'>5.) 

Ahuehiiete, Taxodium mucronatam, Tenore, nat. orcL, Conifene. 
From the cones of this Mexican tree, Dr. T. Noriega obtained a green- 
ish yellow volatile oil of the density 0*8259, boiling at 130° C, and 
having an agreeable odor; with iodine it gives a slight explosion and 
evolves violet vapors. The fruit contains also a red-brown soft resin 
of a neutral reaction, but partly -soluble in hot potassa solution. The 
bark is used as an emmenagogue and diuretic, and the leaves, topic- 
ally, against itch and as a discutient ; the wood yields a tar which is 
useful in skin diseases, and by dry distillation an empyreumatic oil is 
obtained similar to oil of cade. 

Ahuichichi, Bryonia variegata. Miller, nat. ord. Cucurbitacea?, grows 
in temperate regions and possesses dangerous drastic properties. 

Aile de Mexico, a species of alnus, growing in mountainous regions, 
yields a bark having tonic aud astringent properties. 

Aje, or Axin, is a fatty substance produced by Coccus Axin, La 
Llave, a hemipterous insect living upon different species of Spondias 
and Xanthoxylum. In the fresh state the drug has a yellow color 
and a peculiar rancid odor, fuses at -35 °C., is soluble in hot concen- 
trated alcohol and in ether, is readily saponified, and on exposure is 
converted into a hard brown substance, insoluble in water, alcohol and 
ether. The natives of Uruapam form aje into masses weighing 350 gm. 
and enveloped in leaves of Indian corn. It is popularly used in ery- 
sipelas, as a discutient and vulnerary, mixed with various substances 
in hernia, and as a poultice in uterine complaints ; in the arts it is 
used ;is an excellent varnish for wood and metals. 

Ajo, Allium sativum, Lin. 

Ajolote, Siredon Humboldtii, Dameril, and other species, nat. ord. 
Batrachia. The flesh has analeptic properties, and the syrup prepared 
from a decoction of the slvin is used by common people as a cure for 
pulmonary affections. 

Ajonjoli, Sesamum orientale, Lin. The oil is used in place of olive 
oil, the seeds as a condiment, and the press cake as food for cattle. 

.(lamo, Populus alba and P. nigra, Lin. The bark is astringent ; 
rarely employed. 



olO Materia Medica of the Mexican Pharmacopceia. {^""'jin^issr'"'' 

Albahaca, Ocimum Basiliciim, Lin.^ nat. ord. Labiatse. Cultivated 
in Mexico. It is a diffusible stimulant and stomachic. 

Alcabucil, Cynara Cardunculus, Lm., nat. ord. Compositse. The 
unexpanded flower heads are used for food, and the florets for coagu- 
lating milk. 

Alcachofa, Cynara Scolymus, Lin. The unexpanded flower heads 
are used for food. (These are the artichokes of Southern Europe, the 
preceding species being known as cardoon, the blanched tender stalks 
and ribs of leaves being eaten.) 

Alcanfor del Japon, Camphor. Dose, 0*05 to 1*0 gm. 

Alcaravea, Caraway. An infusion is made of from 5 to 10 gm. for 
one liter of water. 

Alfalfa, Medicago sativa, Lin., nat. ord. Leguminosse. Emollients 
Used for fodder. 

Alfilerillo, Geranium Cicutarium, Lin. The herbaceous portion is 
used in decoction as an emollient. 

Algodon, Cotton from Gossypium herbaceum and G. arboreum, Lin.y. 
growing in Mexico, etc. 

Alliolva, Fenugreek. Cultivated in Mexico. The seeds are emol- 
lient. 

Alhucema, Lavandula vera, Lin. The flowers are used as a per- 
I'umc, and the powder as a sternutatory; internally as a stimulant. 

Almaciga, Mastich. Balsamic stimulant and recommended in incon- 
tinence of urine. Dose, O'GO to 2*0 gm. Used for varnishes, and 
dissolved in ether or collodion for filling carious teeth. 

Almendra amarga and Almendra dulce, Bitter and sweet almonds. 

Almidon, Starch, especially wheat starch. 

Almizcle, Musk from Moschus moschiferus, LAn. 

Al piste, the fruit of Phalaris canariensis, Un., nat. ord. Gramina- 
ceje. The plant grows in Mexico ; the fruit is principally used for 
birds' food and the meal is employed as an emollient. 

Alquiniila del pals. Geranium Hernandezii and G. mexicana, /Ti/m^. 
et BonpL, nat. ord. Geraniaccic. It is incorrectly used as a substitute 
of the mildly astringent Ahihemilla vulgaris, Lin. The plant is emol- 
lient and the juice is used as a laxative for children. 

Altea, Marshmallow root. In Mexico, the root of Malva angusti- 
folia, Cavanilks, is usually used in place of the former; it has identical 
properties, the mucilaginous principle being contained chiefly in the 
bark. 



^^"jfine'isn'r'" } Materia Medica of the Mexican Pharmacop<ria. :]]! 

Alverjon, Pea, Pisum satisuiii, Lin. Used for food. 

Araapola, the petals of Papaver Rlioeas, Lin., which grows in Mexico. 
From 2 to 5 gm. are used for I liter of infusion. 

Ambar aniarillo, Amber; antispasmodic; rarely employed. 

Ambar gris, Ambergris ; rarely used as an antispasmodic. Dose, 
in powder, 0*25 to I'O gm., of the tincture, 20 to 60 drops. 

Ambar del pais, the exudation of Hymemea Courbaril, Xm., nat. ord. 
Leguminosic, growing in the State of Oaxaca, and known there as 
cuapinole. The resin is bright yellow, internally transparent, super- 
ficially of an efflorescent appearance, brittle, with a glossy fracture, of 
a delicate aromatic odor and resinous somewhat astringent taste, solu- 
])le in alcohol, ether, fats, and volatile oils, burning with flame and 
then forming drops of a balsamic odor. It is distinguished from true 
amber by becoming sticky with a little alcohol or ether. It is used in 
the manufacture of varnishes, and as fumigation for the relief of 
asthma. The bark is said to be juirgative, and a decoction to be use- 
ful as a vermifuge. The tincture is employed like that of guaiacum. 

Ambarina, Scabiosa atropurpurea, Lin., nat. ord. Dipsace^e. The 
])lant is cultivated and is commonly used in itch and other skin dis- 
eases ; it has tonic and sudorific properties, but is not used medicinally. 

Amianto, Asbestos; used for filtering acids and alkalies. 

Amole de bolita, Sapindus amolle (?). The flowering tops and 
fruit may be used like saponaria, according to Oliva; they contain con- 
siderable saponin. 

Amole de rai'z, Agave mexicana, Lamarck, nat. ord. Amaryllidacefc. 
The juice has emmenagogue, diuretic and laxative pro})erties, and is 
externally used against itch. The root is useful for washing clothes. 

Amor seca, Gomphrena procumbens, Lin., nat. ord. Amarantacese, 
one of the so-called " everlastings," is indigenous to the central table 
land of Mexico and has a tonic, astringent and diaphoretic root. 

Anacahuite, Cordia Boissieri, De Cand., nat. ord. Baraginace^e, is 
found in the mountains of Tampico; the wood is commonly regarded 
as being pectoral, and medicinally used as an emollient. 

Bkomidi: of Arsenic for Pimpi.es is reconiiueuded by Dr. Piffard, 
who uses a one per cent, solution, of which one or two minims are to be 
tal^en in a wineglassful of water three times a day, on an empty stomach. 
The dose is to be diminished as the pimples begin to disappear. — Afed. Age. 
That such a solution contains HBr and As.Ou was shown in Am, Jour, 
Phar., 1S8H, p. 226. 



312 



Gambler of Johore. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 

June, 1885. 



THE GAMBIER OF JOHORE.^ 

By Peter Macewax, 
Secretarij in Scotland to the Pharmaceutical Sooietij. 
(Iijcluding Notes by Mr. Robert Jamie, late of Singapore.) 

In the Edinburgh Forestry Exhibition, tlie Maharajah of Johore exhib- 
ited an iiiteresthig collection of the products of the territory which he 
governs. The articles of pharmaceutical interest included in the exhibit 
were Gambler, Baros or Borneo camphor, and india-rubber, and these 
have already been briefly referred to in the " Pharmaceutical Journal " ([3], 
XV., 266). The specimens of gambier and baros camphor were presented to 
the Edinburgh Museum of Science and Art, the director of which (the 
lamented Professor Archer) presented two sets of duplicates to the Phar- 
maceutical Societ.N . 

There is little or nothing given in Pbarmaceutical literature regarding 
Johore products, and for this reason these notes may not be devoid of inte- 
rest. Moreover, the State is likely to be of some importiince in commerce, 
from the fact that in recent years its resources have beeu greatly developed 
by the encouraging example and influence of the enlightened Maharajah. 
The Johore territory is some twenty thousand square miles in extent, and 
it is for the most part covered with virgin forest which has been only par- 
tially explored. The population, consisting of Malays and Chinese, num- 
bers one hundred thousand. Its principal exports are, in addition to tim- 
l)er, cutch, lilack pepper, gambier, dammar, and recently india-rubber, the 
l)roductiou of which is entirely due to the Maharajah. The Johore Steam 
Mills Company has done much to oj^en up the country, and the Maharajah 
takes full advantage of European influence and enterprise. Mr. J. Mel- 
drum, F.R.G S., who acted as his commissioner at the Forestry Exhibition, 
is clo^^ely associated with him in the development of trade. 

The following extract from a letter received from Mr. Jamie is of inte- 
rest : " About Johore and its forest extent, I may say that the native State 
of Johore is almost one impenetrable vast forest, extending from the Brit- 
ish possession, Malicca, to the extreme point of the Malay peninsula. 
Point Roumania, bounded on the northeast by the native States of Pahany 
iind Tringanan, and up to this time very imperfectly explored. For many 
years the Chinese have been cultivating various vegetable products, such 
as earth-nuts, sweet potatoes, etc. (sugar cane is grown, but this chiefly for 
chewing purposes) ; but what has cleared most of the forest has been the 
cultivation of gaml)ier and j^epper, which is principally done by the Chi- 
nese, and verv successfully, too. These products are being largely increased 
-every year, in fact, they may be said to be the principal products as yet. 
Within the past few years large tracts of the forest have been cleared out 
4ind many flne and very valuable timber trees destroyed to allow of cofl^*ee 
being cultivated, especially the Liberian kind, which it is hoped will turn 

1 Read at an Evening Meeting ot the Xorth British Branch of tlie Pharmaceutical 
Society, March 18, 1885. 



Am .lour. Pharm. ) 
June, 1885. i" 



Gambier of Joliore. 



313 



out remunerative to the cultivators. Tapioca is also cultivated to a small 
extent, so is the tea plant; this latter chiefly by His Highness the Maha- 
rajah himself. The territory of Johore is every year being better known as 
explorers advance." 

Regarding the forests, Mr. Meldrum remarks: "The magnitude and 
grandeur of the forests mny be viewed from the summit of the mountain 
Gunomg Puled. ^ As far as the eye can reach, nothing can be 

seen but trees. There are no less than three hundred and fifty different 
kinds of wood shown in tiie Forestry Exhibition, ail from the Johore 
forests." 

Gambier Produclioa. — Tlie cultivation of gambier in Johore does not 
differ from the nietliod pursued in the Straits Settlements, that is to say, it 
is cultivated along with black i^epper. On this point, Mr. Meldrum^ says : 

Black pepper * is invariably grown by tiie gambier planter 

(always Chinese), as he can use tlie spent leaves of the gambier plant to 
manure his pepper vines. The prices of gambier and black pepper have 
been good for some time past, partly owing to the war in Atcheen and 
partly owing to the difficulty of procuring forest land 1br new plantations. 
The straits and countries near appear to be specially adapted for the growth 
of gambier." The plant cultivated is presumedly Uneai'ia Gambier; 
whether other varieties are under cultivation or not is doubtful. Here I 
may quote from the '* Kew Report," for 1881, an item of some interest : 

" Ihicaria Gambier. — Dr. Trimen, director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, 
Peradeniya, writes (September 24) : 'In the urgent demand for raw pro- 
ducts here, I tried to make some gambier from our plant, it grows, com- 
monly, not far from the garden. I followed the account *given in the 
books, but could not succeed in producing the correct article. A very 
excellent astringent extract is easily obtained, but it is black like liquorice 
or the Acacia Catechu extract, and not at all like Terra japonica.'' ^ * 
The Ceylon plant is uot the same, as Dr. Thwaites at first supposed ; it is 
Uncaria dasijoneura, var. Thwaitesii, and this, as Dr. Trimen points out, 
may account for the different ])roperties." 

A lucid description of the manufacture of gambier is given in *' Phar- 
njacographia,' and from the same source we learn that the gambier indus- 
try was begun in Singapore (an old Johore possession) as early as 1819. 
Since then it has developed enormously in the Straits Settlements and sur- 
rounding countries. Thus, in the north and northwest of Borneo, the 
industry in the hands of the Chinese has been most successful, the value of 
the product exported in 1882 from Sarawak to Singapore being 118,851 dol- 
lars. The value of gambier annually imported into Great Britain is fully 
half a million pounds sterling. I endeavored from blue books and similar 
sources to get some information as to the amount of gambier produced in 
Johore, but failing in this I applied to Mr. Jamie, late of Singapore, and 
he has sent me a most interesting letter from which I may quote : 

" To say what the value of gambier and pepper annually sent out from 

1 In a lecture on "The Johore Forests." For these references and otiier information 
I am indebted to Mr. Walter Clark, of the Edinburgh INIuseuni of iScience and Art, 
whom I warmly thank. 



314 



Gambler of Johorc. 



Am. Joiir. Pliarm. 
June, 18^-5. 



Joliore would be, I could not ; but I know that many thousands of pieuls 
(ISSg lbs.) of both are sent to Singapore, from whence it is shipped to all 
jmrts of the world. Singapore is separated from Johore by what is called 
the 'Old Straits,' about three-quarters of a mile wide, and Johore being so 
close to that city (Singapore), the imports and exports may not be kept 
separate, which may account for your not seeing the exact returns in blue- 
books or consular reports, though I am inclined to think they are kept, but 
may not be published as from Johore. * Cube gambler is the 

kind most generally preferred for export, and can be procured in various 
qualities according to i)rice, that is either pure or adulterated.^ Gambler 
for chewing is made in disc and pipe form. The latter is in short thin 
sticks like the drawing in your letter, and can generally be got pure in 
either the Johore or Singapore bazaars. Gambler is also made in cake or 
mass, and it is worth o-oo dollars per picul at Singapore. No. 1 cube gam- 
bier, G-85 dollars and No. 2 cube, 6"2) dollars i)er picul." 

The Johoi-e gambler of the Forestry collection is of five kinds : three of 
cul)e form, one disc shaped and the other oblong { par aUelopiped gambler). 
One of tlie cul)e specimens (which ])r<)ved to be the best of its kind) is 
labeled "(Tambitr, Makaa, for eating." The oblong variety is desij;nated 
'* Gambier, Pakn.'' The disc-shaped kind is stated to be "first quality, for 
eating." ^ 

The following details regarding the sj)eL'imens have been ascertained : 

Ciibf, (iamhier. First Qualiii/ ("MaUan"). — This is in fairly regular 
cubes, average measurement 20 <24 - 22 millimetres. It is light, the average 
weight being 8-47.") grams (heaviest, 8-78; lightest, 8-08). The external 
color is cassia l)rown "marled" with a darker brown. Appearance of 
fusion at the edges is slight, fu^ed parts having been cut off'. Internally 
the color is |)ale cinnamon-brown. The mass powdered readily, with a 
crumbly I'eeling and without giittiness. On incineration, 3'9() per cent, of 
ash was ot)tained, and by LiAvcnthal's process, 32 jjer cent, of "tannin" 
(calculated as gallotannic acid) was indicated. 

Second Quatiti/. — In badly formed irregular cubes. Average measure- 
ment 26 25V 24 millimetres. Average weight 18'53 grams (heaviest, 14-45 ; 
lightest, 1217 I. Tlie surlace is in a fused state, so that the color is brown- 
black ; internally, however, it is cinnamon-brown. Denser and harder 
than lirst quality, hence not so readily reduced to powder. It yielded 4"48 
per cent, of ash, and 3i) j^er cent of " tannin." 

Third, Q^iality. — This is in well shaped cubes, but surfaces more uneven 
than first quality. The cubes are slightly smaller than first quality. 
Average 25x2H 22 millimetres, but tbey are much heavier, the average 

1"! mean 'pure or adulterated' commercially speaking. Gambier, as prepared by 
tlie Chinese, can never be absolutely pure. The plant grows trailing along the ground, 
and unless the leaves and stems which are cut off be washed before being put into the 
boiling caldron, the extract must contain more or less earthy matter. Few Chinese 
wash the leaves, and the straining ol" Mie decoction is of the roughest description. 
Merchants buying gambier have a rough and ready method of judging what they con- 
sider standard quality ; below that quality less is paid, because it contains earthy mat- 
ter intentionally added to make it weigh.— R. J.'* 

^'''Makan,"" vernacular for '• eati ng or chew) ng. " "Pakn, " a nail. 



Aui. .)(.nr. Phann. ) 
June, l88o. J 



Ganibier of JoJtore. 



weight being- l()-24 grams. The color externally is dull brown ; internally, 
pale brown to yellow-brown. Admixture of woody niatter is apparent. 
The powder obtained from it is gritty, due to inorganic matter. 10-76 per 
cent, of ash M'as obtained from it, and the "tannin" content is 19*7 per 
cent. 

As affording an indication of how these specimens compare with the 
gambler of pharmacy, I give particulars of two samples which happened 
to be the first which I came across, but I hope that they are not of the 
nature and quality generally found. Let me call them A. and B. 

A. is in badly formed pieces. Externally the color is dark brown from 
fusion ; internally, a good cinnamon-brown. Somewhat tough to powder, 
but not gritty. Ityielded 4*5 per cent, of ash and 15*6 percent, of " tannin." 

B. in well-formed cubes. Brown color externally, no fusion marks. 
Pale cinnamon-brown internally. DifRcult to powder and gritty. It 
yielded 17 3 per cent, of ash and 9 13 per cent, of " tannin." I could not 
detect starch in the samples. 

Passing on now^ to the masticatory gamblers (so called from the fact that 
they are used as masticatories instead of betel nut).' the peculiar shapes 
attract attention. The forms, though rarely seen by the pharmacist, are 
not new. Pereira, in his " Materia Medica," describes them ; the oblong 
as gamble?- of th^ second qualify (Bennet), and the cylindrical as the third 
quality. Of an oblong specimen, ^ which he received from Professor Douglas 
Maclagan as yellow gambler in parallelopipeds, he states that "the 
length of the prisms is 2 inches; the size of the terminal faces ^ an inch 
square. In other respects the oblong variety agrees with the square kind." 
Of the cylindrical variety he remarks. "This occurs in circular discs, or 
short cylindrical pieces, the length of the cylinder being only about J of 
an inch, whilst its diameter is about 1^ inches. - The color 

internally is pale, dull, pinkish yellow ; externally being a shade darker." 

The Johore parallelopipeds have only about half the measurements of 
Pereira's specimen, and the color is of a uniform dull brown externally, 
and drab internally. It is exceedingly hard and stony. On attempting 
to incinerate a small jiiece it failed to fuse and swell up, as even the worst 
sample of gambler will; it only became black. Powdered, it incinerates 
with difficulty, the yield of ash being 60'6 per cent. The " tannin " con- 
tent is small, viz. : 2*08 per cent. Its taste is mildly astringent and sweet- 
ish. When chewed exceeding grittiness is felt between the teeth ; this is 
due to a large admixture of sand, which is deposited when the povvdei'ed 
"gambier" is treated with hot water. This variet^^ jDrobably fulfills the 
same functions for the embryo betel-nut eater as the mild cigarette fulfills 
for the juvenile smoker. 

The cylindrical gambler is a little larger than Pereira's specimen. The 

i"Gambier is also used ulung with beUd nut, n'wih leaf and lime. The leafis t hat of a 
vine (Chavica species), grown very much as pepper, and is chewed by Malays, Siamese 
and many otlier Eastern people. On this leaf is spread a little lime and tobacco, gam- 
bier and pieces of betel nut.— R. .7." 

2Third edit., vol. ii, part ii, p. I(i85. 

sTiiese and other specimens described h\ Pereira are in tlie Phannacen I ical Society's 
Museum, fjondon. 



316 



Gamhier of Johore. 



Am. Jour. Pliaru). 
June, IbSo. 



average diameter is 37 nun, (about 1\ inch) and thickness, 6 mm. It also 
differs from his in the density; his sank in water, but the Johore variety 
is very light and floats on water. The average weight of the discs is 3*28 
grams (heaviest, 3*94; lightest, 2-85). The color approaches Pereira's 
description, the lower surface being darker, if anytiiing, than the upper. 
A peculiarity of the Johore discs is the ring markings on the surface. 
Some have two, others one ring only, about a third of an inch from the 
edge, and the same distance apart when there are two. The one ring mark- 
ing gives the disc the appearance of a cortical layer, such as we see in 
calumba root for instance. One piece is marked on the top surface with 
three transverse parallel grooves, but this appears to be accidental. This 
gambler incinerates easily and yields onhj 1-63 per cent, of ash, light in 
weiglit and milk white. The " tannin " content is 20 per cent. The small 
percentage of ash is remarkable. Fliickiger and Hanbury^ incinerated 
some fine gambier in regular cubes and obtained 2*6 per cent, of ash, and 
this is given, I presume, as a very low percentage. 

The.se specimens are quite different from those mentioned b\' Pereira. 
The disc-shaped specimen is particularly it?ma kable, owing to its small 
percentage of ash and low tannin " content. Vet I have ftiiled to detect 
any adulterant in it. It would appear to have been prepared with unusual 
care and from clean leavts, the explanation of the low "tannin " content 
being that the decoction has not Iieen subjected to i)rolonged boiling, which 
favors decomposition of catechin, cateehu-tannic acid being one of the pro- 
ducts of decomposition. The cube j^ambier is of good quality ; all are 
api)arently e(iually soluble in l)oiling water, so that this test afforded little 
indication of the quantity of inorganic matter present. It would be well 
if a maximuni of a^h were also givm in the forthcoming ])harmacopceia. 
Mr. Jamie informs me that a very ligbt clay or earth (which is eaten by 
the natives) is used for adulterating gambier, and that adulteration with 
starchy matter is rarely or never resorted to. The latter adulteriition 
would give the makers too much trouble; hence they resort to the more 
handy clay. A sample of lozenge gcmibier (sui)i)ose(l to be amylaceous) 
which I have examined contains no starch, but abundance of a fine light 
earth, such as tripoli ; yet the specimen fioats on water. 

The figures which I give for " tannin " are not to l)e taken as an absolute 
indication of the cateehu-tannic acid present. They are comparative and 
are given as gallotannic acid, owing to the uncertainty attached to values 
given for the "tannin " of gambier. 

The authors of " Pharmacographia " do not state the percentage of 
"tannin" in gambier. Mr. Thomas Christy i " New Commercial Plants 
and Drugs," Part V., pp. 4U-41) gives 36 to 40 per cent, and 44 88 per cent, 
(on the authority of Esenbeck). Mr. John Watts (ibid., p. 50) says: 
" Gambier and cutch with your apparatus [Pvamspacher's tannometer] 
give over 40 per cent , while gambier gives with gelatin 20 to 25 per cent., 
and cutch about 30 per cent." Conj paring the Johore cube gamblers with 
these figures they stand out very favorably, while the two commercial sam- 
ples which I have examined are very bad.— P//ar. Jour, and Trans., March 
28, 1885, pp. 793-795. 

1 " Phai inacographia," first ed., p. 



Am. Jniir. Pliarm. 1 
June, 1885. j 



lifvieics, etc. 



317 



REVIEWS AND BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 



American MediGinal PlanU ; an illustrated and descriptive guide to Amer- 
ican plants. By C. F. Millspaugh, M.D. New York and Philadelphia : 
Boericke & Tafel. Nos. 6 to 10. Price, $5. 

This is the second fascicle of a work, which we have noticed on two occa- 
sions, in 1882 and 1884, when its scope and general make-up was consid- 
ered. The fascicle now before us contains 30 plates, with the requisite let- 
ter-press. Many of the plants figured, like Taraxacum, iSenecio, Scrophu- 
laria and Cephalanthus, are common in most parts of the United kStates, 
while Gelsemiuni represents the South, Anemone Nuttalliana the West, 
Thuja the Northern section, Ranunculus acris the naturalized plants and 
Fagopyrum the cultivated plants. The plates are handsomely executed, 
and the coloring is as nearly true to nature as may be reasonably expected ; 
occasionally some of the details have not received full attention, as in the 
case of Podophjilum, the rhizome of which has, as a rule, the rootlets in 
tufts at the end of the annual shoots, but rarely on the lower and thinner 
portion, and in Geranium maculatum, the flowers of which have 10, not 12? 
stamens. The botanical dsscriptions are i)retty full and accurate. The 
work deserves the attention of those interested in medical botany. 



The MiGro^icope in Botany. A guide for the microscopical investigation of 
vegetable substances. From the German of Dr. Julius Wilhelm Behrens. 
Tianslated and edited bv Rev. A. B. Hervey. A.M. ; assisted bv R. H. 
Ward, M.D., F.R.M.e^. Illustrated with 18 plates and 153 cuts. Boston : 
S. E. Casino & Co., 1885. 8vo, pp. 466. Price, |5. 

This is a most valuable addition to the works on microscopy published 
in the English language. It opens with an introductory chapter devoted 
to the history of the microscope and its gradual perfection, and to the man- 
ner in which microscopical work and investigations siiould be conducted. 
The pertinent advice given at the close of this chapter applies with equal 
force to scientific work in general, and culminates in the following four 
indispensable characteristics, necessary for reliable investigations, namely, 
a skillful hand, good eyes, a tranquil mind and self-knowledge, the latter 
being, perhaps, the most important. About 140 pages are next devoted to 
the consideration of the compound microscope, its various parts and acces- 
sories, all of which are fully and clearly described, their uses explained and 
amply illustrated. Then follow about 110 pages on the preparation of 
microsco2:)ic objects, including softening of tissues, cutting in various ways, 
clarification, mounting and drawing of sections, labeling and storing of 
preparations, and examination of living organisms. 

The fourth chapter treats upon about 45 pages of the various microscopical 
reagents, inorganic as well as organic, including among the latter the vari- 
ous staining liquids. The concluding chapter on the microscopical inves- 
tigation of vegetable substances occupies over 140 jDages and discusses the 
composition of the walls of different kinds of tissue and the vari^ms cell 
contents with the means of recognizing the tissues, incrustations and con- 
tents under the microscope. 



318 



Reviews, etc. 



Am Jour. Phaim. 

June, 18s5. 



This brief synopsis will indicate the scope of the book before us, which is 
eminently practicsJ. The text is so clear and attractive in style, as to become 
inviting to experimentation and research. This is particularly the case with 
the third and fifth chapters, in whioh the earnest student will find a vast 
amount of facts and suggestions that will render material aid in the practi- 
cal performance of the delicate operations which must be mastered in order 
to become proficient in the histological investigation of plants. The trans- 
lators and editors have done their part well and made numerous additions, 
more particularly relating to American microscopes as compared with the 
Continental and English styles, and to various tools, methods and other 
practical points valuable in the prosecution of microscopic work. 

The book is printed in clear type upon good heavy paper; the illustrations 
are unexceptionable ; numerous references to the literature on the various 
subjects will be particularly appreciated by special students, and all who 
consult the work, will appreciate the full index which leaves little to be 
desired. 



Tracts on Massar/e, No. 1. The art of massage. Translated from the Ger- 
man of Reibujayr, with notes by Benj. Lee, A.M., M.D., etc. Philadel- 
phia, 1885. 8vo,' pj). 40. Price 2") cents. 

This is the first of a series of publications, which will contain the sub- 
stance of a treatise of Dr. A. Reibmayr, of Vienna, with notes by Dr. Lee, 
based upon an acquaintance of 25 years with massage, " the latest hand- 
made of medicine." 



UiiferaHcliUuffeii aus dem Pharm(iceaticJi''n Institute der CTniversUdt Dor- 
pat. Beitrdge zur f/erichtiichen Cheniie. Von Prof. Dr. G. Dragendorff". 
St. Petersburg, 188-1. 8vo, pp. 73. 

Researches from the Pharmaceutical Fnstitute of the University of Dorpat. 
Contributions to forensic medicine. 

The investigations comprise the conditions under which a number of 
medicinal agents may be recognized in the animal body, and the complica- 
tions which may arise from their presence in the analyses of food, etc., for 
l)oisonous substances. The researches have been made by students of Prof. 
Dragendorfi* under his supervision and embrace quinidine and cinchoni- 
dine; the alkaloids of the berberidace£e ; berberine, oxyacanthine and 
hydrastine ; cofteine and theobromine; morphine; the alkaloids of cheli- 
donium ; lycaconitine ; picrotoxin ; santonin; colocynthin ; elaterin and 
strj'chnine. 



Berieht iiber die Thdtigkeit im PharmaceutisGhen Institute der Kaiser. Uni- 
versitdt Dorpat in der Zeit voni I. Jan. 1865 bis 81. Dechr. 1884, von dem 
derzeitigen Director Prof. Dr. G. Dragendorff. St. Petersburg, 1885. 
8vo. 

Report on the activity in the Pharmaceutical Institute of the Imperial 
University of Dorpjit from .Ian. 1, 1865 to Dec. 31, 1884. 
This report covers the time during which the indefatigable Prof. Dragen- 
dortf has been in charge of the Institute named above, a period of twenty 
years marked by well directed and efficient labor. During the time men- 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
June 1885. / 



Revieivs, etc. 



319 



tioDed the number of students at the University lias increased from 560, 
including 146 medical and 35 pharmaceutical students, in the beginning of 
1865, to 1,595, including 671 medical and 120 pharmaceutical students at the 
close of 1884. During the same period the number of laboratory students 
has increased from 72 in 1865 to 380 in 1884, and in connection with this 
increase it should be mentioned, that it is largely due to medical students 
making use of the opportunities afforded at this laboratory; for while in 
1867 there were 34 medical and 57 pharmaceutical students, or a proportion 
of 100 : 168 working in the laboratory, the numbers in 1884 were 225 medi- 
cal and 105 pharmaceutical students, the proportion being 100 : 47. The 
l^amphlet gives also accounts of the growth of the collections, the arrange- 
ment of the laboratory and of the work done therein and contains the titles 
of 278 books, pamphlets and essays, jjublished during that time by the 
director and his pupils, the investigations for nearly the whole numl)er 
having been made in the laboratory of the Pharmaceutical Institute. 



Neue Ideen. Von Mr. Ad VomAcka. Leitmeritz, 1885. 
New Ideas. 

The object of this little pamphlet, which is a continuation of a larger one 
entitled " Handverkaufs-Artikel," is to furnish formulas for new prejDa- 
rations and specialties making their appearance, and thus to enable the 
pharmacist to supply his own products to his customers, for which purpose 
suitable labels have been prepared by the author, and these may be pro- 
cured in case the sales do not warrant the expense incidental to the design- 
ing and printing of distinct labels. All plans aiming at making the phar- 
macist the purveyor of his own products, instead of the products of others, 
deserve commendation. 



Massage, the latest handmaid of medicine. By Ben j. Lee, A.M., M.D., 
Ph.D. From Transactions of the Medical Society of the State of Penn- 
sylvania. Pp. 12. 

A clinical illustration of the value of combining motion with extension in the 
treatment of diseasefi of the hi^j joint. By Benj. Lee, M.D., etc. From 
the same Transactions. 

The treatment of diseases of the skin by novel means and methods. By 
John V. Shoemaker, A.M., M.D., etc. Bead before the International 
Medical Congress at Copenhagen, August 12, 1884. 

Cumberland Almanac for 1885. Issued as a supplement to the Nashville 
"Journal of Medicine and Surgery," 1885. 

The advertising sheet of this Almanac praises a number of nostrums. 



TAiiTAKALiNE, as sold by grocers in Great Britain, was found by P. 
MacEwan to be acid potassium sulphate. Subsequently Mich. Conroy met 
with cream of tartaraline, a mixture of the former salt and potato starch, 
the latter having evidently been added with the view of reducing the 
strongly acid salt to a strength about equal to that of cream of tartar. — 
Phar. Jour, and Trans., November, 29, 1884, p. 434. 



320 Minutes of the Pharmaceutical Meeting. 



MIXUTES OF THE PHARMACEUTICAL MEETING. 

Philadelphia, May 19, 1885. 

Mr. Robbiiis was called to the chair, and it was moved to omit the read- 
ing of the minutes of the last meeting. 

The Formulary of non-oificinal Preparations of the District of Columbia, 
and the Extra Pharmacoi)oeia of Martindale & Westcott, Second Edition, 
London, 1884, were presented by the Registrar on behalf of Prof. Maisch, 
who was absent from the city. 

A handsome collection of rare drugs was exhibited, which were received 
last week from Prof. Herrera, of Mexico. Notices of them will be given in 
the "Journal of Pharmacy" as soon as practicable. The list of them is as 
follows : 

Mexican valerian ; HibiscusSabdarifa, Linvr ; Croton Aden aster? the herb ; 
Veratruni frigidum, ScJilecJUendal^ fruit, rhizome and bulb ; Mammee- 
Sapota, Lucuma Bonplandii, Kunth ; Yerba del Polio ; Elfeis melanococca, 
Martius (seed and expressed oil) ; Anona Cheriniolia, Miller (seed) ; Anona 
glabra, Linnr (seed ) ; Erythrina coralloides, I)e Candolle (seed) ; Cantharis 
quadrimaculnta ; Cantharis eucera ; Meloe tridentatus ; Myroxylon Pereir?e, 
Klotzsch ( legu mcs i . 

There was also exliil)ited a very interesting collection of drugs from Cen- 
tral America, which was donated by our fellow-member Mr. Wm R. War- 
ner. The collection contains the following : 

Verbena (Stachytarpha jamaiciensis, ]".) ; Balsa fruit, China root ; Con- 
trayerba (Uorstenia Houston!, Miller); Banana Root (Musa sapieiitum, 
Lin.); Cevadilla (fruit and seed), Asagr.ea?; Lengua cerna (tleshy 
branches) ; Siempre Viva deaf and flower, fresh and 3 years old) ; Zacate 
Union (species of Andropogon i. 

The thanks of the College was voted to the donors of these specimens. 

Mr. Wallace Procter exhibited a specimen of Crystallized GlyGerin, and 
read a paper descriptive of the same. The paper was referred to the Bubli- 
cation Committee (see page 273). 

A specimen of Fcdse Cubebs was exhibited ; it was sent to this city from 
New York. It contains about seven per cent, of volatile oil. When cut 
open the seed appears much more fully developed than in good conmiercial 
cubebs and the powder has an aromatic odor reminding one of mace. A 
description appeared in the " Pharmaceutical Journal and Transactions," 
but the botanical origin of the drug is not yet ascertained (see page 302). 

Mr. Blair exhibited a specimen of Syrup of iodide of iron made after the 
formula of the present Pharmacopoeia, w^hich had been exposed to direct 
and diffused daylight for two years past and was in good condition. 

On motion, adjourned. 

Thos. S Wiegand, Registrar. 



THE AMERICAN 

JOURNAL OF PHARMACY. 



JULY, 1885, 

ON ARBUTIN, THE BITTER PRINCIPLE OF THE COW- 
BERRY (VACCINIUM VITIS-IDiEA, Lm.). 

By Edo Claassen. 

In this Journal (July number, 1870), I announced the existence of 
a bitter principle, vacciniin, in the leaves (resp. the whole plant) of 
the cowberry, and described its preparation from the same. 

At the same time I also published several properties of it, but could 
not then give the matter a thorough investigation. It was not until 
now that I had leisure to continue the examination, and to state that 
the bitter principle found in that plant is not a peculiar one, but iden- 
tical with another already known, viz., with arbutin, the bitter princi- 
ple occurring in several other ericaceous plants, particularly in Arbu- 
tus Uva Ursi, Lin. In order to come to the above conclusion, a series 
of tests were made with the above vacciniin, and these were compared 
with tests made with arbutin prepared for this purpose from the leaves 
of Arbutus Uva Ursi, Lin. 

Before describing these tests I may be allowed to say that there was 
no difference perceptible either in the form and shape of the crystals 
of both these bitter substances under the microscope (they form four 
and six sided prisms, with a doma, i. e., two planes, sharpening their 
ends), nor in their solubility in water, alcohol and ether, and also not 
in their bitter taste. 

The tests made were the following : 

1. Heated on platinum foil, both melt to a clear liquid (which by 
and by turns black), and are entirely consumed by increased heat. 

2. Heated in a glass tube, both melt at first, then turn black, and 
give off fumes of a peculiar smell and of acid reaction. 

3. Concentrated sulphuric acid, and also hydrochloric acid, dissolve 
both without color. 

4. Concentrated nitric acid colors both orange, then dissolves them 



21 



322 Arhutin the Bitter Principle of Coivberry. {^'^-/.^Y'lssT'^' 

under evolution of red fumes, forming a reddisli yellow solution, 
which after dilution with water is yellow. 

5. The solutions of both in water are not precipitated by an alka- 
line copper solution, platinum chloride, corrosive sublimate, acetate 
and basic acetate of lead, a solution of iodine in potassium iodide, 
tannic and gallic acids. 

6. A very dilute solution of ferric chloride colors both blue; they 
give then with water a blue solution. 

7. A solution of phosphomolybdic acid and ammonia added to 
their solutions produces an intensely blue colored liquid, whicli after 
some time turns greenish, and after a longer time the color disappears 
entirely. 

8. Tlie solutions of both boiled for some time with very dilute sul- 
phuric acid, then made alkaline by potassium hydrate and heated with 
an alkaline copper solution, furnish a deposit of copper protoxide (by 
the glucose formed). 

When preparing arbutin, it is, as I have found, of value to see that 
the liquid containing it when evaporated has no acid reaction; the acid 
in it may be sulphuric, hydrochloric, citric or acetic acid, because they 
decompose the same, as experiments made (see below sub 1 and 2) 
will prove. In order to avoid this decomposition, and to collect the 
whole amount of the arbutin present, it is necessary, after having pre- 
cipitated the decoction of the leaves by basic acetate of lead, and the 
filtrate by sulphuretted hydrogen, to neutralize the free acetic acid by 
calcium or magnesium carbonate. 

1. 0*2 gram of pure arbutin, dissolved in 20 cubic centimeters of 
diluted (5 per cent.) acetic acid, gave, after 15 minutes^ boiling in a 
flask (meanwhile restoring from time to time the evaporated water) 
with an alkaline copper solution, a plainly visible reaction of glucose; 
after J hour's boiling the amount of glucose had increased consider- 
ably. " 

2. 0"2 gram of pure arbutin boiled in the same manner with 20 
cubic centimeters of Avater, containing 3 per cent, of citric acid, gave 
a fair reaction of glucose after a lapse of 10 minutes already. 

Before closing this article I will mention that the fruit of the Amer- 
ican cranberry, of which enormous quantities arebrought into the mar- 
ket, has besides an acid a decidedly bitter taste. A small quantity of 
the berries w^as crushed under addition of water and an excess of quick 
lime, the mixture pressed, and the liquid filtered. The filtrate gave 



^""jiiy'iss^s^™'} Arbutin the Bitter Principle of Cowberry. 823 

with ammonia and phosphomolybdic acid the above described blue 
color. Crystals of arbutin, however, could not be obtained, which 
was probably due to the very small amount of it present in the small 
sample of berries. If the blue color formed in liquids by ammonia 
and phosphomolybdic acid is, as is suggested in this Journal, character- 
istic for the presence of arbutin, there can be no doubt that the for- 
mation of it in the filtered juice of the American cranberries proves 
the presence in them of this bitter principle. 

Note by the Editor. — The above paper is an interesting and important 
one, on a subject of phytochemistry which has received considerable atten- 
tion in previous vohniies of this Journal. Thus far the existence of arbutin 
has been proven for the leaves of a number of sempervirent species of the 
groups Ericineie and Pyrolese, of the natural order of Ericaceae ; Mr. 
CJaassen's paper shows the same principle also to exist in the leathery 
leaves of a plant of the group Vaccineae, thus rendering it more probable 
that arbutin may be found in all ericaceous plants, at least in those with 
leathery leaves. In 1871 ("Am. Jour. Phar.," 1871, p. 235) we pointed out 
the possibility of the identity of vacciniin with arbutin. When, in 1874 
{Ibid.^ 1874, p. 315), we thought the former might possibly be calcium 
kinate, we overlooked Mr. Claassen's statement [Ibid., 1870, p. 208), that 
the principle is not precipitated by subacetate of lead ; moreover, calcium 
kinate crystallizes in a difTerent form (four-sided scalesj, is insoluble in 
alcohol, and is tasteless. We are indebted to Mr. Claassen for specimens 
of both principles. 

The results obtained as above make it of interest to ascertain the beha- 
vior of the leaves of the American cranberry, an investigation which Mr. 
Claassen informs us he will soon undertake. 



Choline in Hops. — Drs. Griess and G. H. Harrow have separated 
choline, C2H4(OH).NMe3.0H, from hops by adding to a concentrated 
extract, acidified with chlorhydric acid, a solution of iodine in iodhy- 
dric acid. The semi-solid precipitate obtained, a choline periodide 
was boiled with water to expel iodine, and the resulting solution of 
choline iodide treated with silver oxide ; the impure choline in the 
solution was then converted into the auro-chloride, which was recrys- 
tallized. In this manner they have not been able to obtain more than 
^\j-th per cent, of choline from hops. They consider it not improbable 
that it exists in loose combination with resin, as they find that a very 
dilute aqueous solution is capable of dissolving comparatively large 
quantities of hop resin, the liquid being then of an intensely bitter 
taste. Employing the same method, they have also extracted choline 
from beer. — C/iem. News, March 27, 1885, p. 149. 



324 



Ohio Wine, Argols and Tartaric Add. 



j Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I July, 1885. ■ 



OHIO WINE, AKGOLS AND COMMERCIAL TARTARIC 
ACID. 

By James "O. Howells, Ph. G. 
From an Inaugural Essay. 

The cultivation of the grape and the making of wine have become 
important industries in this country, and several of our States like 
California, New York and Ohio, have made such progress as to have 
attained no little notice from the annual production of enormous 
quantities of tliis fruit. I shall speak more of the Ohio culture as I 
was privileged to obtain the information from Ohio wine growers. 
With the review I also append the result of an examination of argols 
obtained from the Ohio wine, and of tartaric acid as found in commerce. 

The chemical work Avas done in the laboratory connected with the 
Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 

The choice of land in selecting a location for planting a vineyard is 
usually the hillside flanking a river, and having loose, warm soil and 
a southern exposure. An abundance of sunlight is a necessity, while 
the hill serves as a shelter, to the growth, from strong winds. Sudden 
changes of temperature are to be guarded against, and this also is a 
consideration in the selection. The planting is usually done by "cut- 
tings consisting of a portion of the old stem and a branch of the 
previous year's growth. These are placed in a series of rows six or 
eight feet a])art and about the same distance between each cutting. 
During the fruiting season the vines become so heavy that artificial 
support has to be given them, which is accomplished by means of four 
or five wires strung along in rows attached to posts, much similar to 
the modern barbed wire fence. 

In the months of March and April as the sap is beginning to flow 
the vines are trimmed, this being done to give it strength and it bears 
more fruit if cultivated. If left alone the branches would throw out 
long slender tendrils that only take the sustenance from the vine with 
no return, as the climbing and support, the office of the tendrils, is done 
artificially. The trimmed branches are tied to the wires by the use of 
willow shoots, this operation being done once or twice during the 
summer. The flowers appear about the month of June, and the fruit 
ripens during September and October. The fruit for most uses is 
gathered when fully ripe ; for its excellent flavor is best appreciated at 



ju^y'iSs''™'' } ^^^^^ Wine, Argols and Tartaric Acid. 325 

that stage, either for table use or making wine. When shipment is 
done, however, the fruit is gathered scarcely ripe as it withstands trans- 
portation much better. European growers have a method of hastening 
maturity of the grapes which consists of removing the bark about half 
an inch long just below the cluster of fruit. This not only hastens the 
ripening, but increases the size sometimes to the extent of fifty per cent. 
The fruit certainly has a superior appearance, but at the loss of quality. 
This custom has not been used to any extent in this country, as it has 
been almost conclusively proven that it injures the plant. 

The (cultivation was established at an early date in the vicinity of 
Cincinnati where it is still continued very extensively. The northern 
part of the State also claims recognition for its production as well as 
the valley of the Ohio, especially the counties of Jefferson, Belmont 
and Lawrence. 

The age of the grapevines is not distinctly marked as in the case of 
many trees, but that they attain great age is an undis})uted fact ; for we 
have record of vines from one to four hundred years old. Pliny 
names a vine six hundred years old. 

In the manufacture of wines the method adopted is very simple, but 
yet requiring much practical knowledge. The grape mostly used is 
the Catawba, but there are many others used, especially the Delaware 
and Concord. The Catawba grape does not ripen very early, but its 
excellence has given to its wines the high standing they hold. The 
bunches are above the medium, moderately compact, berries round, 
firm and of a deep red color, the skin thick, the flesh juicy and of a 
rich vinous taste. The Concord grape has large compact bunches, the 
berries round, large and black with a bluish bloom ; the skin is thin, 
the flesh sweet, but somewhat acrid in the center. They ripen about • 
two weeks earlier than the Catawba. The Delaware grapes as wine 
grapes deserve praise. The bunches are below the medium, very com- 
pact, the berry small, round and having a beautiful rose color, with a 
thin skin and a very sweet pulp. This variety ripens the earliest. 

In the making of wine to obtain a good article care must be taken 
in the selection of the grapes. In gathering and assorting them the 
unripe and decayed ones are rejected and the ripe ones deprived of the 
stems. The grapes thus obtained are placed in a large hopper above 
two large wooden rollers, through which they are passed into a large 
vat below placed there for holding the crushed grapes. The crushing 
is done to break the skin and press the juice from the pulp, care being 



326 



Ohio Wine, Argols and Tcuiaric Acid. 



J Am. Jour. Phaini. 
I July, 1885. 



used not to crush the seeds. Before expression the juice from the 
crushed mass is allowed to remain in the vat for about eighteen or 
thirty-six hours, during which time a slight fermentation has commenced. 
When this has continued a sufficient length of time the free juice is 
drawn ofP and the remaining mass is placed under a huge press for 
further expression. This is the white wine method and differs from 
that of obtaining the red wine only in allowing fermentation in the 
presence of the skins. The entire juice thus obtained is placed in large 
oak casks made for this purpose, holding from eight hundred to fifteen 
hundred gallons — one that I saw was of twenty-two hundred gallons 
capacity — which are filled to within two or tbiee inches of the top the 
bung being put in loosely. The casks are kept in immense cellars at 
a temperature of about 15° C, which allows fermentation to go on 
quietly. At first the change is rather violent during which all the 
fibrous and inert matter settles to the bottom of the cask. This sedi- 
ment is called " lees.'' They contain but a small percentage of impure 
tartar so that they are of no value commercially and are thrown away 
as refuse. 

The clear wine is drawn off or " racked/' which process consists of 
transferring tlie clear wine to another cask where after about three 
months standing this process is again gone over. This is done about 
three times during the first year, and it is from the second and subse- 
quent "rackings" that we obtain the argols. During the continued 
fermentation of the new wine the gradual deposition of the insoluble 
portion takes place, consisting mainly of impure calcium tartrate and 
acid potassium tartrate. The yield is quite small when compared to 
the great bulk of wine for after about four months, the deposit is only 
enough to give the interior of the cask a crystalline appearance. These 
argols obtained are not used by the manufacturer for the reason of the 
small amount produced. On casks which have stood for years undis- 
turbed the deposit is two or three inches in thickness, but owing to our 
native wine being sold when comparatively new no opportunity, is given 
for such deposits. 

The wine thus obtained is known as' dry wine," and is that mostly 
sold as native wine. The same object is accomplished by bottling the 
must " when first obtained, and after the required time has been 
allowed for the foreign matter to deposit on the side of the bottle the 
wine is transferred to another bottle and securely corked, age ripening 
its flavor. During the year 1881, 10,642 acres of land were under 



"^'"jiiy'iSs''™'} ^^'^'^ Wine, Argols and Tartaric Acid. 327 

cultivation, yielding 11,678,545 pounds of grapes, from which 884,- 
895 gallons of wine was made. In 1882, 18,526,219 pounds were 
grown and 1,296,295 gallons of wine made. 

I obtained from one of the largest wine growers in the State a sample 
of the argols from Catawba (white) wine and one from Concord (red) 
wine, which were estimated for the percentage of tartaric acid by the 
scheme given in Allen's Commercial Organic Analysis." This con- 
sists of digesting an amount of the sample in powder, supposed to con- 
tain about 2 grammes of tartaric acid, wdth water until thoroughly 
softened. A strong solution of neutral potassium oxalate is next added 
in sufficient quantity to react with all the calcium salt present and 
leave an excess of about 1"5 gm. of the salt, and the mixture is heated, 
w^ith frequent stirring, for some time. The solution, which generally is 
strongly acid, is carefully neutralized with solution of potash. After 
a little further heating the liquid — which should not occupy more than 
40 cc. — is filtered on a small filter, the residue well washed and the 
washings concentrated and added to the main solution which is made 
up to about 50 cc. A strong solution of about 2 gm. of citric acid is 
added, the liquid being well stirred. After twelve hours tlie precipitate 
is collected and washed with a saturated solution of acid potassium 
tartrate, containing about five per cent, of potassium chloride. The 
filter and contents are removed to a beaker dissolved in hot water and 
treated with standard alkali. Each cc. of normal alkali equals "150 
gm. of tartaric acid. 

Three estimations of the red wine argols gave 51*57, 53*57 and 
52*8 per cent., an average of 52-65 per cent. Three estimations of 
those of the white wine gave 69', 66*3 and 70*2 percent., an average of 
68*5 per cent. The white argols give 27*53 per cent, of ash and the 
red argols 16*43 per cent. The precipitate with potassijim oxalate in 
the percentage estim.ation of the white argols gives 20*4 per cent, of 
ash, the red w^ine argols 10*18 per cent. A solution of the argols in 
hydrochloric acid shows the presence of potassium, calcium Avith a trace 
of magnesium and iron in that from white wine ; that from the red 
wine only potassium and calcium. 

Five samples of tartaric acid were next estimated. Three were of 
known make, one of these (No. 3) being in crystals, and two (Nos. 4 
and 5) unknown. The samples known are from the leading manu- 
facturing chemists and will thus give a fair estimation of the purity 
of the commercial article. 



328 Ohio Wine, Argols and Tartaric Acid. { ^'"juiy^S's'''"""* 

With a decinormal solution of soda number one gives 99*43 per cent., 
number two 99'42 per cent., number three 99*75 per cent, number 
four 99*50 per cent, number five 99*49 per cent., an average of 99*518 
per cent. Number three was estimated twice. The Pharmacopoeia 
requirement that " on ignition they should leave not more than -05 
per cent, of ash " was next tried with the following results ; Number 
one *08 per cent., number two *06 per cent., number three *07 per 
cent., number four '06 per cent., number five *06 per cent., an average 
of *066 per cent., thus being a little above the requirement. The 
result with number one being the highest, it was estimated twice thus 
giving confirmatory proof that the work was correct. Only a trace of 
moisture was found in three of the samples when heated to 100° C. 
until a constant weight was obtained. 

The ash of all were found to be free from copper by treatment with 
a few drops of water of ammonia, nor on the addition of one drop of 
ammonium sulphide was lead or iron found. No precipitate was shown 
after five minutes on the addition of 1 cc. of test solution of barium 
chloride to 10 cc. of a concentrated solution of the acid with excess of 
hydrochloric acid, and after about ten minutes was any cloudiness 
noticed. The ash of number four was tinted brown, but did not given 
any reaction with water of ammonia or ammonium sulphide. 

Summing up the above resuhs commercial tartaric acid from reliable 
sources is certainly very pure, and with the exception of leaving a 
slight amount of ash more and falling a little below in its percentage 
of acid, fills the requirements of the Pharmacopoeia. 



Alveloz is the name of a plant which has been sent by the American 
Consul at Pernambuco to the State Department, with the statement that 
it belongs to the euphorbiacese, and that several cases of alleged cancer 
had been cured by its application. Unlike cundurango, which was an 
alleged internal remedy for cancer and syphilis, alveloz is an external 
application. Its mode of operation is similar to that of jequirity. A 
profuse suppuration follows its application to a granular surface. The 
drug was used in Washington by Dr. Smith Townshend in a case of 
lupus of the nose, which was of nearly forty years' standing, and had 
resisted all previous treatment. The ulcer was cured within a few 
days.— iV. Y. Med. Jour. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
July, 1885. J 



Note on Dover^s Solution. 



329 



NOTE ON DOVER'S SOLUTION. 
By a. B. Lyons, M.D. 

The publication in your jonrnal of a paper like that of E. H. Hess 
in your May issue, insures for the o])inions therein stated a wide cir- 
culation, besides giving them a quasi endorsement. I therefore desire 
to criticise through your columns the concluding paragraph of the 
paper in question. 

The writer states that he has made some physiological experiments 
upon a cat with the familiar combination of morphine and ipecac 
which, in a new form, is the subject of his thesis, finding that in over- 
doses it ^' produced emesis with general exhaustion, but no alarming 
symptoms.^' From these experiments he concludes that the Dover's 
solution is almost a harmless preparation, as an overdose is almost 
certain to produce emesis.^' I need not point out the importance, in 
drawing conclusions from physiological experiments, of keeping well 
in mind the fact that different animals are affected in very different ways, 
and in very different degrees by toxic agents. A mixture containing 
in each fluidounce six grains of morphine acetate and the equivalent 
of four grains of ipecac might be an emetic for a cat, but I should be 
very greatly surprised to find it capable of i)roducing any such effect 
in a human subject. It must be remembered that the effect of mor- 
phine is to counteract powerfully the action of ordinary emetics, and 
ipecac alone in a dose of as much as four grains would not generally 
do more than to produce slight nausea. 

We have already too many preparations of opium of varying 
strength. That now proposed agrees very well in mor})hine strength 
with the fluid Dover's powder (tincture of ipecacuanha and opium) of 
the U. S. Pharmacopoeia and with the other officinal tinctures of 
opium, but the relative proportion of ipecac is very much smaller than 
in any of the numerous formulas in general or local use. 

If we must have a second form of fluid Dover's ])owder, let us at 
least have the composition and the dose the same as that of prepara- 
tions already recognized by our standard authority. 

Detroit, Mich., May 27, 1885. 



For Fixed Dressing for Joints, requiring rest, Dr. Levis uses the fol- 
lowing, which is painted over roller bandages or cloth, applied to the part : 
Glue, lb. i. ; oxide of zinc, lb. ss. ; water, Cong. hh.— CoIL and Clin. Record. 



330 



Useful Plants of Verbenacece. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ July, 1885. 



ON SOME USEFUL PLANTS OF THE NATURAL ORDER 
OF VERBENACEiE. 
By John M. Maisch. 
Head before the Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Associatioti^ June 3, 1885. 

A comparison of the drugs recognized by the Pharmacopoeia of a 
foreign country with those admitted into the Pharmacopoeia of the 
United States frequently reveals the fact that certain plants indigenous 
to or commonly cultivated in both these countries may have been 
deemed of sufficient importance for official recognition in one, while 
they are little used in the other. Such a comparison very naturally 
invites also to a closer inquiry into the usefulness of other plants 
which are botanically allied to those yielding officinal drugs. Among 
the pharmacopoeias which have been published during the past few 
years, those of France (Codex medicamentarius, Paris, 1884) and of 
Mexico (Nueva Farmacopea Mexicana, Mexico, 1884), are the most 
comprehensive in having admitted numerous drugs of vegetable origin 
which are comparatively unknown here. Inquiries in the direction 
pointed out before show that, in many cases, these drugs are the represen- 
tatives of a much larger number derived from plants of the same natural 
order which were formerly employed in medicine, or are in popular 
use in their native countries as medicinal agents; and that in the same 
order other plants are found which are more or less valuable in the 
arts. 

In laying before you some of the results of my inquiry, a natural 
order has been selected which has thus far not yielded any drug pos- 
sessing very important medicinal properties, but which, nevertheless 
seems to be deserving of some attention, inasmuch as a number of the 
plants are very commonly cultivated for ornamental purposes, while a 
limited number of mostly homely weeds are indigenous to our country. 

The natural order of verbenacese comprises in the neighborhood of 
seven hundred species, which are mostly indigenous to tropical coun- 
tries, only few species being at home in the temperate zones. The 
tropical species are mostly trees or shrubs, and are frequently aromatic, 
while the species of temperate climes are usually herbaceous and not 
fragrant, at least not to the same degree as many of those growing in 
the tropics. 

One of the most important species is the East Indian teak tree^ 
Tectona grandis, Lin.fiL, wdiich grows in Hindoostan, Siam and the 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
July, 1885. J 



Useful Plants of Verbenacece. 



331 



Malayan Islands, attaining a height of over eighty feet, and a thickness 
of more than fonr feet. Tlie oval or elliptic and entire leaves are two or 
three feet long, and are said to be nseful for polishing wood owing to 
their roughness ; they have an acidulous astringent and bitterish taste, 
and are employed for their mild astringent properties, and as a j^urple 
dye. The small white flowers are fragrant, and are believed to possess 
diuretic properties. But the most valuable portion is the wood which 
on account of its hardness and durability is largely used in ship-build- 
ing, and in the East also for temples and dwellings. It is of a light 
brown color, resinous, porous, yet heavy, a cubic foot of it weighing 
from forty to fifty pounds; it is nearly indestructible in water, is not 
attacked by worms, and far excels the best oak wood in durability. 
According to G. Thorns, the air dry wood yields 2*15 per cent, of ash, 
consisting chiefly of calcium phosphate and silica. The African teak, 
which is likewise valuable for its timber, is a euphorbiaceous tree, 
Oldfieldia africana. 

Gmelina arborea, Roxburgh., is likewise an East Indian tree, the 
root of which has been employed in gout, and the bark in intermittent 
fevers. The smaller species Gmelina parvifolia, Roxburgh, and Gm. 
asiatica, Lin., possess demulcent properties, the leaves and the root 
being employed. 

Avicennia tomentosa, Lin., a medium sized resinous tree, has also a 
mucilaginous root, while the unripe fruit has been employed as an 
emollient cataplasm. The allied A. nitida, Jacquin is known in the 
West Indies as black or olive laangrove ; the bark is called courida 
bark, and is used in tanning. 

Clerodendron infortunatum, Lin., is an East Indian shrub, the 
leaves and root of which are employed externally for tumors and cer- 
tain skin diseases, and internally as tonics. The root of Clerodendron 
inerme, R. Brown, is of a more decided bitter taste and strong odor, 
and is regarded as possessing tonic and alterative properties, and as 
being useful in venereal and scrofulous complaints; 

Of the genus Vitex, popularly known as chaste-tree, two or three 
shrubby species are not unfrequently cultivated in this country, 
namely, V. Negundo, \. incisa and V. Agnus-casti, im., the former 
two being indigenous to Asia, the last one to the basin of the Medi- 
terranean. This is about ten feet or more high, has opposite ascend- 
ing brownish gray or greenish, obtusely quadrangular downy branches 
and palmate, on the lower side downy leaves with five or seven lanceo- 



332 



Useful Plants of Verbenacece. 



f Am. Jour. Pharui. 
1 July, 1885. 



late acute and entire leaflets ; the bluish, purplish or whitish fragrant 
flowers are in sessile clusters at the end of the branches, forming an 
interrupted spike ten inches or more in length ; the fruit is globular, 
blackish-brown, of about the size of black pepper, four-celled and 
four-seeded, and has a rather strong aromatic, somewhat narcotic odor, 
particularly when rubbed, and a peppery taste. The leaves are like- 
wise pungent, and were formerly employed in many diseases as a stimu- 
lent and irritant ; the fruit, however, was more frequently used for 
similar purposes, also as a spice in place of pepper, under the incorrect 
name of semen agni casti. Landerer (1835) found in the fruit a vola- 
tile principle, acrid and acid oil and a crystalline principle of a bitter 
taste, soluble in alcohol and partly soluble in acetic acid, which solu- 
tions are precipitated by alkalies and by tannin. The principle has 
been named viticin and castin, but its true nature has not been deter- 
mined. The other species of vitex are likewise somewhat stimulating; 
those of the West Indies and others are arboreous, some of thetn being 
valuable for timber. The fruit of Vitex trifolia, Lin. is called in 
India wild j^epper. 

The genus Lantana of tropical America is well known in our gar- 
dens and represented by a number of species bearing bright-colored 
showy flowers, which often change in color before they fade. Thus 
the prickly 1j. Camara, Lin., a native of the West Indies and of 
vSoutli America, northward to our Gulf States, has deep golden yellow 
flowers, changing to orange color and scarlet. L. nivea, Ventenat, in 
some of its varieties changes its white flowers to blue. L. mixta, Lin., 
like the preceding species indigenous to Brazil, has also white flowers 
the color of which passes through diff^erent shades of yellow and orange 
to red. Many liybrids have been produced by gardeners from these 
and other species, and are characterized by the striking mutation of the 
color of their flowers. The herbaceous portion of the lantanas is more 
or less agreeably aromatic, and is popularly employed in the native 
countries of the different species for its sudorific action and externally 
in fomentations and cataplasms. In addition to the species mentioned, 
L. odorota, Lin., L. involucrata, Lin., and L. trifolia, Lin., may be 
enumerated which with others are known in the West Indies as wild 
sage. L. Pseudo-thea, Saint- Hilaire, is probably the most important 
species, it being used in Brazil in place of Chinese tea, but whether it 
also contains tlieine has not been ascertained ; the plant is known in 



Am . Jour. Pharm. | 
July, 1885. J 



Useful Plants of Verbenacece. 



333 



Brazil as capitdo da matto (Bentley), and as did de frade, or chd de 
pedestre (Peckolt). 

The widely distributed Lippia (Zapania, Lamarck), nodiflora, Rich- 
ard, is a procambent or ascending perennial with small whitish, 
yellowish or reddish flowers, possesses mild aromatic and tonic proper- 
ties, and has also been employed as an antispasmodic and against snake 
bites. It groAvs in most tropical countries and is frequently met with 
in our Southern States in damp localities. It is known asfogfniit like 
the closely allied Lippia lanceolata, Michaux, which is a weed extend- 
ing northward into Pennsylvania, Ohio and Illinois, and westward to 
Colorado. 

The so-called lemon verbena, Lippia (Aloysia, Ortega), citriodora,. 
Kuntli, s. Verbena triphylla, L'Heritier, is a'well-known ornamental 
shrub of our gardens and conservatories, indigenous to Peru and other 
parts of South America. In Mexico it is officinal under the name of 
eedron, and in France as verveine odorante, also known as verveine- 
citronelle. Oliva who examined the plant found in it, besides volatile 
oil, the usual common constituents of plants like sugar, gum, fat, tan- 
nin and coloring-matter. It is employed as an antispasmodic. 

Dr. Podwissotzki ('^Phar. Zeitschr. Russl.,'' 1883, p. 920) has sub- 
mitted the herb of Lippia mexicana to analysis, and obtained tannin, 
a quercetin-like crystalline principle, liquid volatile oil of a lemon-like 
odor, and lippiol, a camphor melting between 25° and 30°C., having 
the composition of menthol, and representing the medicinal activity of 
the plant ; it acts as a diaphoretic, nauseant and soporific. I have not 
had the opportunity of consulting the paper referred to as originally 
published, but have seen only abstracts of the same. On examining 
several works on Botany, general, as well as specially referring to 
Mexico, I was unable to find a plant of the name given by Podwis- 
sotzki. A plant having a strong somewhat lemon-like odor is Cedro- 
nella mexicana, Bentham, which has been admitted into the Mexican 
Pharmacopceia under the name of toronjil, it being used as an anti- 
spasmodic; its volatile oil is similarly employed and also as a perfume. 
It seems likely that Podwissotzki^s researches have reference to this 
plant (which belongs to the natural order of Labiatse) or to Aloysia 
citriodora. 

The Mexican Pharmacopoeia has admitted, under the name of yerba 
dulce, two indigenous species of Lippia, L. graveolens, Kunth, and L. 
dulcis, Trevlranus, which are used in the form of infusion for their 



334 



Useful Plants of Verbenacece. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm, 
1 July, 1885. 



demulceDt, pectoral and emmeiiagogue properties. The first-named 
species has oval-oblong leaves, which are rounded or somewhat heart- 
shaped at the base, finely hairy above and white velvety beneath. 
The leaves of tlie second species are membranous, oval or deltoid, 
acute, serrate, prickly, rough above and pubescent beneath. The odor 
is strong, somewhat resembling wormwood ; the taste is refreshing and 
at first piquant, afterwards mild. Rio de la Loza ('^ Union Med. de 
Mex.,'' i, 1857) found in the plant a sweet principle, volatile, and sol- 
uble in water and alcohol, a volatile oil, a stearopten resembling cam- 
])lior, etc 

It will be observed that in properties and constituents these plants 
resemble some of the labiatse, and other Mexican species of the same 
genus are probably equally aromatic or more so, and are employed in 
the place of some of our labiate plants. Thus the common name of 
salvia poblano or salvia real de Puebla is applied to Lippia callicar- 
pitefolia, Kunth, which species is regarded as the Mexican substitute 
of the sage of our pharmacies. Another species, Lippia origanoidesj 
Kuntli, which is known in Mexico as origano, and by the Mexican 
Pharmacopoeia is stated to be a substitute for our common origanum. 

The verbenas proper are well represented in our gardens as orna- 
mental plants by a large number of varieties and hybrids produced 
from about half a dozen species, of which Verbena Aubletia, Lin., is 
indigenous to North America, from Virginia and Illinois southward, 
and westward to the Rocky Mountains, and is reputed to possess acrid 
and mucilaginous properties. The otiier cultivated sjjecico were intro- 
duced from Brazil and other parts of South America about 50 or 60 
years ago, and in part at least are employed in their native countries 
as diaphoretics and emmenagogues. V. erinoides, Lainarck, V. teu- 
crifolia, Martins, V. multifida, Ruiz, V. chamsedrifolia, Jussieu, V. teu- 
crioides, Hooker, V. phlogiflora, Cham., and others contribute to these 
ornamental plants, which are valued for their bright or delicate colors. 

V. officinalis, Lin., i. a European weed, somewhat naturalized in 
this country, with piunatifid leaves, and small reddish or purphsh 
flowers, inodorous, bitterish and somewhat astringent. It possesses 
mild stimulant, tonic and astringent properties, and is still recognized 
by the French Codex as verveine officinale ; also by the Pharmacopoeia 
of Mexico, though in the latter country in place of it V. carol iniana, 
Lin., is generally employed, which possesses similar prop rties, and is 
common in dry soils in our Southern States. It grows to the height 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ") 
July, 1886. j 



Useful Plants of Verbenacece. 



335 



of about 20 inches, lias obovate, crenately dentate sessile leaves, and 
rather large rose-colored flowers in loose terminal spikes. The inodor- 
ous Verbeua ciliata, Bentham, is used in Mexico in the place of hyssop. 

Among the North American species the handsome blue flowering 
Verb, bracteosa, Michaux, lias the reputation of being useful in scro- 
fulous complaints ; the homely blue vervain, V. hastata, Lin.j has 
been employed in fevers, and in large doses acts as an emetic; and the 
coarse-lookin:^ white vervain, V. urticifolia, Lin., is reputed to be 
useful in various complaints, and is employed as a topical application 
in poisoning by Rhus Toxicodendron. 

In some of the West Indian islands and in Central America Stachy- 
tarpha (Verbena, Lin.) jamaicensis, Vahl, is known as verbena, from 
which genus it differs mainly by its four-toothed calyx, by two barren 
and two fertile stamens, and by the two parted fruit. The plant is 
somewhat woody, 2 or 3 feet high, has elliptic or ovate sharply serrate 
leaves, and produces slender spikes of small blue flowers sunk in 
furrows of the thickened rhachis. Like other allied plants, it is popu- 
larly used in a variety of diseases, but seems to be most useful as a 
diaphoretic and tonic. It is likewise used in Brazil, and, with one or 
two allied species, is known there Rsjarbno and urgevdo. 

The above notes show that the plants of the natural order of Ver- 
benacese possess tonir: and stimulant properties, and that those growing 
in tropical or subtropical countries are frequently aromatic, and some 
of them acrid. Considering the fact that the species of the temperate 
climates are destitute, or nearly so, of aromatic properties, and contain 
bitter and astringent principles only to a limited extent, it is not sur- 
prising that they are apparently not possessed of any decided medici- 
nal virtues, and that they have received but little attention from the 
pharmacist and still less from the chemist; but it is likely that many 
of those growing in warmer climates may open an interesting field for 
chemical research on the nature of their volatile oils, their bitter or 
acrid principles, their tannins, and possibly other constituents. 



Pilocarpus in Urticaria.— Obstinate urticaria is reported by M. 
Guineau de Mussy to be cured by IJ pulv. pilocarpi, ext. guaiaci a a gr. 2, 
lithii benzoatis gr. 3, m. ft. i^il. Two pills, gradually increased to four 
pills, are administered daily, eoinbiiied with sulphur baths. — Pacif. Med. 
and Surg. Jour.^ April, 1885. 



336 



Gleanings from Foreign Journals. 



/Am. Jour. Pharm. 
1 July, 1885. 



GLEANINGS FROM FOREIGN JOURNALS. 
By J. Robert Moechel. 

Detection o/HNOg, HNO2, and HNO in concentrated HgSO^. — A very 
convenient and delicate test for the above is ferl:"ous sulphate, precipi- 
tated by means of alcohol from the watery solution, which when dried 
is a whitish coarse powder. Put into a test tube, about 1 cm. in width, 
3 cc. of the colorless sulphuric acid, add a pinch of the white ferrous 
sulphate, and shake; the salt floats in small particles, the acid remain- 
ing colorless and the salt white, even on heating. In the presence of 
slight traces of nitrogen acids the acid assumes a reddish violet color, 
or the white salt i)articles take inmiediately a violet-gray color. Hager 
states that this test is more delicate than the test given by the German 
Pharmacopoeia, and easier to execute. — PA. Centralhalle, 1885, p. 141. 

A new reagent for the detection of albumen is given by Prof. Dr. 
Axenfeld, who observed that auric chloride (AuClg) gives very char- 
acteristic colorations with albuminoids. Add to a solution of albumi- 
noids a little formic acid and AUCI3 (1 : 1000) and warm ; gas bubbles 
arise, and the solution assumes a rose color ; a further addition of 
AuClg gives a purple, bluish or deep blue color, and a large amount 
causes a blue flocculent precipitate, the liquid becoming clear like 
water. — C^H^/-a/ Bl. Med. Wiss. ; C/iem. Ztg., 1885, No. 32. 

Carvol. — Freshly made oil of caraway does not contain a phenol, 
giving, therefore, no coloration with ferric chloride ; but the oil in the 
course of time, say one year, gives that coloration. 

To deprive carbon bisulphide and kerosin of the disagreeable odor, 
mixing with oil or fat and careful redistilling is recommended. 

Cornutine and Ergotinine. — According to M. Tanret, Robert's cor- 
nutine (''Am. Jour. Phar.," 1885, p. 170) is more or less changed 
ergotinine. — Jour. Phav. Chim., 1885, p. 6. 

Remedy for Tapeworm. — De Vrij recommends the following, which 
is stated to yield a uniformly successful preparation : Dry pomegranate 
root bark is macerated and exhausted with cold water, and the liquid 
is evaporated to a powdery extract, which should be kept in a well- 
corked bottle. . The dose of this is 4 Gm., divided in 8 packages, 
and taken, on an empty stomach, every quarter of an hour. To the 
last package 0*10 Gm. (IJ gr.) of calomel is added. Soon the living 
taenia makes its appearance, and should be seized by the patient or an 
assistant to extract it entirely. — Jour, de Phar. d^Anvers, 1885, p. 59. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
July, 1885. J 



Turtle Oil 



337 



Antiseptic. — G. Sternberg recommends a solution of 2 Gra. of cor- 
rosive sublimate and 2 Gm. of potassium permanganate in 1 liter of 
water. The advantages are : 1. The poisonous liquid is colored. 2. 
The antiseptic effect of. the sublimate is combined with the deodoriz- 
ing action of the permanganate. — Monatsh. f. Dermat.; Ph. Central- 
halle, 1885, ^n'o. 10. 

Iodoform Pencils. — Triturate cacao butter with a warmed pestle, and 
mix well with iodoform until a somewhat soft mass is obtained, which 
is put into a tin syringe, and by slow pressing formed into sticks of 
convenient length.— PAar. Ztg., 1885, No. 29. 

Gelatin Bottle- Capping. — Soak 7 lbs. of Russian gelatin in a mix- 
ture of 10 oz. of glycerin and 60 oz. of water, until it is thoroughly 
softened ; then heat in a water-bat li, to liquify, and add a few drops 
of a watery solution of any aniline color. The capping sets quickly, 
and should be used while hot. 

Marasquino di Zara. — Alcohol (90 per cent.) 2 liters, distilled water 
If liters, triple orange-flower water 80 Gm., vanilla tincture 20 Gm., 
bitter almond water (concentrated) 30 Gm., aromatic tincture lU Gm., 
simple syrup 900 Gm. The flavor depends upon the quality of the 
ingredients used. 

Enamel Labels. — Mix copal or dammar varnish with sufficieut oxide 
of zinc, and paint therewith. — Ph. Ztg. 

Turtle OiYfrom the Seychelles is obtained from the greenback turtle, 
Chelonia mydas, by boiling the fat. Mr. J. H. Brooks informed Mr. 
E. M. Holmes that for some twenty years he has used turtle oil with 
the most beneficial results in all cases where cod liver oil was indicated, 
and that it is administered in the same doses as the latter. As much 
as ten gallons of oil are sometimes obtained from a single turtle, and 
it could be supplied in very large quantities if a demand should arise 
for it. Its color and non-drying properties render it admirably 
adapted for pomades, for which an animal oil is generally considered 
to be preferable to a vegetable one. 

Turtle Oil from Jamaica is used in a similar manner and is prepared 
from the flesh of the back of the trunk turtle, probably Chelonia 
Caouana. A sample of oil received by Mr. Holmes was not quite as 
palatable as the preceding. Both oils are yellowish and at the ordi- 
nary temperature form a thick, finely granular fluids resembling in 
consistence partly congealed olive oil. — Phar. Jour, and Trans., Jan. 
17, 1885, p. 573. 

22 



338 



Kemtlh- coated Fills. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ July, 1885. 



KERATIN-COATED PILLS. 
By Dr Unna. 

Dr. Unna, of Hanibnrg, has discovered a coating for pills, which is 
likely to prove even more nsefnl than it is ingenious. The task which 
he set himself was to find a coating which would resist the solvent 
action of the gastric juice, but would dissolve in the small intestine. 
This he has succeeded in doing by the use of keratin, a substance 
extracted from the shavings of ox or buffalo horn. The shavings are 
first digested by artificial gastric juice (pepsin solution with 1 percent, 
hydrochloric acid), and are then macerated for weeks in ammonia. 
When the ammonia is driven off, a gummy solution of keratin is left, 
from which, by drying, keratin is obtained in the form of shining, 
bright, yellow flakes. 

A pill which is to be covered with keratin requires to be prepared 
in a special manner. The medicine employed is first rubbed well up 
with cacoa butter or tallow, with the addition of some indifferent 
powder, if necessary, and pills are made. The pills are then covered 
with cacoa butter, so as to prevent any of the medicine from being on 
the surface of the pill. When the pill is hard it receives one, or, 
better, two or three coatings of solution of keratin. If the substance 
of which the pill is made renders solution in ammonia inconvenient, a 
solution in glacial acetic acid may be used. Keratin-coated pills are 
insoluble in the gastric juice, but dissolve as soc»n as they enter the 
.small intestine, and have, therefore, a special value in cases in which 
medicines which have an irritating effect on the mucous membrane of 
the stomach are to be administered for any length of time ; for example, 
when arsenic, salicylic acid, kreosote, copaiva, cubebs, tartar-emetic, 
and vermifuge medicines are prescribed. 

The method is further useful when medicines are given which are 
affected by digestion in the stomach, forming insoluble precipitates 
with pepsin and peptones ; for examj^le, tannin, alum, acetate of lead, 
subnitrate of bismuth, nitrate of silver, bichloride of mercury, etc. ; 
and, further, in the case of medicines which it is desired should enter 
the intestine in as concentrated a form as possible, and medicines which 
are given with the view of affecting favorably diseased conditions of 
the mucous membrane of the stomach without exercising an irritating 
local action ; for example, iron, quinine, arsenic in catarrh of the 
stomach arising from ammonia. — British Medical Journal ; Jour. Am. 
Med. Assoc., April 4, 1885. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
July, 1885. [ 



Materia Medica of the Mexican Pharmacopoeia. 339 



MATERIA MEDICA OF THE NEW MEXICAN PHARMA- 
COPCKIA. 
By the Editor. 

(Continued from p. 280.) 

Ancusa, Anchusa tinctoria, Lin.; the root is used for coloring 
pomades. 

Angelica, the root of Angelica Archangelica, Lin. Dose, in powder, 
5 to 10 gm. ; the infusion, 15 gni. to one liter of water. 

Angostura verdadera, the bark of Gal i pea officinalis, Hancock, etc. 
Dose of powder, 2 to 4 gm. ; of extract, 0*5 to 10 gm.; little em- 
ployed. 

Anis comun and Anis estrellado are Anise and Star-anise. 

Anisillo cimarron, Schkuhria abrotanoides, Roth, a Mexican compo- 
site, is anti-spasmodic. 

Anona reticulata and A. glabra, Lin., Mexican custard apple. The 
fruit is edible ; the decoction of the bark, leaves and green fruit is 
reputed to be astringent and used in diarrhoeas ; the infusion of the 
leaves is anti-spasmodic; Ihe powder of the seed is employed as an 
insecticide and is dangerous. 

Anil, Indigo, is little used medicinally. 

Apio, Parsley, is aperitive and used in infusion of 15 to 30 gm. to 
the liter. 

Arbol de la cera, Myrica jalapensis, Kunth, nat. ord. Myricacea3, is 
indigenous to the sierra of Huauchinango. The wax obtained from 
the fruit by boiling with water is green or yellow, according to the 
method of extraction, more brittle and unctuous than bees' wax, has a 
feeble odor, a slightly bitter taste and a density nearly equal to that of 
water and melts at 43° ; but on exposure the fusing point rises to 47"5°. 
It is wholly soluble in boiling ether, insoluble in water, sparingly 
soluble in cold alcohol and dissolves in 20 parts of boiling alcohol, 
depositing the greater part on cooling ; alkalies saponify it readily. 
It has probably the same composition as myrtle wax from Myrica 
cerifera. It is given internally in powder against diarrhea and jaun- 
dice, and is used for making candles, for adulterating bees' wax and 
as a substitute tor the latter in pharmaceutical preparations. The 
bark of the root is acrid and astringent, and in larger doses emetic. 

Arbol de los manitas, Cheirostemon platanoides, Hunih. et BonpL, 



340 Materia Medica of the Mexican Pharmacopoeia, {^"'•j^iy^'iSs*'^™ 

nat. ord. Bombace^ie, indigenous to Mexico. The flowers are used 
internally in epilepsy, and as an emollient in ophthalmia. 

ilrbol del Peril, Schinus Molle, Lin., nat. ord. Terebinth acese, 
grows in various parts of Mexico. The leaves, masticated, serve as a 
remedy for loose teeth and atonic ulcers of the mouth. The fruit, 
known as Pimienta de America, is stomachic, stimulant and diuretic; 
it contains a notable quantity of sugar and may be used for the pro- 
duction of alcohol and vinegar. The bark has astringent and bal- 
sauiic properties. The gum-resin was examined by Manuel C. Jim- 
enex, of Mexico; it forms milk-white tears, varying in size and 
becoming gradually reddish yellow, softens on mastication, has a bitter 
and sharp taste with an aftertaste resembling that of cubeb, and a 
disagreeable odor, becomes soft at 35° and melts at 40° giving off 
white fumes and an odor like frankincense. Its powder is dingy 
white and is easily emulsionized with water. It is composed of 40 
gum, 60 resin and a small quantity of volatile oil. Two or three 
drops of the concentrated emulsion are used for the removal of spots 
on the cornea. 

Aristoloquia larga and A. redonda, the rhizomes of the European 
Aristolochia longa and A. rotunda, Lin., are rarely employed as tonics 
and stimulants. 

Arnica montana, Lin. The root, leaves and flowers are employed ; 
however, Heterotheca inuloides, Cassini, is frequently substituted for 
the former. The ray florets are pistillate, the receptacle flat and alve- 
olate, the involucral scales imbricate and linear, the akenes of the ray 
oblong and smooth, those of the disk cuneiform and downy, the lower 
leaves petiolate oval and dentate, and the upper ones sessile, lanceolate 
and entire. The chemical constituents and the therapeutic action of 
this plant have not been investigated. 

Aro, Richardia jethiopica, Kunth, nat. ord. Aracese. The plant is 
very acrid in the fresh state, the juice caustic, the leaves and root 
vesicating. 

Aroma, Acacia Farnesiana, Willd., nat. ord. Leguminosse; indige- 
nous to Yucatan. The fruit is astringent and yields an extract 
known as jugo de acacia and having the same properties as catechu. 
The flowers are very fragrant, have anti-spasmodic properties and are 
much used in perfumery under the name of casia or cassie. 

Arrayan, Myrtus Arrayan, Kunth; indigenous to Mexico. The 



^""ju'iriSr'" } Materia Medica of the Mexican Pharmacopoeia. 341 

leaves contain a volatile oil and are used as a perfume ; tliey are 
astringent and, like the bark, are used for tanning. 

Arrowroot (the fecula of different plants), Arroz (rice), Artemisia 
vulgar (mugwort), Asafetida, Asfalto (asphaltum), Azafran (saffron), 
Azafrancillo (saftlower), Aziicar de caiia (cane sugar) are enumerated. 

Artemisia del pais. Ambrosia artemisiaefolia, Lin., the hog- weed or 
rag-weed, common also in the United States, is used as a stimulant 
and emmenagogue, and is reputed to be febrifuge and anthelmintic. 
Dose, in powder, 2 gm. ; of the extract, 0*5 to I'O gm. 

Atlanchana, Cuphea lanceolata, Kunth, nat. ord. Lythrace^e ; indig- 
enous to Mexico. The stem is herbaceous, striate, pubescent and vis- 
cous ; the leaves are opposite, short-stalked, lanceolate and somewhat 
downy. In Puebla the plant is used by mid wives as a corroborant 
after childbirth. The bruised fresh herb or the tincture of the dry 
plant is em])loyed, after baths, as an embrocation of the back and 
hips. The drug is considered to be mildly astringent and anti-dysen- 
teric. 

Azafrancillo de Mexico, Escobedia scabrifolia, Humboldt, nat. ord. 
Scrophulariacese, grows in the State of Guerrero. According to Dr. 
Altamirano {La Naturaleza, III, 390), the root contains the crystal- 
line principle escobedin and the resinous coloring matter azaf renin, the 
latter producing with sulphuric acid a blue color, changing to violet. 
It is used for coloring. 

Balsamo de copaiba, Coj)aiba. Brazilian and Maracaibo copaiba 
are used. 

Balsamo de liquidambar. Sweet gum, from Liquidambar styraci- 
flua, Lin., growing in the State of Vera Cruz and other parts of Mex- 
ico. The crude balsam has the consistence of turpentine, is of a gray 
color mixed with darker pieces and with white tears, has a strong, not 
unpleasant odor and a bitter warm and acrid taste, and contains frag- 
ments of bark and other impurities. It is purified by warming and 
straining and is then more or less transparent, whitish gray or yellow- 
ish and becomes thicker and darker on keeping. In regard to its 
composition, the older investigations by Bonastre, Hanbury and 
Creecy are mentioned, but not the more recent ones by Harrison and 
Fluckiger. The balsam is sometimes adulterated with turpentine, and 
an inferior, dark colored and oj)aque balsam is prepared by boiling the 
branches with water. It is used as a balsamic stimulant in doses ot 
0*5 to 2-0 gm. 



342 



Commercial Tannin. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1885. 



Balsamo negro, Balsam of Peru. It is stated that Myrospermum 
Pereirse, Royle, grows in Panuco, Huajicori, Cuautla" de Morelos and 
in other warm sections of the Republic as well as in Central America, 
and that the fruit and bark of the indigenous tree are also employed. 
The fruit, which we have seen in 1876 and of which we have recently 
received specimens from Prof. Alfonso Herrera, resembles that of 
Toluifera Balsamum, Lin., as figured by Bentley and Trimen, and 
differs in shape from that named above ; of the latter we have speci- 
mens from tlie late Prof. Carson, which he received from Dr. Dorat, 
and these agree with Bentley and Trimen's figure of the same species. 
It is known that Prof. Baillon considers these plants as one variable 
species. The tree does not appear to be used in Mexico for the pro- 
duction of balsam. 

Balsamo de Tolii (Tolu balsam), Bardana (Burdock), Bedelio (bdel- 
lium), Beleiio bianco and B. negro (hyoscyamus), Belladona (bella- 
donna), Benjui (benzoin), Bistorta (bistort), Bol de Armenia (Armenian 
bole), Brusco (butcher's broom), Buchu, and Buglosa (Anchusa offici- 
nalis) are enumerated among the drugs. 



COMMERCIAL TANNIN.^ 
By T Maben. 

It has frequently been the subject of remark that the tannin of com- 
merce varies considerably in quality, and I have recently examined a 
number of samples with the object of ascertaining within what limits 
the variation may be said to extend. Of those who have already 
drawn attention to the question may be cited Mr. H. R. Proctor, who 
states that " the tannin met with in commerce contains only 80 to 90 
per cent, of really pure tannin f Mr. A. H. Allen, who writes in 
corroboration of this, that some of the samples he examined contained 
^' 30 to 40 per cent, of inert matter as indicated by the lead process -/'^ 
and Sutton, who says that " commercial tannin often contains 20 per 
cent, of impurities."^ 

My aim in taking up the subject was mainly to determine, if possible, 

1 Read at an Evening Meeting of the "North British Branch of the 
Pharmaceutical Society," April 8, 18S5. 

2 " Pharm. Journal, [3], vol. vii, p. 1020. 

3 Ibid, p. 1057. 

* "Volumetric Analysis," 4th edition, p. 279. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
July, 1885. J 



Commercial Tannin. 



343 



the precentage of tannic acid in the tannins, and with tliat view I pro- 
cured nine samples from different sources. The samples are those of 
London, Edinburgh, and German manufacturers in almost equal pro- 
portions, and may therefore be taken to be fairly representative. I 
may remark in passing that a number of so-called makers do not in 
reality manufacture or extract the tannin, but simply confine them- 
selves to ihe punjication of the German product. 

It may be of advantage, before referring to their composition, to 
note the physical characteristics of the samples. In general appearance 
they vary considerably, some being crystalline or scaly, Nos. 1 and 5 
especially so, while others are almost destitute of scales. They are for 
the most part of a light yellow oi pale straw color, one only. No. 1, 
being of a perceptibly darker shade. The variation in weight is very 
remarkable, some of the samples being extremely light while others 
are comj)aratively heavy. The specific gravity of the samples was not 
taken, but their relative weights were roughly determined ; from these 
it will be seen that as a rule the weight bears a striking relation to the 
percentage of tannic acid, viz., the lighter the tannin the higher the 
proportion of tannic aci-l content. 

The solubility of tannin is variously stated, the range being from 1 
in 0*8 of Avater to 1 in 6. I have not attempted more than an approxi- 
mate determination of the solubility of the diflPerent samples, so that 
the figures given must not be assumed to be definite. So far as I have 
gone, the solubility seems to bear no relation to the percentage of 
tannic acid. 

It is frequently of practical value to know the time required for a 
given quantity to dissolve, and with the view of ascertaining this, 10 
grains of each sample were shaken up with one ounce of distilled water 
at 60° F. No. 1 dissolved in half a minute, 5, 6, and 8 in two minutes^ 
2 and 9 in three minutes, while 3, 4, and 7 were only partially dis- 
solved at the expiration of fifteen minutes. The residue in 3 and 4 
dissolved at once on the solutions being heated to 80° F., while that in 
No. 7 still remained undissolved. The aqueous solutions presented 
points of contrast that are interesting. Nos. 2, 5, 6, and 8 were per- 
fectly clear, 3 and 4 were slightly muddy, 1 and 9 still more so, and 7 
most of all. On heating the muddy solutions to 80° F., the opacity 
almost entirely disappeared from 3 and 4, but not from 1, 7 and 9. 
The insoluble matter in No. 7 was of a resinous nature ; the propor- 
tion being very small it was not estimated. 



344 



Commercial Tannin. 



[Am. Jour. Pliarm. 
X July, 1885. 



All the samples were soluble iu rectified spirit. No. 2 disappeared 
almost instantaneously^ 1, 5, and 7 very rapidly^ and 3, 4, 8, and 9 
somewhat slowly. When diluted with an equal bulk of water all the 
solutions remained perfectly clear. 

The samples were also soluble in glycerin. Employing the pro- 
portions for glycerinum acidi tannici, at a temperature of 60^ F., it was 
found that No. 1 dissolved in about three hours, and No. 5 in four 
hours. All the others were more or less undissolved at four hours, but 
when placed in a bath of hot water they dissolved in a very few minutes. 

Tannic Acid. — In coming to the consideration of the composition of 
the samples, I may refer to the uncertainty of our chemical knowledge 
of the tannins in general, and of the gallotannic acids, as commonly 
met with, in particular. It would be out of place for me to attempt 
to summarize the different opinions that prevail regarding gall tannin, 
but it does not seem as yet to have been determined whether it is or is 
not a glucoside, and if a glucoside, whether of gallic or digallic acid. 

The researches of Paul and Kingzett^ led them to the conclusion 
that the gallotannic acid of commerce \vas not a glucoside, and, further, 
that the supposition that tannin, as it exists in gall nuts is a gluco- 
side is rendered doubtful, and the sugar met witli in some samples'of 
tannic acid is more probably referable to an impurity, as Rochleder 
and Kawalier assumed. Schiff leans to the opinion that the tannin in 
gall nuts is a glucoside, but he states that the gallotannic acid met with 
in commerce is not a glucoside, but digallic acid." 

This uncertainty, coupled witli the extreme difficulty of procuring 
pure gallotannic acid, has always been a barrier in the way of analytical, 
and especially gravimetric methods for its estimation. A large num- 
ber of methods have been proposed, but most of these are, according 
to competent authorities, more or less faulty. Proctor, in the paper 
already quoted, gives a decided preference to Lowenthal's volumetric 
method, and DragcndorflP,^ after summarizing the more important pro- 
cesses and indicating precisely the strong and weak points of each, also 
seems to prefer the permanganate method. My own experience of the 
gravimetric methods has been that I found a difficulty in obtaining 
concordant results, and these, moreover, were generally too high, which 
is doubtless to be accounted for by the varying composition of the pre- 
cipitates, and the liability of the tannin and its salts to undergo decom- 

1 " Joiirn. Chem. Soc," vol. xxxiii, p. 217. 

2 " Plant Analysis," pp. 41-46. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
July, 1885. i 



Commercial Tannin . 



345 



position during the process of manipulation. These disadvantages are, 
if not entirely obviated, at all events lessened in the method by Lowen- 
thal, and as this, in tlie present state of our knowledge, may be regarded 
as the most satisfactory, I have employed it in the estimation of the 
tannic acid. 

The Avorking details of the process are given very fully by Sutton, 
and for these it is only necessary for me to refer to his standard work. 
That there are difficulties in the actual carrying out of the process is 
undeniable, the most formidable of these being the uncertainty of the 
end-reaction and the doubt as to the exact amount of correction required 
for the gelatin. Sutton directs the permanganate to be delivered in 
very slowly with constant stirring until a faint rose color appears 
round the edges of the liquid,'^ while DragendorfP says the solution is 
to be run in till the blue color changes to green." It will be found 
in actual practice that the rose color is considerably distant from the 
green, and as everything depends on knowing exactly when to stop it 
must be admitted that in this res})ect the process is not yet |)erfect. I 
found that it was necessary, in order to get good comparative results, 
to run in permanganate solution till the color, a faint yellow, was as 
nearly as possible identical with that of a standard solution kept side 
by side with the liquid beiug titrated. Auth.orities also differ as to the 
correction required for the gelatin. Proctor, quoted by Sutton, says 
that probably the nearest approach to the truth may be obtained by 
deducting half the correction f< .r gelatin from the oxidizable matter 
other than tannin," Avhereas, according to DragendorfP, the addition 
of gelatin as described by Lowenthal introduces only a slight source 
of error which may be generally neglected." As to the latter state- 
ment, it is obvious that if only comparative results are required, the 
error may be neglected, provided always that a carefully standardized 
gelatin solution be employed, but if even approximately correct figures 
are wanted, it is absolutely necessary that the correction for gelatin be 
made. lam also decidedly of opinion that Proctor is within the mark 
when he deducts only half the gelatin correction, and prefer rather to 
go to the other extreme by deducting the whole. This I have done 
in these estimations, and consequently it is just possible that my results 
as regards the percentage of tannic acid may be rather high. 

Having ascertained the quantity of permanganate required for 
oxidation, the calculation of the results is readily accomplished. For 
this purpose I have used the coefficients of Neubauer and Oser, as given 



346 



Commercial Tannin, 



J Am. Jour. Pharm 
I July, 1885. 



by Sutton, according to whom, one gram of pure gallotannic acid re- 
quires for oxidation 0*759 gram KgMugOg. It is somewhat unfortunate 
that authorities are not agreed as to tlie value to be assigned to the 
permanganate. Dragendorff, on Gunther's authority states that "16 
parts of oxygen from the permanganate oxidize 32*5 parts of gallo- 
tannic acid/^ Even if we assumed that the K2Mn208 parted with all 
its oxygen for this purpose we would still find that 0'759 gram only 
represents 0*62 gram acid, in other words, that Gunther's value is, at 
Ihe very utmost, only five-eighths that of Neubauer's. Too much 
stress need not be laid on these differences, however, as the method of 
procedure adopted may sufficiently account for the discrepancies, and 
admitting that the actual value of the permanganate has not yet been 
ascertained, there can nevertheless be no doubt that as a comparative 
test for the same class of tannins Lowenthal's process is unexception- 
able. 

Organic flatter other than Tannic Acid. — The percentage of oxidizable 
matter other than tannic acid can of course only be taken by difference, 
a method of which the disadvantages are jjeculiarly evident in the case 
of tannin. The application of Mr. Young's cyanide of potassium test,^ 
assuming it to be correct, showed that all the samples contained traces 
of gallic acid, the coloration being much more distinct in some than in 
others. When this reagent is added to a solution of tannin, there is 
thrown down a precipitate which is usually at once redissolved. The 
bulk of this precipitate seems to be in direct ratio to the purity of the 
tannin, as Nos. 1, 2, and 5 gave very heavy precipitates, whereas those 
in 3 and 4 were scarcely noticeable. This precipitate was immediately 
redissolved in every case with exception of No. 8, but after a lapse of 
twenty-four hours it was found that all the solutions contained a more 
or less thick layer of another precipitate, which consisted of an amor- 
phous white powder. This was smallest in No. 7, and gradually in- 
creased in the following order : 2, 9, 5, 4, 3, 1, 6 and 8. No attempt 
was made to estimate these precipitates, as it was found that an insoluble 
preci[)itate can, under certain conditions, at once be produced by this 
same reagent, so that it is possible that we have here another method 
for the gravimetric estimation of tannic acid, as well as for the separa- 
tion of that acid from gallic acid ; but further experiments are required 
to elucidate these points. 

^ "Chemical News," vol. xlviii, p. 31. 



Am, Jour. Pharm. ) 
July, 1885. J 



Commercial Tannin, 



347 



One feature in the table will strike every observer as being quite 
peculiar, if not altogether anomalous. If we take, for example, No. 8, 
we find the oxidizable matter other than tannin to be 38'3 per cent., 
and this consumed 0*0555 gram K2Mn208, whereas in the case of No. 
1 the oxidizable matter is 6*2 per cent., yet it consumed 0*0586 gram 
KgMuoOg. I fear I am unable to suggest a reasonable explanation for 
these apparent discrepancies ; but it might be possible to account for 
them by supposing that we were estimating oak-bark tannin or mix- 
tures of oak-bark tannin and gall tannin, in place of pure gall tannin. 
The coefficients assigned by Neubauer and Oser to oak-bark tannin are 
equivalent to 0*759 K2Mn208 to IJ grams tannin, so that if we were 
prepared to assume that this tannin has been made use of, we would 
get in the case of No. 3, for example, 81 in place of 54, and so on. 
This theory is, however, opposed by two considerations. In the first 
place, Gunther allows very much the same value to oak-bark tannin 
as to gall tannin, the figures being 32 and 32*5 respectively to 16 of 
oxygen from the permanganate ; and in the second place, a sample of 
gall tannin, prepared by another than the B.P. process, and not included 
in the table because not strictly a commercial tannin, showed much the 
same anomalous result, there being 66 per cent, of tannin and 26 per 
cent, of oxidizable matter other than tannin, the latter consuming only 
0-055 gram K2Mn208. 

Moisture. — It was found to be impossible to take the moisture by 
drying in the usual way, as in no case could constant weighings be 
obtained, and recourse was therefore had to drying in vacuo over 
sulphuric acid. According to Strecker,^ tannic acid heated to 160°C. 
becomes darker in color from incipient decomposition. Several of the 
samples began to change color very rapidly. No. 7, for example, being 
perceptibly darker after being kept for an hour at about 110° C, w^hile 
No. 2 was apparently unaltered at the expiry of two and a half hours, 
all the others occupying positions between these two. 

Ash. — Authorities, generally, are agreed that tannin should on 
incineration be free from ash, and, practically speaking, it was found 
that all the samples save one answered to tliis requirement, the excep- 
tion. No. 7, giving as much as 0*4 per cent. This relatively large pro- 
portion of mineral matter doubtless accounts for the excess in weight 
of this sample as compared with those in which the tannic acid content 
is very similar. 



1 " Gmelin," vol. xv, p. 458. 



348 



Spwious Cabebs. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
1 July, 1885. 





KgM 11208 requii-ed to oxidize 
1 gram tannin. 


! acid 
ent. 


zable 

other 
tannin 
2rence.) 




weight, 
being 


rt tan- 
able in 
ater at 




Before 
pitation. 


After 
precipi- 
tation. 


Differ- 
ence. 


Tannic 
Per c( 


Oxidi: 
IT) a Iter 
than 
(by diff( 


Moistu] 


Relative 
lightest 
10. 


One pa 
nin sol 
parts Wi 
60° F. 




0*733 


0-05S6 


0-6744 


88 -8 


6-2 


5-0 


12 


1 


2, 


0-679 


-0192 


0-6598 


86-9 


5-1 


8-0 


10 


1 


3. 


0-4737 


-0601 


0-4136 


54-4 


40-6 


5-0 


25 


1 


4. 


-5015 


0-0694 


0-4321 


56-9 


36-1 


7-0 


28 


1-5 


5. 


0-6173 


-0108 


0-6065 


79-9 


14-1 


6-0 


.10 


2 


6. 


0-6172 


-0308 


-5864 


77 -2 


15 -8 


7-0 


12 


1 


7. 


-6913 


-0663 


-6250 


82 -3 


14-3 


3-0 


24 


3 


8. 


0-5091 


0555 


0-4536 


59 -7 


37-3 


3-0 


41 


1 


9. 


0-5756 


-0385 


-5371 


70-7 


25-3 


4-0 


30 


1-5 



— Pharm. Jour, and Trans., p. 850, April 18, 1885. 



SPURIOUS CUBEBS. 
By Edward D. Gkavill. 

Some weeks ago, when the false ciibebs mentioned by Mr. Holmes 
in the Journal of May 9th were offered on the London market, a 
sample of the same was handed to me by Mr. Stacey, with a request 
that I sliould examine it and report to him the result. Mr. Stacey, at 
tlie time, expressed no doubt that the sample was a clever substitute 
for the true drug, and the result of a comparative microscopical and 
chemical examination was to confirm his opinion. Since that time I 
have had brought under my notice a powder, which, from the expla- 
nation given by Mr. Holmes, is similar to that examined by him. It 
was said to have produ(;ed sickness, and diarrhoea, together with con- 
siderable prostration and internal irritation, an effect differing entirely 
from that of the true powder, which the patient had before and after- 
wards taken. Having fresh in my memory the false berry above 
referred to, my impression was that some of these might liave found 
their way into the genuine a tide, an idea which was partly substan- 
tiated by the distinctly mace-like odor of tiie powder. 

No difficulty was experienced in distinguishing between the true and 
false powder, when unmixed, by their microscopical characters ; but, 
in this case, I had evidently to deal with a mixture in which those 
characters were altogether unreliable. 

My experience with the chemical tests, applied, in my case, to a 



Am. jour. Pharm. ) 
July, 1885. f 



Spurious Cubebs. 



349 



tincture, did not materially differ from those descibed by Mr. Holmes, 
but I would like to make the following addition. I found that a tinc- 
ture of the true drug treated with an excess of strong sulphuric acid 
developed a decided deep violet coloration, and then when poured into 
water formed an opalescent deep blue solution. The false tincture, on 
the other hand, when treated in a similar manner, gave with the sul- 
phuric acid a reddish brown color, which, on pouring into water, 
changed to a dirty yellow opalescence, without a shade of blue. This 
suggested to me that from the distinct colors obtained it might be pos- 
sible to form some estimate of the extent of the substitution, and with 
this end in view the following experiments were performed : 

A tincture of the true, flilse and suspected powders was separately 
made with rectified spirit, each being of the same strength as the offi- 
cial tincture. 

One cc. of each was then treated with 10 cc. of strong sulphuric 
acid (sp. gr. 1*843), when the following colors were developed : 

True. P'alse. Suspected sample. 

Deep violet. Deep red brown. Dull violet. 

These acid mixtures were then poured into separate beakers, each 
containing four fluid ounces of distilled water, standing on a white 
tile, with the result that the following colors were observed : 

True. False. Suspected sample. 

Opalescent. Opalescent. Opalescent. 

Deep blue. Dirty yellow. A very indistinct blue with 

a decided tinge of green. 

The above colors were very distinct, and showed in the suspected 
sample undoubted presence of the two former colors. 

The tinctures of the true and false drugs were next adjusted until 
the color obtained under the same treatment represented that of the 
suspected mixture, when the relative proportions required were 0*74 cc. 
of the true and 0'26 cc. of the false tinctures, which would represent 
an adulteration to the extent of 26 per cent. 

I do not, of course, recommend the above as an accurate colori- 
metric method for estimating the adulteration, but, from subsequent 
experiments, have come to the conclusion that in the absence of reli- 
able microscopical evidence it forms an easy means, not only of detect- 
ing the adulteration, but of forming an approximate idea as to the 
extent of this obnoxious, and evidently irritable and dangerous substi- 
tution for a most useful drug. — Phar. Jour, and Trans., June 6, 
1885. 



350 



' Active Pf'inciple in Vesicating Insects. 



j Am. Jour. Pharm. 
1 July, 1885. 



THE SEAT OF THE ACTIVE PRINCIPLE IN VESICAT- 
ING INSECTS.^ 
By H. Beauregard. 
The author has made an attempt to solve the hitherto incompletely 
elucidated question as to the exact seat of the cantharidin in the bodies 
of vesicating insects, using in liis investigations the ordinary European 
Cantharis vesicatoria, of which he was favored with a good supply. 
The result of the researches upon this point made by Berthoud, Ferrer, 
Fumouze and Lissonde, using chemical methods, may be summed up 
in the })roposition tliat "the soft parts are much more active than the 
hard parts (elytra, legs and head)/' Courbon, experimenting physio- 
logically upon Epicauta adspersa, denied that the hard ])arts exercised 
any epipastic action, and Leidy, speaking of Epicauta vittata, went 
further, and said of this species that "the vesicating principle resides 
in the blood and in a fatty matter peculiar to certain glands accessory 
to the generative organs and in the eggs" (see " Am. Jour. Phar., 1860, 
p. 157. 

The author in liis experiments estimated the vesicating property of 
the substance under examination, by applying to his arm either a mois- 
tened powder of the particular parts of the insect, or the mixture of 
oil and crystals obtained by macerating them twelve hours in acetic 
ether, expressing, filtering and evaporating. In this way he ascertained 
that in the case of Cantharis vesicatoria the blood is vesicant in a rather 
high degree, whilst the hard parts, free from blood, are absolutely 
inactive. As to the soft parts^ he found that the muscles, respiratory 
and digestive organs, fat, and malpighian tubes are quite devoid of 
epispastic power, which resides solely in the genital apparatus. 

In the male the testicles and the deferent canals are inactive, but an 
energetic vesicant property was found to reside especially in the pair of 
seminal vesicules situated in much elongated cylindrical tubes. The 
applicatation to the forearm of a small portion of one of these vesicules 
determined the formation of a voluminous blister, with a painful tume- 
faction at the periphery. Sometimes a blister was obtained with the 
part of the deferent canals nearest to these tubes, but this was attributed 
to sperm contained in the canals, for in the majority of cases these were 
found to be completely inactive. 

1 From a paper read before the French Association for the Advancement 
of Science. (" Bulletin Commercial," xii, 437.) 



"^'"jiUy'iSr"''} Active Principle in Vesicating Insects. 351 

In the female, all the parts of the genital apparatus and the eggs are 
epipastic. The eggs, after being de})Ositecl, were found to have a very 
energetic vesicant action, and this induced the author to see if this 
property disappeared at any period during the evolution of the insect 
to reappear subsequently. He found the larva as it first issues from 
egg is equally active, five and twenty of them reduced to a pulp and 
applied to the forearm producing a small blister. Lastly, the very 
young cantharides, measuring 8 to 10 millimetres long, which had not 
yet coupled, were found to be equally vesicant. These various results 
invalidate the conclusions of Nentwich (^'Pharm. Journ." [3], i, 158 ; 
'"'Am. Jour. Phar.," 1870, p. 528), who asserted that the epispastic 
power is not developed until after the coupling of the insects, and that 
young or medium-sized insects do not determine the formation of 
blisters on the skin. 

Experimenting as to the genera in which the vesicating property 
occurs, the author found it in species of Meloe, Ceroconia, Mykibris, 
Coryna, (JEnas, Lydus, Alosymus, Cabalia, Lagorina, Cantharis, Lytta, 
JEpicauta, and Sitaris, many of whicli are already recognized as vesi- 
cants, but some have not yet been studied. He also found it present 
in Henous confertus, belonging to a genus that, to his knowledge, had 
not been properly tested. The genus Zonitis has been ranged by 
Leclerc among non-vesicant insects, but Beguin, on the contrary, has 
stated that he has found two species (Z. prceusta and Z. fulvipennis) 
active. The author confirms the latter observer, since he obtained a 
large blister, after eight hours' application of Z. mutica and Z. bilineata. 
The genus Nemognatha, which has also been reported to be inactive by 
Leclerc, was found to have active representatives in N, chrysomeUna 
and N. lutea. The author concludes from his experiments that, omit- 
ting the group of Horiides, all the insects belonging to the tribe Can- 
tharides are vesicants. — Fhar. Jour, and Trans., April 25, 1835, p. 873. 



Antiseptic Silk. — Freeman uses Chinese twist which has been 
rendered aseptic by boiling for ten minutes in a two per cent, solution 
of chromic acid, and then soaking for twelve hours in a one per cent, 
solution of the same. He states that the sutures may be left m situ 
for three weeks without the occurrence of either suppuration or soften- 
ing of the silk. Silk thus prepared is especially useful in operations 
about the genital organs in women as well as in laparotomy. — N. Y. 
Medical Journal. 



352 Gleanings in Materia Medica. {^'^'jn^'';^^^'''^' 



GLEANINGS IN MATERIA MEDICA. 
By the Editor. 

DiciriGhonine, C^^^^^Nfi^ according to O. Hesse, exists in the bark 
of Cinchona rosulenta and C. succiriibra, chiefly in the branch bark of 
red cincliona. It may be obtained by fractional precipitation with 
Fulphocyanide from the mixed amorphous alkaloids before melting, 
but not from commercial chinoidine, the dark colored compounds pre- 
venting crystallization. The bark of C. rosulenta is the best material, 
containing, besides cinchonidine, homocinchonidine, cinchonine and 
traces of quinamine and conquinamine, about 0*2 to 0*3 per cent, of 
dicinchonine. The neutral sulphate solution is treated with Rochelle 
salt for separating the first two alkaloids, then with excess of ammonia 
and shaken with small quantities of ether, whereby most of the 
cinchonine is left behind; the ether solution is agitated with dilute 
acetic acid, and this liquid neutralized and precipitated in fractions by 
potassium sulphocyanide, the first and third fractious being mixed with 
the other bases. The dicinchonine sulphocyanide is treated with 
caustic soda solution, the mixture extracted with ether the ether solu- 
tion washed with water and evaporated, the residue dissolved in alcohol, 
neutralized with hydrochloric acid and evaporated when dicinchonine 
hvdrochlorate crystallizes. The free base is easily soluble in ether, 
acetone, alcohol, chloroform and in benzol, less freely soluble in Avater 
and petroleum benzin, insoluble in caustic soda ; the alcohol solution 
has an alkaline reaction and a bitter taste and is dextrorotatory ; 
chlorine and ammonia do not produce a green color. The hydro- 
chlorate crystallizes in anhydrous four-sided prisms which are often 
nearly cubical, and readily dissolve in water and alcohol. The 
chloroplatinate forms orange yellow flocks, readily soluble in hydro- 
chloric acid. The hydriodate is in stout crystals, soluble in water, but 
insoluble in concentrated solution of sodium chloride or potassium 
iodide. The sulphocyanide is amorphous and separates from hot water 
as an oily layer. The oxalate is obtained in firm crystals on gradually 
adding an ether solution of oxalic acid to an ether solution of the base; 
the salt is freely soluble in cold water. On heating the alkaloid for 6 
hours with concentrated hydrochloric acid to between 140° and 160° 
C, it is completely converted into diapocinchonine ; and the same base 
is probably contained in the dark colored mass formed by heating 



"^""'j^ij^'issr™'} Gleanings in Materia Medica. 353 

dicinclionine with sulphuric acid to 130° C. — Ann. d. Chem., vol. 227, 
p. 153-161. 

FaL'^e cubebs have been offered in the London and New York mar- 
ket. In 1861 Gronewegen referred a false cubeb to Piper anisatuni, 
Humb. et BonpL, and Stille and Maisch (Nat. Disp., 2d edit., p. 479, 
3d edit., p. 522) consider this to be probably the same which Fllicki- 
ger and Hanbury (Pharmacographia, 2d edit., p. 588) refer to Piper 
crassipes, Korthals. Wm. Kirkby finds the description of the latter 
to differ from that of the drug under notice, in that the stalk of P. 
crassipes is one and a half times to twice as long as the berry, and 
that the taste is very bitter. A fruit seen by Kirkby in Kew Gardens, 
said to be from Piper sylvestre ? Lam., closely resembles this false 
cubeb, but has a lighter color, a longer terete stalk, an odor reminding 
one of pepper, and a taste not aromatic. Kirkby 's description of 
cubebs and the false drug, arranged for convenient comj^arison, is as 
follows : 

Cubebs. I False Cubebs. 



Spherical, somewhat pointed at the 
apex, reticulately wrinkled, contracted 
at the base into a stalk. 

Color brownish gray or blackish. 

Odor aromatic, spicy and characteristic. 
Taste pungent, aromatic, sliglitly bitter. 
Diameter 3 to 5 mm. 
Stalk 5 to 9 mm. 

Pericarp in three layers. Exterior one, 
beneath the epidermis, an interrupted 
row of cubic thick-walled cells, in groups 
of tluee or four. Middle layer broad, 
made up of loose undeveloped tissue, 
containing stellate groups of needle- 
shaped crystals and large quantities of 
starch, and interspersed with larger oil 
cells, the latter colored red-brown with 
concentrated H2SO4; a section kent in \ 
glycerin for several weeks shows large | 
groups of prismatic crystals, concentri- ! 
callj' ari'anged. Inner layer consists of 
about four rows of parenchyma cells, tan- | 
gentially elongated, and on outer margin 
of 11 or 12 wood bundles, formed mostly 
of narrow spiral vessels, with few dotted < 
vessels. 



Like cubebs, but more strongly wrin- 
kled. 

Color brownish gray to brown, rarely 
approaching black. 

Odor rather pleasant, resembling mace. 

Taste aromatic, warm, somewhat bitter. 

Diameter 4 to mm. 

Stalk flattened, 4 to 7 mm. 

Pericarp in three layers. Exterior one, 
an interrupted ring of thickened ceUs, 
little larger than in cubebs. Middle layer 
composed of loose parenchyma, contain- 
ing starch less abundantly than cubebs, 
and interspersed with oil cells, the latter 
colored red with H0SO4; a section does 
not yield crystals. Inner layer free from 
starch, composed of ten rows of tangen- 
tially extended thin-walled cells, and on 
outer margin of 14 or 15 wood bundles, 
formed of narrow spiral vessels, with few 
dotted vessels. 



In both drugs the testa consists of one row of large encrusted, thick- 
walled cells, elongated and radially arranged, and containing calcium 
carbonate. Surrounding the jjerisperm is a red membrane formed of 



23 



354 



Gleanings in 3Iateria Medica. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
t July, 1885. 



rather large cells, and lining this is a thin colorless structure similar 
to it, but composed of smaller cells. 

The perisperm is made up of angular parenchyma containing starch 
and oil, the oil cells colored red-brown by HgSO^; thin sections kept 
in glycerin for a few weeks, form thin plates of crj^stals in the peri- 
sperm of cubebs, but not in false cubebs. — Phar. Jour, and Trans. y 
Feb. 14, 1885, p. 653. 

Asarum europceum. B Rizza and A. Butlerow give to asarone the 
formula C,2His03 and state that it melts at 59° C, boils at 296° 
has the spec. grav. 1*165 at 18° C, is inodorous, has a faintly pungent 
taste, is somewhat soluble in boiling water and crystallizes on cooling 
in delicate needles and scales. Graeger's asarit is merel}> asarone 
crystallized in fine needles.— ^tv-. B. Ch. Ges., 1884, p. 1159. 

Poleck communicates (ibid. p. 1415) a few of the results thus far • 
obtained by Staats with the same substance. Asarone is very difficult 
to purify, is phosphorescent, melts at 61 °C., has most likely the com- 
position Cj,HioO^„ viehls with nitric acid oxalic acid and a neutral 
crystalline compound, and in addition to these, with potassium per- 
manganate, carbonic, formic and acetic acids and a non-volatile crystal- 
line acid. 

Wood oil from Elieococca cordata, nat. ord. Euphorbiacese, has a 
decided brown color, and a disagreeable odor, is rather more fluid than 
castor oil, and on exposure dries rapidly. According to R. H. Davies, 
its spec. grav. at 60°F. is -94015; it remains liquid at — 13*3°C. 
(8°F.), becomes black with sulphuric acid, solidifies and becomes 
orange-yellow witli nitric acid, and yields with nitrous acid a dark 
semi-solid mass. 100 grams of the oil require 0*39 gram caustic 
potash for neutralization, and 21*1 grams for complete saponification. 
The mixture of fatty acids weighs 94*1 per cent, of the oil, melts at 
39°C., and its solution in alcohol readily yields crystals. — Phar. Jour, 
and Trans., Feb. 7, 1885, p. 636. 

E. M. Holmes states that this dark-colored oil is probably made by 
boiling the kernels previous to expression, the cold-drawn oil being 
colorless, inodorous and nearly tasteless. The latter, according to 
Cloez Compt. Rend., 1875, vol. 81, p. 469), has the spec. grav. 
0*9362, congeals at — 18°C. to a transj^arent mass, solidifies rapidly 
when exposed to light in a closed vessel, and is the most drying oil 
known. It is used in skin diseases, for ulcerated wounds and carbun- 
cles, for varnishing furniture, all kinds of wood work, umbrellas, 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
July, 1885. j 



Gleanings in Materia Medica. 



355 



paper and paper leather, and for painting and caulking jnnks. — Ibid., 
p. 637. 

Baillon names the tree Aleurites cordata, and mentions as synonyms 
Dryandra cordata, Thunherg, Dr. Vernicia, Correa, and Elaeococca 
Vernicia, Sprengel. 

White birch tar, Oleum Eusci. — P. Macewan has examined three 
commercial samples of this tar, the odor of betulin being present in 
each, but harsher in the German and Dutch oils than in the Russian, 
which is pleasant. The saponifiable substances were ascertained by 
shaking the ether solution with excess of potash solution, acidifying 
the alkaline liquid and treating with ether. 



Physical properties- 



Thick brown-black, Limpid, brown, sp. 
sp. gr. -955. gr. '967 



Cold water filtrate Colorless, fragrant. 



Blue litmus 

FejCle (solution) 

FeoClc on dilution 

KCy (solution) 

Non-saponifiable bod- 
ies. 

Saponifiable bodies.. 



Faintly acid. 
Green brown. 
Muddy. 



Yellowish brown 
enipyreumatic. 

Distinctly acid. 

Greenish brown. 

Loses transparency. 

No change. 



. 1657; black, consis- 
tence of lard, slight- 
ly empyreumatic. 

. 18-90 per cent. 



19-84, black, sticky, 
resinous, strongly 
empyreumatic. 



Limpid, translucent, 
red brown, sp. gr., 
•941. 



Faintly acid. 
Pale brown, 
i Clear. 
No change. 



86-54 ; pale brovvn, 
limpid, odor, tere- 
binth inate. 

10-62; brown, semi- 
fluid, resinous, in- 
tensely empj-reu- 
matic. 



64-04 per cent. 



52-84 per cent. 



—Phar. Jour, and Trans., March 21, 1885, p. 769. 

Examination of Fats. — For this purpose Hiibl regards only those 
methods as useful which are based on quantitative determinations, 
whether of chemical or physical nature. Such methods, which the 
author calls quantitative reactions " afford valuable indications of 
the purity of fats as they are connected with their chemical con- 
stitution, qualitative tests are of value in doubtful cases and serve 
to control the conclusions drawn from the former. Of the three 
groups of acids present in fats, those belonging to the acetic acid series 
remain unaltered under ordinary conditions by haloids, while the acids 
of the oleic acid group take up two haloid atoms very readily, and 
those of the linoleic acid group four atoms. The author recommends 



356 



Gleanings in Materia Medica. {^'"juiriss?''™' 



for this purpose an alcoholic solution of iodine in the presence of mer- 
curic chloride, which acts on the unsaturated fatty acids at the ordi- 
nary temperature, the excess of iodine used being estimated with a 
solution of sodium thiosulphate. The percentage of iodine taken up 
is called the iodine number." The following table is given by the 
author. 



1. Drying oils. 
Linseed 



Hempseed 

Walnut 

Poppy seed 

Pumpkin seed- 
Sesame 

Cotton seed 

Arachis 



Rape seed 

2. Non-drying oils. 

Apricot kernel 

Almond 



Castor 

Olive 

Olive kernal 

Bone oil 

Lard oil. 

Butter in 

Palm oil 

Laurel oil 

Tallow 

Suet 

Cacao butter 

Nutmeg butter- 
Butter fat 

Cocoanut oil 

Japanese wax... 



158-0 
143 -0 
143 -0 
136-0 
121-0 
106-0 
106-0 
103-0 
10 1-0 

100-0 
98-4 
84-4 
82-8 
81 -8 
68-0 
59-0 
53-3 
51-5 
49-0 
40-0 
36 -0 
34-0 
31-0 
31-0 
8-9 
4-2 



Fatty acid 



Melts at 


Solidifies 
at 


value. 




L>eg. 


Deg. 










19 -0 












20*5 


16 o 




28 - 


24-5 




26-0 






27 -7 


30*5 




2/ . 






20-1 


12-2 




4-5 


0-0 


192-9 


14-0 


5-0 


195-4 


13 -0 


3-0 


181-0 


26 -0 


21*2 


191-7 






188-5 


30-0 


28 -0 








195-9 


42-0 


39-8 




47 -8 


42-7 


202-2 


27-0 


22-0 





45-0 


43-0 


196 -5 


41 -8 


40-0 


170-0 


52-0 


51 -0 




42-5 


40-0 




38-0 


35-8 


227-0 


24-6 


20-4 


261-3 






222-0 



^Solution in equal 
I parts glacial acetic 
'•■ acid is rendered 
1 turbid at 



107 
110 



114 



110 

Soluble in the cold. 

85-111 
Soluble in the cold. 



105-0 
27-0 



—DingJ, PoIyL Jour., vol. 253, pp. 281-295 ; Jour. Chem. Sac, 1884, 
p. 1435. 



ju*ij'\88r'"' } Changes in Barley During Malting. 357 

THE CHANGES OCCURRING IN BARLEY DURING MALT- 
ING, AND IN THE MANUFACTURE OF SPIRITS. 
By p. Bp:hIvEND 

Removal of Organic and Inorganic Matter by Water. — The quality 
of the malt for brewing purposes is much influenced by the water in 
which it has been soaked, for if this water removes too much of the 
phosphates and potash, the yeast is unable to develop thoroughly ; the 
water, regarded chemically, is not the only factor to be considered, 
attention must also be paid to the time of soaking and the temperature. 
The experiments were made on three varieties of barley, and it was 
noted that the largest percentage of material was removed from the 
smallest grains, due to the fact that the surface exposed to the water 
is relatively larger in the small than in the large grain. The author 
found that about one-half of the dry matter removed consisted of 
organic matter ; this observation is directly opposed to that made by 
Mulder and Lermer, who found that the greater part of the extract 
consisted of organic matter. The practical outcome of the research is 
that barley must not be soaked too long else it will not germinate well, 
and the fermentation will be languid; more attention must be paid 
when small grained barley is malted than when the large sized is used. 

The Changes which the Nitrogenous 3Iatter undergoes. — The conver- 
sion of insoluble into soluble nitrogenous matter is very rapid, the 
soluble will increase six times by the end of nine days' malting. 
Hungarian and Saal barley were closely examined during malting, 
and analytical data are given showing the gradual conversion of albu- 
min into soluble nitrogenous matter, the period of conversion extended 
over 209 hours; no free nitrogen was noticed. It was also found that 
the soluble nitrogenous matter did not consist wholly of amides, but 
that a part of the albumin became soluble without decomposition, and 
this the more rapidly, the quicker the malting — that is the formation 
of diastase — proceeded. Another piece of information gained of prac- 
tical advantage is, that the length of the shoots is no indication of the 
extent to which the change of the albumin has gone. 

Changes of the Albuminoids in Cereals and Potatoes when Heated 
under Pressure. — At high temperatures, the albuminoids are rendered 
soluble, amides being formed, consequently the feeding value of the 
waste products is much reduced; but, on the other hand, this conver- 
sion is no detriment to the growth of the ferment, which seems to 



358 



Minutes of the College. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ July, 1885. 



flourish equally well ou albumins as on amides. When heated at 
140° in Lintner's digester for six hours the albuminoids of lupines 
suffer much change ; there was an increase of nearly double of the 
non-albuminoids whilst the albuminoid nitrogen soluble in water wa& 
increased by 13*9 per cent. In peas, soluble non-albuminoid nitrogen 
was increased from 35 to 87*8 per cent, and 36*6 per cent, of the 
insoluble albumin was made soluble. Maize and dari were also much 
affected. Experiments with potatoes showed that if they had been 
previously dried at 110°, a part of the albumin being thus rendered 
insoluble, the after heating by steam at a high temperature was inca- 
pable of restoring all the coagulated albumin to a condition of solu- 
bility. To ascertain whether working on the large scale produced the 
same effect on albuminoids, as the small laboratory experiments, maize 
and dari were heated in a Henze's steamer under a pressure of four 
atmospheres. The results obtained to a certain extent corroborated 
the original experiments, but the changes were not so marked. A 
short steaming dissolves the albumin, but long continued steaming 
converts the albumin into amides. — Jour. Chem. Soc, May, 1885,. 
p. 617 ; from Bied. antr., 1885, 51-56. 



MINUTES OF THE COLLEGE. 



Philadelphia, June 29, 1885. 

A stated meeting of the members of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy 
was held in the Hall of the College, Monday, June 29, 1885, Charles Bullock,. 
President, in the chair. 

14 members present. 

The minutes of the last meeting (March) were read and approved. 

The minutes of the Board of Trustees for April, May and June, were also 
read and approved. 

The following named gentlemen were elected delegates to the meeting of 
the American Pharmaceutical Association, to be held in Pittsburg in Sep- 
tember next : 

Alonzo Bobbins, Wallace Procter, Joseph P. Remington, Gustavus Pile, 
Wm. P. Jenks. 

Mr. Wm. Melntyre announced the death of G. W- Eld ridge, a member 
of the College, which occurred suddenly on the 25th inst. 

Mr. Alonzo Bobbins presented the following report of the Delegates to 
the last meeting of Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association : 

The undersigned. Chairman of the Delegation elected to attend the 
annual meeting of the Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association, respect- 
fully reports as follows : 

The meeting was held at Erie, commencing on the evening of June 2d. 
The Association was welcomed in a few words by the Mayor of the city.^ 



^°'j"Ii^ri88?™ } J-mc^/'ica/i P/iayy^iaceit^/m/ Association, 359 



who then introduced Dr. Evans, who delivered an eloquent address, which 
was appropriately responded to on behalf of the Association by Mr. I. H. 
Redsecker, of Lebanon. 

Due to the tact that a large majority of the members of the Association 
reside in the central and eastern parts of the State, the meeting was not as 
numerously attended as usual, but in most other respects it was as success- 
ful as any held in previous years. Twenty original papers were read 
during the sessions, while the gain of a considerable addition to the mem- 
bership in a part of our State in which the Association had hitherto been 
without any representatives, was alone sufficient proof of the wisdom of 
holding a meeting so far west. 

Charles T. George, of Harrisburg, was elected President; James A. 
Meyers, of Columbia, and William L. Turner, of Philadelphia, were elected 
tirst and second Vice-Presidents. 

The Association adjourned on Thursday morning, to meet at Lebanon 
on the second Tuesday of June, 1886. 

On Thursday afternoon a steamboat excursion on Lake Erie was given, 
during which the U. S. Life Saving Station and other points of interest 
were visited. The festivities terminated in the evening with a banquet at 
Massassauga Point, from which the boat returned at an early hour in the 
midst of a tremendous rain storm. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Alonzo Robbins, Chaii^man. 

June 29, 1885. 



AMERICAN PHARMACEUTICAL ASSOCIATION. 



The Thirty-third Annual Meeting of this Association will be held in 
Lafayette Hall, in the city of Pittsburg, Pa., on the second Tuesday, the 
8th of September, at 3 o'clock P.M. 

Ample room has been provided at the City Hall for the exhibition of 
articles possessing pharmaceutical interest, and not prohibited by the rules 
of the Association. The exhibition room is in charge of the Local Secre- 
tary, Mr. George A. Kelly, Pittsburg, Pa., and will be ready for the recep- 
tion of goods on Tuesday, September 1st. 

All pharmaceutical organizations entitled to representation in this Asso- 
ciation are invited to appoint delegates — five from each body — whose cre- 
dentials should be sent to Prof. .John M. Maisch, Permanent Secretary, 
Philadelphia, Pa., at least two weeks in advarice of the meeting. 

Applications for membership should be forwarded to Mr. George W. 
Kennedy, Pottsville, Pa. 

Those who have accepted queries should send their replies to Prof. J. LT. 
Lloyd, Cincinnati, Ohio, in advance of the meeting, that they may receive 
proper attention ; this also applies to volunteer papers. 

The Chairman of the Committee on Entertainment and Railroad Trans- 
portation will announce at the proper time such arrangements as have been 
made with the transportation companies for reduced fares, and also any 
programme which may have been devised for the social entertainment of 
the Association. 

John Ingalls, President. 

Macon, Georgia, June 18, 1885. 



360 Meetings of State Pharmaceutical Associations. { juiy'igg^s*''" 

MEETINGS OF STATE PHAEMACEUTICAL 
ASSOCIATIONS. 



With few exceptions all the State Pharmaceutical Associations have held 
their annual meetings, most of which have been well attended. As might 
have been expected, the local conditions of pharmacy and the trade inter- 
ests formed conspicuous subjects for discussion, and among the latter the 
retailing of proprietary medicines at reduced prices was not unfrequently 
alluded to ; but no suggestions were made at any one of the meetings, we 
believe, combatting that evil, which has done more than any other factor 
to lessen the scientilic interest of pharmacists, and to degrade the practice 
of pharmacy to the level of mere buying and selling. It is to be noted that 
a number of j^apers were read counselling greater discrimination than here- 
tofore in the selection of apprentices, in regard to their educational attain- 
ments and other qualifications ; for the present these essays must be neces- 
sarily suggestive merely ; but it is to be hoped that before long, ways will 
be found for putting into practice that which is theoretically conceded to 
be necessary and proper. 

In the following we propose to give a brief account of the transactions at 
the various meetings, with a synopsis of some of the papers having scien- 
tific or practical interest. 

Alabama.— The fourth annual meeting was held at Anniston, May 5th, 
and was mainly devoted to routine business. A. L. Stollenwerck, of Bir- 
mingham, was elected President; P. C. Candidus, of Mobile, Secretary, 
and E. P. Gait, of Selma, Treasurer. The next meeting will be held in 
Birmingham, on the second Tuesday of May, 1886. 

CoNNPXTK UT. — The ninth annual meeting was Iield at Hartford, Feb- 
ruary 3.d. Papers on sodium salicylate, by C. H. Whittlesey, and on syrup 
of orange, by S. F. Guernsey, were read. The association will meet next 
year at New Haven, on the first Tuesday of February. The President for 
the current year is J. K. Williams, of Hartford ; Secretary, F. Wilcox, of 
Waterbury; Treasurer, G. P. Chandler, of Hartford, and Local Secretary, 
Bomanta Wells, of New Haven. 

Geohuia.— The tenth annual meeting assembled at Atlanta, April 14th. 
Among the papers read was one by B. H. I^and, on the medicinal plants 
of Georgia; one by O. Butler, on a cheap disinfectant for the sick room, 
and one by Th. Schumann, on the manufacture of chemicals by pharma- 
cists. Several prizes were awarded for essays read and for preparations 
made. H. G. Hutchinson was elected President; W. S. Parks, Secretary, 
and T. L. Massenburg, Treasurer. 

Indiana. — The fourth annual meeting was held at Indianapolis, May 
12th and 13th. Among the papers read was one by Prof. B. B. Warder, on 
qualitative analysis iviihout using sulphuretted hydrogen ; in this scheme 
an excess of ammonium sulphide is used in the beginning for separating 
arsenic and allied metals in solution, the precipitate being treated with 
cold diluted hydrochloric acid, which leaves mercury, lead and allied met- 
als undissolved, while iron and aluminium enter in solution. A paper by 
Jos. K. Lilly, on standardizing pharmaceutical preparations^ advocates 



^""j?nr'i885*™'} Meetings of State Pharmaceutical Associations. 361 

such a plan for drugs the virtues of which depend upon alkaloids or resins. 
The preparation of extracts for ftavormgs for soda, water was the subject 
of a paper by Leo Eliel ; the use of fluid extracts for tinctures, by T. S. 
Hotter ; an analysis of one thousand prescriptions, by G. W. Sloan ; phar- 
macopoeial tests, by Prof. Hurty, and papers on trade interests, by L. Ly- 
brand and D. Hilt. Aug. Detzer, of Fort Wayne, was elected President* 
and Emil Martin and J. R. Perry, of Indianapolis, were re-elected Treas- 
urer and Secretary. The next meeting will convene at Lafayette at the 
call of the Executive Committee; Dav. Hilt is Local Secretary. 

Iowa. — The sixth annual meeting took place at Council Bluffs, May 
12th, most of the time being occupied with routine business, and with dis- 
cussions on the pharmacy law, and the liquor law as affecting druggists. 
Several brief notes were read by R. W. Crawford, advocating {he use of 
phosphoric acid in the place of phosphorus for liquid niixtures; recom" 
mending the addition of glijcerin to extracts inclined to become hard, and 
approving, under certain conditions, the use of gelatin capsules for suppo- 
sitories. To the question, Should the pharmacists support those journals 
which sell their colmmis for the use of quack nostrum advertisements f there 
was an evasive answer given. Mr. F. E. Houghton found a mixture of 
equal parts of glycerin and water to be an available solvent for tartrate of 
iron and potassium , a solution of 10 grains to the fluidounce keeping unal- 
tered for a month ; but after 10 months it contained considerable sediment. 

C. R. Wallace, of Independence was elected President, E. L. Boerner of 
Iowa City, secretary, and C. H. Ward, of Des Moines, Treasurer. Des 
Moines was selected as the place for the next meeting, to take j^lace on the 
second Wednesday of February, 1886, and A. H. Miles was elected local 
Secretary. 

Kansas. — The sixth annual meeting convened in Lawrence June 10. 
Mr. Lucius E. Sayre, of Philadelphia, a graduate of the Philadelphia College 
of Pharmacy, who has recently been elected Professor of Pharmacy in the 
new pharmaceutical school connected with the University of Kansas, was 
present and read a paper on pepsin. Papers were also read on the presence 
of carbolic acid in commercial salicylic acid, by H. W. Mehl; on nitrous 
ether, by R. H. T. Nesbit ; on morphine strength of laudanum, by M. 
Schott, and on fungous groivths in aqueous solutions, by R. J. Brown. 

H. W. Spangler, of Perry, was elected President, J. T. Moore, of Law- 
rence, Secretary, and C. D. Barnes, of Abilene, Treasurer. Emporia will 
be the next place of meeting on the second Wednesday of June, 1886 ; the 
local Secretary is D. W. Morris. 

Kentucky. — The eighth annual meeting was held at Danville, May 20, 
and was devoted to routine business and the consideration of further phar- 
maceutical legislation. Papers were read on adulterations, by H. W. 
Evans, on citrine ointment, by (). Gier ; on explosive mixtures, by E. C. 
Pfingst, on quinine 2nlls, by G. A. Zwick, and on arsenic, by Jeff. Oxley. H. 
W. Evans, of Danville, was elected President, J. T. Cook, of Harrodsburg, 
Secretary, and J. J. Brooks, of Richmond, Treasurer. 

The place of the next annual meeting is Bowling Green; the time has 
been fixed for the first Wednesday in May, 1886. Wm. Turner is the local 
Secretary. 



362 Meetings of State Pharmaceutical Associations. { juiy^'iSs^^"* 

Louisiana.— The third annual meeting was held at New Orleans, May 
27. Five papers were read, one being on the use of the microscope, and 
another on unofflcinal formulas. Mr. Chas, Mohr, of Mobile, was elected 
an honorary member. The officers for the current year are : A. R. Finlay, 
President, L. C. Chalin, Secretary, and J. B. Lavigne, Treasurer. The 
next meeting will again be held in New Orleans, on the third Wednesday 
of April, 1886. 

Maryland. — The third annual meeting was held at Hagerstown, May 
12 and 13. No report of the transactions has been received. 

Massachusetts. — The fourth annual meeting convened in Pittsfield, 
June 3 and 4. The following papers were read : Books and methods of 
study for pharmacists^ by Prof. E. L. Patch, neiv chemicals and pharma- 
ceutical x>reparations, hy F. A. Davidson ; tinting of morphine salts, with 
an aniline color for the purpose of preventing their being mistaken for 
quinine, by W. C. Durkee ; incompatibility in prescription, by Prof. Mar- 
koe ; on the safe of ojnates to habitual op>ium eaters, by W. W. Hill, who 
urged that the sale be discouraged ; test for oleomargarin, by W. W. Bart- 
lett, recommending Hehner's method and limiting the maximum amount 
of fatty acids of pure butter to 90 per cent ; on tincture of ginger, by S. A. 
D. Sheppard, arriving at the result that a tincture or fluid extract, having 
the full medicinal effect of ginger cannot be prepared so as to mix with 
water without precipitation ; pharmaceutical notes, by J. W. Colcord. 
Discussions were also had on several practical questions. 

The present officers are F. M. Pease, of Lee, President, J. W. Colcord, of 
Lynn, Secretary, and F. H. Buller, of Lowell, Treasurer. The Association 
adjourned to meet in Boston on the first AVednesday of June, 1886, Henry 
Canning acting as local Secretary. 

Minnesota. — The annual meeting M as adjourned from the 9th to the 
16th and 17tli of June, so as to take place in the same week in which the 
State Medical Association convened in St. Paul. 

Mississippi.— The second annual meeting was held at Natchez, May 19th. 
After considerable discussion a committee was appointed for preparing a 
law which is to be presented to the next Legislature for enactment. Dr. J. 
B. Bond read a paper on tinting morphine, with the view of preventing its 
being mistaken for quinine. The officers for the present year are J. P. 
Finlay, of Greenville, President ; H. F. West, of Fayette, Secretary, and 
W. R. Bunning, of Natchez, Treasurer. The next meeting will be held at 
Jackson on the third Tuesday of May, 1886. 

Missouri — The seventh annual meeting took place at Sweet Springs, 
June 16 and 17, when papers were read by Prof. Curtman on tests for 
purity of quinine ; by Prof. Wall on how to study drugs ; by G. H. C. Klie 
on the advantages oi making tinctures by percolation, and another entitled 
miscellaneous [notes ; by Prof. Good on authoritative non-official formulas', 
hy F. G. Kerr on syrup of tolu, and by Dr. Bond on tinting morphine. 
Dr. Bond w^as elected an honorary member. A movement was inaugurated 
aiming at interstate meetings of the Pharmaceutical Associations of Iowa, 
Kansas, Missouri and Nebraska. 

The next meeting will again be held at Sweet Springs, the time being 
the third Tuesday of June, 1886. A. T. Fleischman, of Sedalia, is Presi- 



^"'■ju'iy'iSsI™''} Meetings of State Pharmaceutical Associations. 363 

dent for the current year ; G. H, C. Klie, of St. Louis, Secretary, and Prof. 
Good, Treasurer. 

Nebraska. — The fourth annual meeting assembled at Omaha, May 13 
and 14. A pajoer on syrup of the hypophosphites of calcium, sodium, 
quinine and manganese was read by N. A. Kuhn. Omaha was again 
selected as the place for holding the annual meeting, and the time was 
fixed for the second Tuesday of May, 1886. The officers elected are H. D. 
Boyden, of Grand Island, President; F. P. Zimmer, of Grand Island, 
Secretary ; J. Forsythe, of Omaha, Treasurer, and C. J. Daubach, Local 
Secretary. 

New Jersey. — The fifteenth annual meeting convened in Camden, May 
20 and 21. There are now 1,191 registered j)harmacists in the State. The 
draft of an amended pharmacy act was carefully considered and referred to 
a committee for presentation to the Legislature. Three or four papers were 
read urging to provide for a good primary education of those contemplat- 
ing to become apprentices in pharmacy. A paper by Aug. Drescher on 
sediment in infusion of digitalis^ showed that the sediment contained 
digitalin, and it was stated that such an infusion deprived of the sediment, 
had on several occasions been found to produce no effect, and that the 
flavor of cinnamon might preferably be imparted by the volatile oil, instead 
of the bark. Attention was also drawn to the fact that in Europe the 
leaves collected from plants grown on mountains have been shown to be 
more efficacious than those grown in valleys or collected from cultivated 
plants, the latter being decidedly less hairy. An occasional offensive odor of 
simple syrup was traced by Aug. Drescher to sulphuretted hydrogen pro- 
duced from the ultramarine, which is used for neutralizing the yellow tint 
of inferior grades of sugar. In a paper on syrup of tolu A. Drescher agrees 
with the views of E. Claassen, but thinks that as a flavoring syrup it is a 
failure and that it should be dropped from the Pharmacopoeia ; to obtain 
the medicinal eflfects of tolu, it should be given in emulsion. A paper on 
incompatibles, chemical and physiological, by P. E. Hommell, and one 
entitled random notes, treating of various practical subjects, by H. P. 
Reynolds were also read. The last named paper gives the following formula 
for JPulvis mor2)hi7ue aeetatis compositus, which has been long prescribed 
in Plainfield ; morphine acetate 1 gr., camphor 2 gr., ipecac 4 gr., pre- 
cipitated calcium carbonate 12 gr., and sugar 21 gr. The officers elected were 
W. M. Townley, of Newark, President; R. H. Vansant, of Trenton, Secre- 
tary, and W. Rust, of New Brunswick, Treasurer. The Association will 
mefet next in Newark on the third Wednesday of May, 1886. 

New York. — The seventh annual meeting was held in Saratoga, June 
16, 17 and 18. The following papers were read in full, besides a number 
which were read by title : on unofficinal formulas by S. J. Bendiner, mak- 
ing suggestions for increasing those j^ublished in the New York and Brook- 
lyn formulary ; on .soap lini^nent by W. P. De Forest, suggesting a weaker 
alcohol as menstruum so as to render the liniment more stable ; on 
botanical knowledge required by pharmacy boards, by the same author ; on 
spirit of nitrous ether by Dr. Eccles ; on pharmacy laws and on the 
merchandise in a pharmacist's stock by A. C. Searles ; on the comparative 



364 Meetings of State Pharmaceutical Associations. \ ^^'ju^\lst^'' 

value of 7'ed and white wines as applied to the pharmacopoeial requirements 
by Prof. Bedford, and on medicinal syrups by C. W. Holmes. 

The President for the present year is T. J. Macmahan, of New York ; 
Secretary C. W. Holmes, of Elmira, and Treasurer C. H. Butler, of Oswego. 
The Association adjourned to meet in Rochester on the second Tuesday of 
June, 1886. 

Ohio. — The seventh annual meeting assembled in Sandusky, May 20 
and 21. The business transacted was mostly of a routine nature. Twenty 
papers were presented, but only few of them could be read during the 
meeting. A paper ou commercial belladonna leaves by Prof. Coblentz 
reported the assays of 14 samples, namely 8 of American pressed leaves, 
which yielded between -0020 and -0433 per cent, of pure alkaloid ; 4 sam- 
ples of loose German leaves yielded between '0109 and '0420 per cent., and 

2 samples of Englisli leaves '0411 and -0422 per cent, of pure alkaloid. The 
alkaloid was extracted from the concentrated tincture containing tartaric 
acid, with chloroform, and purified by precipitation witli iodine, treatment 
with sodium thiosuiphate and solution iu chloroform. 

Vnguentum Hijdrargyri nitratis, by H. C. Cook. Made with lard oil, 
heated with the nitric acid to 50°C., and slowly raising the heat to 70°C., 
the ointment retained its bright color for a long time ; made with petrola- 
tum in various ways the ointment acquired a dark color, and was less effi- 
cient than the officinal article. 

Commercial hUick antimony. Examined by S. W. McKeown, the cheap 
grades were found to be coal dust mixed with marble or other substance, 
and with or without a little sulphide of antimony. 

Commercial precipitated sulphur. Of seven samples S. W. McKeown 
found one to be pure ; the others contained about half their weight of cal- 
cium sulphate. 

Commercial iodine. Eleven samples examined by Miss H. M. Spenzer 
contained between 96 5 and 99*1 per cent, of pure iodine. 

Tinctura opii deodoratci. Two papers were jDresented by Ph. Acker and 
by Prof. Coblentz, both rei)orting that petroleum benzin, while it removes 
from opium odorous and other principles, does not dissolve the narcotine. 
Prof. Coblentz found 10 gm. of opium to yield to ether 0-307 gm., and to 
benzin 0-158 gm., the difference between tlie two figures being narcotine. 

Pills of nitrate of silver. T. Daniels recommends as the best excipient a 
mixture of petrolatum 1 part, with kaolin 2 parts. 

Powdered capHcum^ according to S. W. McKeown, should yield about 
28 per cent, of alcoholic extract, and on incineration about 4-5 per cent- of 
white ash. If adulterated with corn meal, a smaller amount of alcoholic 
extract and a larger amount of ash is obtained, the latter being red or 
brown, probably due to ochre used for coloring. 

Commercial tartaric acid was found by C. M. Beed to contain a minute 
amount, -068 per cent., of adhering sulphuric acid. 

Baking powder. S W. McKeown recommends a satisfactory article, to 
be made of cream of tartar 7 parts, sodium bicarbonate 3 parts and starch 

3 parts. 

The subjects of other papers were pancreatin as an emulsifying agent, 



'^°^'j"Iriy'i885*^°^'} Meetings of State Pharmaceutical Associations. 365 

volatility of camphor, fluid hydrastis, aniline dyes, commercial hydrobro- 
mic acid, disinfectants, syrup of tolu, pill manufacture and removal of 
glass stoppers. 

The officers elected were W. M. Melville, of Sandusky, President; L. C. 
Hopp, of Cleveland, Secretary, and Chas. Huston, of Columbus, Treasurer. 
The next meeting will take place at Springfield, on the first Wednesday in 
June, 1886, Chas. Ludlow being Local Secretary. 

Pennsylvania. — The eighth annual meeting convened at Erie, June 2d, 
and adjourned June 4th. Twenty papers were read, eight of which related to 
ethical questions and trade interests. A very valuable paper on drug store 
insyrance, by M. N. Kline, showed that the premium for insurance differs 
considerably, and is almost without exception much higher than for other 
merchandise, while the losses hy fire were shown to be too small to warrant 
the classification of such stock as "extra hazardous." 

Sulphuric acid, by Gust. Pile. An acid containing 96 per cent, of H2SO4 
approaches in density nearly to 1-835, which coincides with the gravity 
adopted by the oil of vitriol makers. Nitrous acid, N2O3, is soluble in 
strong sulphuric acid, and in case of full saturation increases the density 
to 1*860. Nitric acid and mineral impurities do not materially affect the 
density. The paper describes, also, the Glover tower, which has been 
recently introduced for the manufacture of sulphuric acid. 

Aqua ammonice, by G. W. Kennedy. Thirty-six samples were exam- 
ined, and with very few exceptions were found to be of the required stan- 
dard ; the few cases of deficiency of strength could be traced to careless 
handling and keeping in small quantities in large vessels. 

Lithium salts. J. W. Miller finds that the benzoate, citrate and salicy- 
late could be readily prepared by the pharmacist so as to afford a handsome 
profit; but, owing to the small quantity used, this plan would not be eco- 
nomical. Home manufacture is, however, advocated for pharmaceuticals 
generally. 

Benzoin. — F. H. E. Gleim has obtained from four samples of benzoin not 
over If per cent, of benzoic acid, and by sublimation much less; variety 
and quality of the samples are not described. 

Fixed oil of ergot. — J. H. Redsecker ascertained that the powder left in 
the preparation of fluid extract of ergot by the officinal process, yields with 
benzin an oil which is identical in appearance and properties with the oil 
prepared from the unexhausted drug. It was stated that the oil obtained 
from the commercial powdered ergot has a dark color, probably due to the 
heat used for drjing the ergot, while the pure oil is pale yellow or nearly 
colorless. 

Orange flower water.— J. L. Lemberger showed that orange flowers 
gathered in Florida, salted, and after four months distilled, yielded a very 
good water. 

Powdered extracts. — Ch. T. George showed that the extracts of colocynth, 
calumba, krameria and opium may be powdered without adding a diluent. 
To other extracts he added potato starch, in the proportion of 15 per cent, 
to drugs exhausted by alcohol, and 25 per cent, to drugs exhausted with 
diluted alcohol. With proper care such extracts will remain in a good, dry 
condition for years. 



366 Meetings of State Pharmaceutical Associations. | "^"^ 

Bife^ though not much used, is regarded by J. F. Fatten as possessing 
sufficient value to merit the space accorded to it in the pharmacopoeia. 

Pills of phosphorus, properly made and kept in a dry place were found 
by C. F. Randolph to remain in good condition and to evolve white vapors 
when cut after a year; if kept in the cellar the pills became soft and 
mouldy. The best coating for such pills seems to be gelatin. 

The use of fluid extracts for making other pharmaceutical preparations 
was discussed by C. T. George who regards the practice as neither pro- 
fessional nor legitimate. 

The pharmacopcelal standard iov pharmaceutical preparations was stated 
by G. W. Stoeckel to be adhered to by fully eight-ninths of the pharma- 
cists of Pennsylvania, as far as strength is concerned, though other than 
pharmacopoeia 1 processes are often followed. Fluid extracts and some 
other preparations were stated not to be made by pharmacists as generally 
iis desirable. Many preparations put ui) for the country trade were often 
found to be very deficient. 

A paper on products from the natural order of Verhenacece is pubhshed 
on page 380. 

After the report on adulterations hatl been read. Prof. Maisch called 
attention to two sulxstitutions lately observed by him in this countrj^ 
namely, sjmrious cubebs, of which a considerable quantity appears to be in 
our market (for characters see page 353), and false siimbul, the root of 
Dorema Ammoniacum, which is of a closer texture, firmer and denser than 
siimbul, of a decided yellow color internally and of a feeble musk odor 
sui)erflcially, imparted by dii)|)ing the pieces into a soft extract of sumbul. 

The i)resident for the current year is Chas. T. George, of Harrisburg. Dr. 
L. Wolff, having retired from the drug business and accepted the appoint- 
ment as Demonstrator of medical chemistry and toxicology in the Jeffer- 
.son Medical College, declined the nomination as one of the executive offi- 
cers, and J. A. Meyers, of Columbia, and Wm. L, Turner, of Philadelphia, 
were elected Vice-presidents. Dr. J. A. Miller, of Harrisburg, was re- 
elected Secretary, and J. L. Lemberger Treasurer. The next meeting will 
be held at Lebanon, with G. R. Ross as local Secretary. 

Tkxas. — The sixth annual meeting convened in San Antonio, May 13th, 
the deliberations extending over two days. Routine matter, pharmacy 
law, renewal of physicians prescriptions and similar subjects formed the 
topics for discussion, and papers were read by J. W. Graham on spirit of 
nitre, and by G. S. Richardson on the bark of Sambucus canadensis. The 
President elected is G. H. Kalteyer, of San Antonio; Secretary G. Rice, of 
San Antonio; Treasurer E. W. Lancaster, of Marshall, and G. A. Eisenlohr 
was elected local Secretary, Dallas being chosen as the place for the next 
meeting, the date to correspond with the meeting of the Medical Associa- 
tion at the same place. 

Virginia. — The fourth annual meeting was held at Charlottesville, May 
19 to 21. The reading of reports and of several papers, discussions on 
pharmaceutical legislation and various practical questions, and routine 
business claimed the attention of the members. J. W. Thomas, Jr., of 
Norfolk, was elected President, E. R. Beckwith, of Petersburg, Secretary, 



Am. Jour. Pharni. ) 
July, 1885. ; 



Editorials. 



307 



and F. H. Masi, of Norfolk, Treasurer. The next meeting will convene in 
Alexandria, on the second Tuesday in May, 1886. 

West Virginia.— The fifth annual meeting assembled in Grafton, 
June 9. The reports of otticers and committees and several jmpers were 
read and discussed. J. A. Grant, of Grafton, was elected President, and 
C. Menkemeller, of Wheeling, Secretary and Treasurer. The next meet- 
ing will take place at Wheeling, on the second Tuesday of June, 1886. 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT. 



Pharmaceutical Legislation. — During the present year pharmacy 
laws have been enacted in four States, in which heretofore the practice of 
pharmacy had not been regulated by law, namely, Kansas, Myssachusetts, 
Michigan and Minnesota. These laws are similar to those which are in 
force in other States, and, properly carried out, will prevent grossly incom- 
petent persons from entering a business in which knowledge, skill and 
prudence are the real safeguards of the customers. 

It is known that the existing pharmacy laws, notwithstanding their 
general similarity, show httle uniformity in some important points, and 
the same holds good also for the new laws. While, for instance, in Minne- 
sota graduates of any medical school are lawfully capable of conducting a 
pharmaceutical business, the board is empowered to discriminate between 
the schools of pharmacy, the same as in Kansas; but, in the latter State, 
graduates in medicine have not the prerogative conferred upon them by 
law to become pharmacists without having had pharmaceutical experience. 
In Michigan, on the other hand, no diploma is recognized, but licentiates 
of other boards may be registered without examination. 

Other difierences are found in the manner of selecting the board, in the 
examining fees, in the annual registration fees, in the poison clauses, the 
qualification of assistants, etc. 

Maine has had a pharmacy law since 1877, w^hich, notwithstanding seve- 
ral defects, has been well administered. The commissioners, knowing 
these defects, had framed an amended bill and presented it with their offi- 
cial annual report. Without their knowledge, however, a bill was passed 
by the Legislature, and approved March 6, 1885, in which most, if not all, 
the objectionable features are retained and others, still more objectionable 
ones, have been legalized. The commissioners appointed by the Governor 
must, as in the old law, be suitable persons, but wherein their suitability is 
to consist is not stated. While every applicant for registration is appar- 
ently required to submit to an examination after presenting satisfactory 
evidence of having three years' experience, or being a graduate in medicine 
or in pharmacy, and in addition thereto that he is competent for the busi- 
ness ; exceptions are made in favor of practising physicians who may do 
the business of an apothecary ivithout being registered, and in favor of 
those who were engaged in the business March 11, 1877, and hereafter enter 
on the business of an apothecary, they being dispensed from the examina- 



368 



Obituary. 



Am. Jour. Pharm* 
July, 1885. 



tion. Another curious clause is the one allowing any person to enter upon 
the business of an apothecary luithout registration^ provided he does not 
personally do the duties of an apothecary, but employs a registered apoth- 
ecary. 

The struggles for pharmacy laws in some of the States have lasted for a 
number of years ; but while in Massachusetts they have come to a success- 
ful issue, even though the law be not as perfect as might be desired, in 
other States the attempts have again failed. The bill which was before the 
Pennsylvania Legislature was at lirst burdened with amendments not ger- 
mane to its objects, as for instance the prohibition of renewing prescrip- 
tions without the phj^sician's written order, and after these failed, the bill 
secured a majority of 93 against 77 in the House, but failed for the want of 
the constitutional majority. 

It may be mentioned yet that the Kansas pharmacy law makes the 
apothecary the custodian of the original prescription ; likewise that prose- 
cutions under the pharmacy acts in Philadelphia, New Jersey, Illinois and 
other States resulted in the conviction of the offenders, and that in those 
cases in which appeals were taken, the validity of the law was sustained 
by the higher tribunals. 



OBITUARY. 



Fkkdixand Hassencamp, a prominent pharmacist of Baltimore, died 
in that city, April 29. He was a native of Marburg, Hesse-Cassel, where 
he was educated, and has been a resident of Baltimore for over thirty years. 
He took great interest in the Maryland College of Pharmacj^, and served 
faithfully as Director and Examiner of this institution ; he was also a mem- 
ber of the Board of Pharmacy and of the American Pharmaceutical Asso- 
ciation, took an active part in the management of many charitable insti- 
tutions and social societies, and secured a large circle of friends who valued 
him for his amiability in social intercourse and for his worth as a man. 



Notice of the death of the following graduates of the Philadelphia College 
of Pharmacy has been received : 

Chas. S. Lee, class 1870, died in Philadelphia, of apoplexy, April 1, aged 
37 years. 

Horace H. Owex, class 1880, in business in Philadelphia, died at York, 
Pa., of typhoid fever, April 9. 

Fred. Loose, Jr., class 1880, was drowned in the Schuylkill river, near 
Philadelphia, June 17, at the age of 25 years. 

Arthur E. Lewis, class 1880, of Scranton, Pa., died at Santa Barbara, 
Cal., April 1, of consumption, aged 25 years. 

John G. Seitz, class 1882, died at Cleveland, Ohio, June 21, after a linger- 
ing illness. 

George W. Eldridge, class 1863, in business in Philadelphia, died 
suddenly of heart disease, June 25, 1885. 



THE AMERICAN 

JOURNAL OF PHARMACY. 



AUGUST, 1885, 



OLEATE OF MANGANESE. 
By C. E. Kreyssler, Ph.G. 
Drs. Martin and McArthur having suggested the use of Oleate of 
Manganese as a menstrual stimulant, and as a remedy in functional 
amenorrhasa, menorrhagia and metrorrhagia, and not being able to 
obtain the same, requested me to make an attempt to prepare it, 
which I did, in the following manner, by acting on a solution of the 
sulphate of manganese, with a solution of sodium oleate : The pow- 
dered and dry Castile soap being considered a sufficiently pure sodium 
oleate, was used in making the solution ; this solution was then gradu- 
ally, and with constant stirring, aded to the solution of the sulphate of 
manganese, at once precipitating a granular appearing substance, being 
the oleate of manganese, which, on being slightly heated, suddenly 
changed to a sticky mass, having the consistency of putty, and this 
being washed several times with warm distilled water, to free it from 
the sulphate of soda, resulted in a hard substance having a light gray, 
slightly pinkish color, of a sweet musty taste, and peculiar odor, being 
sparingly soluble in alcohol, but soluble in ether, chloroform, olive oil 
and oleic acid. 

To test this oleate a portion of it was oxidized on a platinum foil, 
and a fragment of caustic potash and same quantity of chlorate of 
potassium added, and held in a blowpipe flame until the fused mixture 
had become dark green, or the color of manganate of potassium, and 
on adding water to this, and boiling for a short time, it produced the 
solution of permanganate of potash, having the usual purple color. 

The method of applying this oleate is as follows : About one tea- 
spoonful of the 20 'per cent, solution of the oleate is applied to the 
abdomen of the patient, and absorption promoted by friction, pro- 
duced by vigorous rubbing of the surface with the palm of the hand, 
or fingers, continuing the rubbing until absorbed ; it may also be 
applied to the spine, or Jinner surface of the thighs. 

Dr. Martin recommends the application of the same in amenorrhaea, 
24 



370 Incompatibility of Chloral Hydrate. {^^ug^'isss''""'" 

if possible, every night for a week preceding the expected menstrual 
period, or at the time the menstruation is due, and until it makes its 
appearance, and in menorrhagia or metrorrhagia in smaller quantities, 
every night until the desired effect is produced. 

Permanganate of potash in pill form has been used for the same 
purposes, without any noticeable effect, and was very objectionable to 
many, on account of the liability to act as an irritant to the stomach. 
The binoxide of manganese has also been used, without effect, on 
account of its insolubility. 

This oleate is highly recommended by Drs. Martin, McArthur and 
others, who have used it in their practice, and I would like to encour- 
age others to give this valuable remedy a good and faithful trial. 

Chicago, July 1, 1S85. 



OX THE INCOMPATIBILITY OF CHLORAL HYDRATE 

IN THE PRESENCE OF POTASSIUM BROMIDE 

AND ALCOHOL. 

By George F. H. Markoe, 

Professor of General and PharniaceuUcal Chemistry in Massachusetts 
College of Pharmacy.^ 

In December, 1884, the writer had sent to him a bottle containing 
a mixture and a prescription, of which the following is an exact copy: 

B . Bromide potass 

Chloral hydrate aa ^iii 

Tr. opii et camph 

Syr. Zingiber aa ^iss 

M. 

Sig. One or two teaspoonfuls in half a wineglass of water every 2 to 6 
hours. For sleep. 

The claim was made by the physician that the pharmacist who dis- 
pensed the mixture had made a mistake, and the matter was put into 
the writer's hands for investigation. The mixture, as received, con- 
sisted of two layers, a clear dark brown liquid, floating upon a light- 
colored dense liquid. The dark-colored supernatant liquid had an 
intensely strong taste, in which the characteristic taste of chloral pre- 

1 Read before the Massachusetts State Pharmaceutical Association, Pitts- 
field, Mass., June 4, 1885. 



Am. Jour, Pharm. 
Aug., 1885. 



Incompatibility of Chloral Hydrate, 



371 



dominated, but it was modified by the presence of ginger, camphor and 
anise, all of which could be recognized. On shaking the two liquids 
together a somewhat turbid mixture resulted ; on standing, the two 
layers formed again. 

The prescription was then made up, with the result that tlie ingre- 
dients separated into two layers, apparently in the same way with the 
mixture sent for examination. The writer could discover no practical 
difference in the two samples, and therefore concluded that some decom- 
position had taken place. 

Anhydrous chloral (Trichlor-aldehyde CgHClgO) is a thin, oily 
liquid, which will combine with an equivalent quantity of water to 
form chloral hydrate aHClgO,^!^. 

Chloral also combines with an equivalent of alcohol to form Chloral 
alcoholate C2HC]30,C2H^O. Chloral alcoholate forms white needle- 
shaped crystals, is much less soluble in water than chloral hydrate, has 
a more disagreeable taste and is harsher in its action upon the system. 
When chloral hydrate was introduced into the practice of medicine, 
the writer was one of the first to make it in this country, and incident- 
ally prepared and studied chloral alcoholate ; two or three physician 
friends made trials of it, but found, that while it acted as an hypnotic, 
it was more disagreeable to the taste and harsh in its action, leaving 
unpleasant secondary effects. Knowing that chloral hydrate is changed 
into the alcoholate by solution in alcohol, it occurred to the writer that 
a similar decomposition had taken place in the mixture in question, the 
alcohol being furnished by the paregoric elixir called for in the pre- 
scription. 

The following experiments were then made with a view to prove the 
supposition : 



These articles formed a perfect solution which did not separate on 
standing. 



Exp. 1 . Potassium bromide 



60 grains. 
60 grains. 

6 tluiclraclims. 

6 fluidrachms. 



Chloral hydrate. 

Water ' 

Syrui) of ginger. 



Exp. 2. Potassium bromide. 



60 grains. 
60 grains. 



Chloral hydrate. 

Water 

Alcohol 

Syrup of ginger. 



3 fluidrachms. 
3 fluidrachms. 
6 fluidrachms. 



372 



Incompatibility of Chloral Hydrate. 



{ 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
Aug., 1885. 



In this experiment J it will be noted that the ingredients differ from 
the original prescription only in the substitution of diluted alcohol for 
the paregoric. After standing a short time this mixture separated into 
two layers, the upper layer being of a light straw color. 

Exp. 3. This experiment was with the same ingredients used in 
No. 2, except that the alcohol was not added until after the mixture 
had been standing for an hour. No separation took place before the 
addition of the three fluidrachms of alcohol, but the separation occurred 
promptly after the addition of the alcohol. These experiments prove 
that the alcohol is the cause of the trouble, and the Avriter thinks that 
the chloral hydrate is changed into the less soluble chloral alcoholate. 

In addition to the experiments which have been described numerous 
other ones were tried, which served to confirm the results of those 
named. The Avriter found that the addition of potassium bromide, 
sodium bromide, sodium chloride and magnesium sulphate to strong 
solutions of chloral hydrate together with the presence of alcohol deter- 
mined a separation of the liquids into two layers. Ammonium chloride, 
ammonium bromide, potassium nitrate and calcium bromide did not 
disturb the same chloral solutions. 

The practical lesson to be learned from this incompatible prescrip- 
tion, is that alcoholic preparations should not be prescribed with chloral 
hydrate, especially not in connection with the bromides of potassium 
and sodium, because if the solutions used are at all concentrated the 
chloral will separate as alcoholate, float on the surface, and a great risk 
will be incurred of giving a large overdose, the patient having received 
no caution with regard to the necessity of shaking the contents of the 
bottle before taking a dose. 



DUNLAP'S DiAKRHCEA MIXTURE.— 

R. Tincture of opium 

Tincture of camphor 



M. Dose, a teaspoonful diluted with sweetened water, after each opera- 
tion. This is especially good in cholera moihu^.—New. Eng. Med. Monthly^ 
April, 18S5. 



Tincture of peppermint. 

Tincture of ginger 

Tincture of capsicum 

Hoffman's anodyne 



.aa ^ ss 



aa ss 



Am.^our.^ph^arm.j Preparations of the Mexican PharmacopcEia. 373 



PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS OF THE MEXICAN 
PHARMACOPCEIA. 
By the Editor. 

(Continued from page 291.) 

A large number of the formulas are identieal or nearly so with those 
admitted into the French Codex, or published in Dorvault's I'Officine. 
In the following we select only such which differ materially from, or 
are not contained in the works named: 

Cafe de Bellotas, Pulvis glandium quercus tostarum. — Acorns de- 
prived of the rind are heated in a coifee roaster, until they become 
brittle and have lost 28 per cent, in weight, when they are ground in 
a coffee mill. The powder is tonic and astringent and is used like 
coffee, the infusion being made with 15 Gm. to 1 liter of water. 

Capsulas medicinales, Capsul?e medicat^e. — Directions are given for 
preparing the empty capsules and for filling these as well as the so- 
called pearls. The material suitable for capsules is prepared by dis- 
solving white gelatin 30, Irish moss paste 60, and honey in water 100 
parts. If necessary greater flexibility may be imparted to the mass by 
adding a little glycerin. 

Cataplasmaanodina, Cataplasmaanodynum. — Powdered bread crumb 
125 Gm., powdered saffron 2 Gm., yelk of eggs 2, milk sufficient. 

Cataplasma con subacetato de plomo, Cataplasma cum Subacetate 
plumbico. — Bread crumbs 60, Goulard's extract 30. 

Cataplasma emoliente, Cataplasma emolliens. — Ground flaxseed, pow- 
dered round-leaved mallow, equal parts ; hot water sufficient. 

Cataplasms of belladonna, conium, hyoscyamus, stramonium, etc., 
are made in the same manner. 

Cataplasma refrigerante, Cataplasma refrigerans. — Mix barley meal 
185 with powdered red saunders 1 5 and add gradually oil of rose petals 
(see p. 287) 30, and sufficient strong vinegar. 

Cerato de Bell, Ceratum ex Bell. — Melt together white wax 100, 
spermaceti 50 and cold-pressed sesame oil 400. 

Cerato de Galeno, Ceratum ex Galeno. — White wax 200, sesame oil 
600, lard 200, distilled rose-water 400. 

Cerato simple, Ceratum simplex. — Like. the preceding, omitting the 
rose-water. 

Cervezas medicinales and Cigarros medicinales are the Bieres medi- 
cinales and Cigares medicinaux of French pharmacy. 



374 



Preparations of the Mexican Pharmacopoeia. 



(■ Am. Jour. Pharm» 
\ Aug., 1885. 



Collodion morfinado, Collodium cum Chlorhydrat